Perspective - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 6
Received: 19-May-2022, Manuscript No. jbsbe-22-73268;
Editor assigned: 21-May-2022, Pre QC No. P-73268;
Reviewed: 26-May-2022, QC No. Q-73268;
Revised: 04-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. R-73268;
, DOI: 10.37421/2155-6210.2022.13.335
Citation: Lin, Yuehe. "Adrenaline Detection Retractable Proximity Nanosensor." J Biosens Bioelectron 13 (2022): 335.
Copyright: © 2022 Lin Y. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Endogenous biochemical detection is critical for understanding an organism's physiochemical well-being since they serve as biomarkers for illness diagnosis. Dopamine is a crucial neurotransmitter.endogenous neurotransmitter involved in cellular chemical signalling transduction. Dopamine is a member of the catecholamine family is known to alter motivational and motor behaviour. Activities involving control, arousal, memory, learning, and reinforcement within humans. According to the literature, the typical physiological range of dopamine in blood is 10-480 pM. However, a change in dopamine levels causes a variety of neurological disorders. Excess dopamine levels, for example have been discovered to be an indicator of obsessive compulsive disorder, Schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder Low concentrations Dopamine deficiency has been related to Parkinson's disease, anxiety, and depression as well as agoraphobia disorders. Dopamine is found in antidepressants and antipsychotic medications to treat mental illnesses by inhibiting dopamine receptors.
Given the vast spectrum of physiological effects of dopamine, reliable and exact monitoring of dopamine in biological systems is of considerable therapeutic importance. Dopamine quantification in biological materials is therefore critical for point-of-care diagnostics and understanding neuropathology.
Capillary electrophoresis or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection are two traditional methods for detecting dopamine. However, one option is to use electrochemical methods for dopamine measurement, which are affordable and miniaturised platforms ideally suited for quick, sensitive, and selective analysis. Dopamine is an electrochemically active catecholamine molecule that may be detected directly using an electrochemical device at an adequate voltage.
Transition metal dichalcogenides-based electrochemical sensors, such as molybdenum disulfide nanoflowers modified graphene oxide electrode flake like MoS2,/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polypyrrole nanocomposite electrode MWCNTs/MoS2 decorated cobalt oxide polyhedrons composite film modified electrode and tungsten nanospheres-carbon nanofibers modified electrode, have recently been developed for sensitive electrochemical sensing of dopamine. Direct detection of dopamine, on the other hand, has a significant constraint in selectivity analysis since the potential window of dopamine lies in the potential range of 0.5 V-0.7 V, which covers the oxidation range of numerous other proteins. To guarantee selective detection of dopamine, it is critical to distinguish it from other interfering species.
To address this, an enzyme recycling technique has proven to be highly efficient in decreasing the working potential of the electrode and limiting the detection of co-occurring moieties. Using enzyme recycling, a tyrosinasebased enzyme biosensor was shown to provide satisfactory results in the detection of dopamine. Tyrosinase is a copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that oxidises monophenols to o-diphenols and then to oquinones in the presence of oxygen via its cresolase and catecholase activities. Utilizing a similar method, dopamine, a catecholamine, may be easily detected using a Tyr-based biosensing device. Tyr catalyses the oxidation of dopamine to o-dopaquinone at a low working potential of about 160 mV, limiting the detection of interfering compounds in the same oxidation range.
Later sections go into greater depth on the Tyr catalysed dopamine oxidation process. Several types of functionalized electrochemical sensors and biosensors for dopamine screening have also been described; nevertheless, the detection limits of manufactured electrodes were found to be high.
In this article, a Tyr-based capacitive biosensor with good selectivity for dopamine detection is developed. Biocompatible polymers such as polyaniline, cellulose nanocrystals, and carbon nanotubes were chosen for this work to offer enzyme support and to improve signal transmission. Tyr was immobilised during biosensor manufacturing by drop-casting onto a pre-fabricated solid support of PANI modified polyvinyl acetate surface. Using cyclic voltammetry, dopamine was identified by monitoring the reduction signals of biocatalytically generated o-dopaquinone.
The prepared Tyr biosensor demonstrated various benefits, including decreased electrode passivation due to enzyme recycling and o-dopaquinone reduction at the electrode surface, a low detection limit, low background current, a low working voltage, and excellent selectivity. Other electrode coating materials utilised in biosensor production, such as PANI, CNTs, and CNC, shown synergistic benefits in speeding electrode response. Furthermore, the use of PVA slides makes the biosensor less costly, more flexible, and disposable when compared to alternative expensive solid transducers such as glassy carbon, gold, or platinum electrodes.
SEM was used to examine the morphological characteristics of a conductive film biosensor. depicts a SEM picture of a CNC film with fibrous nanoporous nanostructures. Able Image Analyzer was used to determine the pore size distribution network of CNTs/CNC film, which was found to be 100- 200 nm and compatible with earlier results. The intrachain hydrogen bonding interaction of the many hydroxyl groups of -1,4-anhydro-d-glucopyranose macromolecular units on the CNC with the carboxylic acid groups of CNTs resulted in a conductive fibrillar biopolymer nanoporous film. The enhanced surface-to-volume ratio of the conductive coating was beneficial since it aided in dopamine adsorption.
The capacitive detection of dopamine was investigated using cyclic voltammetry in the potential range of 0.9 to + 0.9 V. Cyclic voltammograms were recorded for a blank and various dopamine concentrations. The concept was that dopamine adsorption onto the biosensor surface caused an increase in capacitance baseline. The capacitance was estimated by dividing the current by the scan rate of 0.05 Vs. The resulting capacitance was plotted versus the dopamine concentration. Dopamine capacitance detection was examined at biosensor and control CNC sensor. The limit of detection of dopamine at the CNC biosensor was obtained by taking the average of the detected and multiplying it by the signal's standard deviation.
The developed CNC biosensor film demonstrated a detection limit for dopamine detection as low as 7-1000 mM with a correlation value of 0.9508. The control sensor showed no discernible reaction activity toward dopamine, as seen by the non-linear response to varied dopamine concentrations illustrated in Figure 3B. When compared to previously reported sensors and biosensors, the produced Tyr biosensor demonstrated good detection capability for dopamine [1-5].
Dopamine was oxidised to yield dopaquinone, which was further reduced at the Tyr biosensor following the exchange of two electrons and two protons to produce a faradaic current. Tyr catalyses the formation of quinones from phenols and complex phenolic compounds. Tyr occurs in its natural state as met-Tyr, with both copper atoms in the Cu2+ state. Met-Tyr, on the other hand, cannot bond to oxygen.Thus, during dopamine oxidation, met-Tyr was reduced to deoxy-Tyr, with both copper ions in the Cu+ oxidation state. Deoxy- Tyr is then converted to doxy-Tyr in the presence of oxygen, which catalyses the oxidation of dopamine to odopaquinone and reduction to met-Tyr. At the electrode surface, the biocatalytically generated o-dopaquinone is further decreased.
Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at
Google Scholar, Crossref, Indexed at
Biosensors & Bioelectronics received 1751 citations as per Google Scholar report