An Overview on Patients with Myocardial Infarction

Journal of Interventional and General Cardiology

ISSN: 2684-4591

Open Access

Commentary - (2022) Volume 6, Issue 3

An Overview on Patients with Myocardial Infarction

Vincent Auffret*
*Correspondence: Vincent Auffret, Department of Cardiology and Vascular Diseases, Pontchaillou University Hospital, University of Rennes, Rennes, France, Email:
Department of Cardiology and Vascular Diseases, Pontchaillou University Hospital, University of Rennes, Rennes, France

Received: 03-May-2022, Manuscript No. jigc-22-67045; Editor assigned: 04-May-2022, Pre QC No. P-67045; Reviewed: 11-May-2022, QC No. Q-67045; Revised: 15-May-2022, Manuscript No. R-67045; Published: 22-May-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2684-4591.2022.6.154
Citation: Auffret, Vincent. “An Overview on Patients with Myocardial Infarction.” J Interv Gen Cardiol 6 (2022): 154.
Copyright: © 2022 Auffret V. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


When blood flow to the coronary artery of the heart is diminished or halted, damage to the heart muscle ensues. This is known as a myocardial infarction (MI). The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort, which can move to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw [1]. It usually occurs in the middle or left side of the chest and lasts several minutes. It's probable that the discomfort will occasionally feel like heartburn. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, faintness, a cold sweat, or tiredness. About 30% of people experience atypical symptoms. Rather than chest pain, women are more likely to experience neck discomfort, arm pain, or weariness. Approximately 5% of persons over the age of 75 have had a MI with no or few preceding symptoms [2]. A MI can cause heart failure, abnormal heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.

Ischemia, or a lack of oxygen to myocardial tissue, causes heart muscle tissue death (infarction) (myocardium). It's a type of acute coronary syndrome that describes a change in symptoms related to heart blood flow that develops quickly or over a short period of time [3]. Unlike the second type of acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when cells die, which can be detected by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin). A MI can be classified as a ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or a Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) depending on the outcomes of an ECG [4].

Acute myocardial infarction, or heart attack, is a potentially lethal condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. The most common cause is a blockage in one or more coronary arteries [5]. Plaque buildup, which is largely made up of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste elements, can cause a blockage, as can a blood clot growing on the obstruction.

A MI must be treated as soon as possible. Aspirin is a good first-line treatment for a suspected MI. Nitroglycerin and opioids can help with chest discomfort, but they don't improve overall outcomes. Extra oxygen should be taken by those with low oxygen levels or shortness of breath. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), which includes forcing the arteries open and maybe stenting them, or thrombolysis, which involves eliminating the blockage with drugs, are two options for treating STEMI. Individuals with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are usually given heparin, with PCI being done in high-risk patients. In patients with multiple coronary artery blockages and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended instead of angioplasty. Following a MI, lifestyle adjustments, as well as long-term medication with aspirin, beta blockers, and statins, are frequently suggested.

Risk factors

The most prevalent risk factors for myocardial infarction are advanced age, active smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels. Male sex, low levels of physical activity, a family history of myocardial infarction, obesity, and alcohol intake are all risk factors for myocardial infarction. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of myocardial infarction. Risk factor stratification scores such as the Framingham Risk Score usually incorporate myocardial risk variables. At any age, men are more prone than women to acquire cardiovascular disease. High blood cholesterol levels, especially high low-density lipoprotein and low highdensity lipoprotein, as well as high triglycerides, are all known risk factors.

Many myocardial infarction risk factors can be altered, the most important of which is cigarette smoking (including secondhand smoke). Smoking is thought to be the cause of 36% of coronary artery disease, while obesity is thought to be the cause of 20%. A lack of physical activity has been linked to 7–12 percent of cases. Job stress, which accounts for about 3% of cases, and persistent high stress levels are less common stress-related causes.

Symptoms of myocardial infraction

While chest pain and shortness of breath are the most typical symptoms of a heart attack, the signs and symptoms can vary greatly. The following are the most common signs and symptoms of a heart attack: You may trust this source:

• Chest pressure or tightness
• Pain in the chest, back, jaw, or other upper-body areas that lasts more than a few minutes or goes away and returns back
• Sweating
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Shortness of breath
• Nervousness
• Feeling like you're about to pass out
• A racing heart
• A sense of impending doom.

An ST-elevation MI (STEMI) or a non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) is the most common clinical classification for a myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). These are based on ST elevation, which is a visual representation of a part of a heartbeat recorded on an ECG. STEMIs account for 25–40% of all myocardial infarctions. There is also a more explicit classification system that was developed in 2012 based on international consensus.


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