Tuberculosis | Open Access Journals

Clinical and Medical Case Reports

ISSN: 2684-4915

Open Access


Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections have no symptoms, in which case we speak of latent tuberculosis. About 10% of latent infections progress to an active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of those affected. The classic symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with bloody mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically called "consumption" due to weight loss. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms. TB is spread from person to person by air when people with active TB in the lungs cough, spit, talk or sneeze. People with latent TB do not spread the disease. Active infection occurs more often in people living with HIV / AIDS and in those who smoke. The diagnosis of active TB is based on chest+ x-rays, as well as microscopic examination and culture of body fluids. The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis is based on the tuberculin skin test (TCT) or blood tests. The prevention of tuberculosis involves the screening of people at high risk, the early detection and treatment of cases and vaccination with the vaccine against bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). People at high risk include the household, workplace and social contacts of people with active TB. Treatment requires the use of several antibiotics over a long period. Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem with increasing rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).



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