Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

ISSN: 2168-9768

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 3 (2021)

    Review Pages: 1 - 13

    The Stumbling Irrigation Sector of Ethiopia: Critical Review and Analysis

    Yusuf Kedir*

    The middle 19th century irrigation development historyof the world,especially Green Revolution, taught us that intensive irrigation expansion has the power and is also
    the key to eradicate food shortages of some nations. At the same period, an attempt was made to improve irrigation sector of Ethiopia but not successful as Asian
    countries.The paper tried to present the pathways Ethiopian irrigated agriculture so far travelled based on comprehensive reviews substantiated by indepth analyses.
    From the irrigation policies and development plans up to organizational setups, diverse but critical platforms which troubled its development evolutions have been
    raised and criticised. Effects of these platforms or their aftermaths on targeted development plans; on data of irrigated areas and potentials as well as on performances
    of irrigation schemes have also been analytically quantified and thoroughly discussed. In general, development of the sector is still stumbling for half a century and
    unable to contribute for food selfsufficiency and economic growth. The country donot have clear irrigation policy; the sector is supported with low financial backups;
    organizational structure is shacky and misaligned; the institution are weak so that irrigated areas and potentials are unknown or the figures are inconsistent; scheme
    categorization is confusing; improperly planned developments are failed and stagnated; large scheme development are stagnated and too slow to change the economy.
    For the last 60 years less than 0.65 million ha is developed in the country. Irrigation efficiencies of the schemes is below 35%. Finally, overhauling the sector as a whole
    is recommended if real development is expected.

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    Comparison of Measured and Estimated Sugarcane Water Requirement under Arid and Semi-Arid Climatic Condition: The Case of Wonji Shoa Sugarcane Plantation, Ethiopia

    Belay Yadeta1*, Mekonen Ayana2, Muluneh Yitayew3, Tilahun Hordofa4

    Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops cultivated mostly on the large scale basis all over the world from arid to semi-arid climate condition like Ethiopia. Wonji shoa sugarcane plantation was the first large scale irrigation in Ethiopia. But sugarcane crop is the most water intensive crop that requires critical determination of its evapotranspiration. Determination of crop evapotranspiration is more accurate through experiment but experiment was not mostly undertaken due to high cost, lack of instruments and laboratory facilities, and time it required. But to overcome those problems, some models were developed as an option in determining the crop evapotranspiration. In line with this, the current study focused on the performance evaluation of sugarcane evapotranspiration determined by different models as compared to the lysimeter experiment under study area. The main objective of this study was to analysis the variation of sugarcane evapotranspiration measured from the lysimeter experiment and that determined using different models under the current study climatic condition. In the current study, Blaney-Criddle, Drooger and Allen, Hargreaves, Irmak, Tabari and Thornthwaite were selected. The selected models were required only few climatic parameters. After reference evapotranspiration was determined by each selected models, the sugarcane evapotranspiration was determined by multiplying those reference evapotranspiration by crop coefficient recommended by FAO-56. The performances of those models were evaluated using the most commonly used statistical indices. Those statistical indices used were RMSE, MBE, t-test, R2 and IA. After all the data computed by each selected models the analysed, Blaney-Criddle model was the best model in determining the sugarcane evapotranspiration as compared to the lysimeter experiment followed by Irmak models. Therefore, from the current findings, it can be concluded that Blaney- Criddle model can be used to determine sugarcane evapotranspiration under current study climatic condition.

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Irrigation scheduling, water pollution monitoring in IoT: A Review

    Azeem Ayaz Mirani*1, Engr. Muhammad Suleman Memon2, Rozina Chohan3, Irum Naz Sodhar4, Mushtaque Ahmed Rahu5

    Internet of things (IoT) also called internet of everything (IoE) are network of physical object having connectivity with the internet. IoT is broad field with several new and advanced trends which made more suitable to implement and connect over the remote areas. IoT became more suitable platform in several applications with the emergence of the other field. IoT provide fast solution of the several real life problems with integration of the new trends and techniques. The field of automation is need of this era with other smart and advanced features bought up with new way of the handling the problems. IoT is the concept which can be applied globally over the networks of the things for solving the problem of the manual control especially in remote applications. This study reviews important aspects of water irrigation in IoT. However, it covers the challenges, applications and water pollution.

    Research Pages: 1 - 9

    Models Comparative Study for Estimating Crop Water Requirement and Irrigation Scheduling of Maize in Metekel Zone, Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Ethiopia

    Demeke Tamene*1 and Ashebir Haile2

    This study was aimed to compare estimation methods of crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling for major crops using different models and compare the significance of models for adoption at different situations in Metekel zone. Crop water requirement and irrigation scheduling of maize in selected districts of Metekel zone were estimated using CropWat model based on soil, crop and meteorological data and AquaCrop based on soil, crop and meteorological data including Co2, groundwater, field management, and fertility status. Model performance was evaluated using Normalized Root mean square errors (NRMSE), model by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Prediction error (Pe), and Model efficiency (MF). It is observed that the maximum reference evapotranspiration in the study area was found to be 7.1 mm/day in Guba and minimum reference evapotranspiration was 2.9 mm/day in Bullen district. In all cases, the maximum ETo in all districts was fund to in March and the lowest in August. The maximum ETc of maize was found to be 702.4 mm in Guba district and minimum ETc was found to be 572.6 mm in Bullen district using CropWat but the effective rainfall (Pe) for maize were determined as 185 mm respectively in Wembera district. However, using AquaCrop model the maximum ETc of 565 mm was recorded in Guba but 425 mm was recorded as minimum in Wembera district for irrigated maize in the study area. The study revealed that the irrigation scheduling with a fixed interval criterion for maize 10 days with 12 irrigation events has been determined. Moreover, furrow irrigation with 60% irrigation application efficiency was adjusted during irrigation water applications for all districts. The performance of the irrigation schedule and crop response was evaluated by the analysis results in the simulation using different models. It has been observed that there was a strong relationship and a significant relation between the simulated and observed values for validation. Hence, Normalized Root mean square errors (NRMSE), model by Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Prediction error (Pe), and Model efficiency (MF) showed that AquaCrop model well simulated in all parameters considered. AquaCrop model is the most suitable soil-water-crop-environment management model, so future studies should suggest a focus on addressing deficit irrigation strategy with different field management conditions to improve agricultural water productivity under irrigated agriculture for the study area for major crops.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Using Drip Irrigation to Mitigate the Effects of Drought in Food Production: A Case Study of Production of Beans during Dry Spells in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

    Rioba DO*, Kosgei JR and Kipkorir EC

    Over 80 percent of Kenya’s freshwater withdrawals are utilized in agricultural production. The increase in human population means that even more water will be channeled towards food production. Improving water productivity is the most appropriate strategy for increasing food production for a fast growing population due to its consideration of the sustainability of water resources. Kenya predominantly depends on rain-fed agriculture for its food production, and this exposes the country to acute food shortages during droughts. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are the primary source of protein for most households in Kenya. Despite this fact, there is a supply deficit during dry spells. An irrigation project was carried out at Moi University with an objective to study the effect of deficit irrigation as a mitigation measure to curb the shortage of beans during dry spells while ensuring sustainable use of water resources. This was carried out through modelling of water productivity (WP) and yield (Y) of beans using the FAO AquaCrop model. Field experiments were set up in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) arranged in split plots and replicated three times. Two water treatment strategies were employed (deficit irrigation, full irrigation). In the full irrigation supply, the crop was kept at 100% of irrigation requirement (T100) and data collected from these plots was used in Aqua Crop model calibration. There were three levels of deficit irrigation used: 80%, 60%, and 50% of irrigation requirement (T80, T60, T50), these were used in model validation. The highest WP, as well as the lowest yield reduction of 2.4%, was observed in the T80 treatment, this signifies water savings of up to 20%, which translates to 750 m3/ha. The highest yield reduction of 59.8% was obtained in T50 treatment, coupled with a drop in WP. Deficit irrigation results in yield reduction as observed in this study, but the amount of water saved can be used to irrigate more land or be utilized elsewhere. Consequently, it is necessary for Kenya to adopt deficit irrigation to ensure food security during dry spells while at the same time ensure sustainable water use.

    Volume 10, Issue 4 (2021)

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

      Scientific Substantiation of the Method for of Low- Optimization Intensity Irrigation Systems With Micro Device

      Rae ZH Aliyev

      In order to achieve a serious innovative breakthrough in the field of agriculture and agriculture in Azerbaijan, there is a need to fully clarify the existing problems. Studies show that the following problems are particularly serious: - Increase of ecological changes, natural cataclysms, anthropogenic impact on agro ecosystems, increase of erosion processes in soils, increase of soreness and insemination, - Negative orientation of modern fundamental and applied research to the strategic solution to existing problems in agrarian sphere,

      Research Pages: 1 - 6

      Study of Design Rainfall for the case of Beles Sugar Development Project Irrigation Command Area

      Fikadu Kinfe*, Getachew Gedefaw, Moges Ademe

      Drainage problem in Beles Sugar Project is becoming severe during rainfall season that the effective rainfall was greater than the sugarcane water requirement and higher area coverage of vertisols. To remove this excess rainfall through installations of surface drainage system, this study was conducted to estimate design rainfall in magnitude and recurrence interval based on the recorded maximum rainfall. The independent, homogeneity, and outliers of the recorded data were tested accordingly. Probability of exceedence and return periods for daily maximum rainfall was determined using Kimball’s method. Gumbels method was used to compute design rainfall of different desired return period. The relation between observed and computed data was undertaken using regression function. Thus, recorded rainfall data was independent and homogenous at 5% signifance level. Also there was no value greater than the high outliers (151.3 mm) and no value less than the low outliers (41.0 mm).The lowest maximum rainfall (48.6 mm) had a probability of 96 .9% which likely to occur every one year. The highest maximum rainfall (150.1 mm) had a probability of 3 .1% which likely to occur three times in every 100 years period. Within the same 10 years return period, the computed design rainfall (114.7 mm) was deviate by 0.04 with the observed rainfall (110.3 mm).The average deviation of observed and computed rainfall data from its trend line function were 0.004 and 0.002 respectively. The correlation between observed and computed rainfall of trend line function was 0.98, thus it was highly correlated and the perfect reality. Design rainfall for 10 years return period (110.3 mm) was suggested for estimation of Beles Sugarcane open earth drainage channels. Thus, the Project Engineers and Hydrologists has to considered this study pre-requisite for planning, design and management of hydrological, hydraulic, drainage structures, barrages, dams, spillways, bridges, culverts and so on that have been executed in the Project.

      Research Pages: 1 - 4

      Determination Crop Coefficients and Water Requirement of Onion by Using Lysimeter at Werer, Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia

      Nigusie Abebe*, Elias Kebede, Yonas Derese, Fikadu Robi, Kebede Nanesa

      The development of crop coefficients (KC), the ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is important for estimating irrigationwater requirements in relation to specific crop phenological development. This research was conducted to determine growth-stage-specific Kc and crop water use for onion at Werer Agricultural Research Center, Middle Awash Valley Ethiopia during the main season (July–October) and during cool cropping seasons (March–June) from 2012-2015. Three non weighing lysimeters of 1.6 m x 1.6 m in surface area and 2 m deep were used to measure crop water use and local weather data were used to determine the reference evapotranspiration (ETo).The results showed that the obtained Kc values for main cropping season planted onion during initial, crop development, mid season and late-season stages were 0.57, 0.78, 1.03 and 0.77 respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding Kc values for cool cropping season planted onion were 0.49, 0.90, 1.01, and 0.79in the respective growth stages. The seasonal crop evapotranspiration was 525.83mm and 465.57mm during main and cool cropping season respectively. The measured Kc values were significantly different from the FAO-56 reported values. Therefore, local calibration of crop coefficients is an essential for efficient irrigation water management and precise water applications.

      Research Pages: 1 - 3

      Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) Yield under Drip and Furrow Irrigation at Different Irrigation Levels at werer, Middle awash, Ethiopia

      Fikadu Robi, Teshome Seyoum, Tilahun Hordofa

      Field experiment was conducted at Werer Agricultural Research center to evaluate the effects of drip and furrow irrigation under different irrigation levels on maize yield and water use efficiency. The experiment was laid out in split plot design where drip and furrow irrigations assigned as main plot and irrigation levels (100, 85, 70 and 55% of ETc) assigned in the sub plot arrangement with three blocks. The highest seasonal water requirement of maize was 701.7 mm at 100% ETc under conventional furrow irrigation which is considered as control while the lowest was 192.9 mm at 55% ETc under alternative furrow irrigation. The analysis of variance revealed that there was significant (p<0.05) difference in yield among treatments and the interaction effect of irrigation system and irrigation levels show highly significant (p<0.01) difference among treatments. The highest yield (16.7t/ha) was obtained from drip irrigation with 100% of ETc application and while the lowest (4.04 t/ha) was obtained from plots treated with alternative furrow irrigation 55% ETc treatment.

      Research Pages: 1 - 3

      Improving Water Use Efficiency for Onion Through Deficit Irrigation in Southern Ethiopia

      Kedrala Wabela, Sirak Tekleab

      Deficit irrigation is one of agricultural water management practice in arid area in which the irrigation water management has to be improved so that water supply to the crop can be reduced while still achieving high yield. The main objective of this study was to improve agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) of onion under different deficit irrigation levels. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with eleven treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were: full irrigation (0% deficit as a control), and 25% and 50% of crop water requirement (CWR) deficit throughout growing season, and one period deficit treatments (25% and 50% of CWR deficit at initial, development, bulb formation and maturity stages). Treatment 10 (50% of CWR deficit at bulb formation stage) showed the minimum harvest index (0.68) and 25% of CWR deficit at initial and maturity stages respectively showed the maximum harvest index. Yield response factor (ky) indicated that onion was sensitive (yield reduced) for water deficit at development and bulb formation stages. The maximum water use efficiency (4.98 kg/m3) was observed at 50% of CWR deficit throughout growing season and the minimum (3.22 kg/m3) was observed at 50% of CWR deficit at bulb formation stage. Water deficit at initial and maturity growth periods had insignificant impact on WUE of onion. Generally, this result indicated that water deficit at bulb formation growth period of onion reduce more water use efficiency than water deficit on other growth periods.

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