Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

ISSN: 2168-9768

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 4 (2020)

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    Evaluation of Water Delivery Performance in Robit Small- Scale Irrigation Scheme, Amhara, Ethiopia

    Abrha Ybeyn Gebremedhn1* and Pratap Singh2

    Ethiopia has expanded irrigable areas by constructing many small-scale irrigation schemes. These are aimed to improve the productivity of agricultural crops. However, they commonly perform far below the intended objectives. This is mostly because the performance of the irrigation schemes has not been managed well. In the present study, the water delivery performance and the satisfaction of irrigation users for Robit small-scale irrigation scheme were evaluated. The water delivery performance indicators; adequacy, efficiency, equity, and dependability were evaluated by monitoring discharge at nine selected tertiary offtakes for three months during 2017. The irrigation water flow was measured using Current meter and 3-inch Parshall flume. Questionnaire was developed to assess the satisfaction level of irrigation users regarding the irrigation service received. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using STATA, CROPWAT, ARC GIS, and Microsoft Excel. The adequacy, efficiency, equity, and dependability values varied widely regarding location (from head to tail end of the scheme) as well over time (from April to June). Thus, when compared with Molden and Gates standards, the scheme was performing under a “fair” condition with adequacy and dependability and under “good” condition regarding efficiency and equity. The level of irrigation users' satisfaction with the irrigation service received was 57.33%, 48%, 42.67% and 49.33% at the head, middle, tail reaches, and the entire system respectively. Satisfaction of irrigation users was associated with the variation in the general availability of water, availability over time and farm location respective to the head canal.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

    Optimal Management of Irrigation Process using Dynamic Programming Method

    Aliyev ZH

    Due to the efficient use of irrigated lands in Azerbaijan, irrigation is delayed due to irrigation, mineral and organic fertilizers, accurate regulation of irrigation norms and
    methods, and in some cases changes, including water and mineral food, air and carbon dioxide. and that is the basis of management and is characteristic and attractive.
    It is very difficult to influence the light and heat entering the plant. However, it is possible to increase and decrease the temperature on the ground surface and in the upper
    Optimal water supply allows the plant to form a large leaf surface, which enables it to be better oriented to the light. At the same time, it provides for the efficient use of light
    energy and provides its development phases.
    As you know, dynamic programming allows you to accurately define the numerous tasks of optimization.
    It is important to note that decisions for managing development processes that have been determined over time must be made at every step.

    Research Pages: 1 - 4

    Performance Assessment of Small-Scale Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of Upper Blue Nile, East Dangila Woreda, Ethiopia

    Biniam Adane1*, Fiseha Behulu2 and Dawud Temam3

    Performance assessment of irrigation systems plays a big role to evaluate the productivity of schemes. Such practices could help to design possible intervention mechanisms that could be made to improve the performance of the schemes. Consequently, the aim of the study is to assess the performance of small scale irrigation systems in Dangila Woreda, to know the achievement of the schemes, the performance of system operations, and the causes that leads to under- or over-performance of these small-scale irrigation schemes.This study was conducted to assess the performances of schemes through three major categories of indicators including: (i) engineering, (ii) water use and, (iii) physical performances indicators. The outcome of water delivery performance ratio of Ashar, Zuma-1, Upper Quashine and Zuma-2 were found 0.56, 0.58, 0.87 and 0.95 respectively. From The physical performance indicators, Zuma-1, upper Quashine, Zuma-2 and Ashar which had 30, 14, 10 and 4.55 percent of command area of the schemes were under irrigation and 90, 86, 93 and 95.45 percent of the schemes were sustainable respectively. The effectiveness of structures of all schemes dictates that high system maintenance was required.

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Verification of the Efficiency of Alternate Furrow Irrigation on Amount of Water Productivity and Yield of Onion at Sekota Woreda

    Messay Abera*, Aemro Wale, Yalelet Abie and Tilahun Esubalew

    Efficient water use becomes an important issue in recent years because of the lack of available water resources in some areas is increasing and a serious problem. Globally and more particularly in developing Countries, changing water availability and quality is a complex problem, and management options are not easy. Therefore Partial rootzone drying is a practice of using irrigation to alternately wet and dry (at least) two spatially prescribed parts of the plant root system to simultaneously maintain plant water status at maximum water potential and control vegetative growth for seasonal plant development. The experiment was conducted on the 2017/2018 irrigation season at the irrigation scheme of Sekota woreda. Three irrigation methods alternating furrow irrigation (AFI), conventional furrow irrigation (CFI), and fixed furrow irrigation were verified on separate plots. The design of the experiment was RCBD with four farmers as replications. Each irrigation method was used a 75% amount of irrigation water for five days irrigation interval for verified irrigated onion. The results show that total irrigation water applied in the AFI and FFI treatment was roughly half (3038 m3) that applied to the CFI treatment (6078 m3). There was a significant reduction in irrigation water used with the AFI but a non-significant reduction on the onion yield production. The AFI water productivity was astatically significantly different from FFI and CFI. The water productivity obtained 4.05 kg m-3 with AFI and 3.16 kg m-3 with FFI which was nearly double the 2.15 kg m-3 with CFI. Alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) is gaining interest as a means of saving water while minimizing loss in crop production. In the AFI system, the total water used was half of the CFI system. Rather than using 6076 m3/ha of water for 1 hectare in the CFI system, it is possible to double the irrigated area to 2 hectares in the AFI system. The onion needs a high amount of irrigation water during the development stage, but in the FFI system, as half of the root stays dry throughout the growth period, continuous stress significantly reduces fresh bulb yield.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 3

    Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

    Dr. Frank TC Tsai

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    Volume 9, Issue 5 (2020)

      Editorials Pages: 1 - 2

      Editor note on Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

      Mark E Grismer

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      Editorial Pages: 1 - 3

      Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

      Sayed M. Bateni

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      Editorials Pages: 1 - 2

      The Editorial on Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

      Gary P Merkeley

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      Editorials Pages: 1 - 2

      The short note on Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

      Giulio Lorenzini

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      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      The Editor note on Journal of Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering

      Chi Han Cheng

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      Volume 9, Issue 3 (2020)

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Comparison of Flooding and Raised Bed Irrigation Systems for Wheat Crop at Samoo (Village Bilawal Khan Jamali) District Jaffarabad Balochistan Pakistan

        Jamali MH and Laghari KQ

        Wheat is considered as the chief cereal crop of Pakistan. Most of the farmers in Jaffarabad use flooding irrigation system for wheat crop which causes waterlogging and salinity in the area. Therefore, this research work was conducted at Village Bilawal Khan Jamali, union council Samoo, District Jaffarabad, Balochistan, Pakistan. Aim of this research work is to determine water saving and optimum crop yield by comparison of flooding and raised bed irrigation systems. In Flooding and Raised bed Irrigation Systems, Management Drawn Depletion (MDD) level was used. Study results revealed that the net irrigation (I) was applied 320 mm for flooding irrigation system, for raised bed irrigation system, 277 mm of net irrigation was calculated and 50 mm rainfall occurred in the fields. The yield production of flooding and raised bed irrigation systems were calculated 1368 kg/acre and 1656 kg/acre respectively. The yield of raised bed irrigation system was calculated 17.2% greater than flooding irrigation system. According to these results, the maximum yields have been obtained and waterlogging and salinity were controlled from raised bed irrigation with efficient usage of water.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Impact of Block Farming on Livelihood of Farmers in the Eastern Region of Ghana: A Case Study of Block Farmers in the Kwahu West Municipality and Kwahu South District.

        Ofori Kwasi Julius

        Ghana has implemented a lot of programmes and projects in the agricultural sector over the years that seek to reduce poverty enhance food security and also to improve farmers output as well as their productivity. Block farming is one of these projects that provided credit to farmers in term of inputs supply in a form of improved varieties of seeds, fertilizers and technical assistance in order for farmers to earn an appreciable returns and pay for the inputs after the crop season.
        As a result of these the research seeks to assess the impact of block farming on livelihood of farmers in two beneficiary areas, the Kwahu West Municipality and Kwahu South District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. A simple random sampling technique was used to collect the data of block farmers and was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings revealed that most of the block farmers were in their active age, mainly of males and depend solely on farming for their livelihood. Almost all of the block farmers are motivated to go into block farming to earn a living and get readily available market for their produce. The block farming programme have had a moderately positive and significant impact on livelihood of farmers in Kwahu West Municipality and Kwahu South District in terms of farmers’ output, profit making, improvement in standard of living and revenue gain from sales of produce.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Response of Lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus (DC) Stapf) to Deficit Irrigation and Furrow Irrigation Water Application Methods at Wondo Genet, Ethiopia

        Meskelu E, Debebe A, Tesfaye H and Mohammed M

        The study was conducted at Wondo Genet Agricultural Research Center, SNNP Region, Ethiopia, 7°05’ N latitude, 38°37’ E longitude and 1785 m.a.s.l for three years (2015/16 to 2017/18) based on the objective to determine the level of deficit irrigation levels and furrow irrigation water application techniques on yield and water productivity of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus (DC) Stapf). Three types of furrow irrigation techniques (alternate, fixed and conventional furrow) combined with different irrigation levels (100, 75 and 50% ETC) with three replications were
        used in randomized complete block design. Different furrow irrigation application methods and irrigation levels highly significantly (p<0.01) affected fresh biomass, dry biomass and water use efficiency of lemongrass during 2015/16 and 2017/18. Moreover, essential oil yield of lemongrass was significantly (p<0.05) affected due to different furrow irrigation application methods and irrigation levels both during 2015/16 and 2017/18. However, no significant (p ≥ 0.05) variation was observed in number of tillers per hill and essential oil content of lemongrass due to different furrow irrigation methods and deficit levels during 2015/16 and 2017/18. Higher fresh biomass (9610, 7348 and 4458 kg/ha) and dry
        biomass (2507, 2136 and 1408 kg/ha) were obtained at 100% ETC under conventional furrow method during the three successive years. Similarly, maximum essential oil yield of 62.5 and 40.1 kg/ha was obtained at conventional furrow irrigation method with 75 and 100% ETC during 2015/16 and 2017/18, respectively. On the other hand, minimum fresh biomass (7123, 4689 and 2296 kg/ha) and dry biomass (1903, 1308, 704 kg/ha) during the three successive year, and essential oil yield of 44.9 and 20.0 kg/ha were obtained at fixed furrow with 50% ETC during 2015/16 and
        2017/2018, respectively. In addition to these, higher water productivity of 0.080, 0.075 and 0.052 kg/m3 was obtained due to alternate furrow irrigation with 50% ETC during three successive years. On the other hand, the minimum water productivity of 0.024, 0.026 and 0.021 kg/m3 was obtained at conventional furrow technique with 100% ETC during 2015/16, 2016/17 and 2017/18, respectively. Therefore, for maximizing essential oil yield under no water limiting scenario, lemongrass could be irrigated with conventional furrow irrigation methods with 100% ETC. However, under limited water resource condition, the main objective will be to maximize the water use efficiency without significantly reducing the oil yield. Therefore, in this case lemongrass could be irrigated with alternate furrow technique with 100% ETC at Wondo Genet and similar agro-ecology and soil type.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Application of Surface Water Quality Classification Models Using Principal Components Analysis and Cluster Analysis

        Mohamed Hamed

        Water quality monitoring has one of the highest priorities in surface water protection policy. Many techniques and methods focus in analyzing the concealing parameters that determine the variance of observed water quality of various source points. A considerable proportion of them mainly depend on statistical methods, multivariate statistical techniques in particular.
        In the present study, the use of multivariate techniques is required to reduce the large variables number of Nile River water quality upstream Cairo Drinking Water Plants (CDWPs) and determination of relationships among them for easy and robust evaluation. By means of multivariate statistics of principal components analysis (PCA), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and K-means algorithm for clustering analysis, this study attempted to determine the major dominant factors responsible for the variations of Nile River water quality upstream Cairo Drinking Water Plants (CDWPs).
        Furthermore, cluster analysis classified 21 sampling stations into three clusters based on similarities of water quality features.
        The result of PCA shows that 6 principal components contain the key variables and account for 75.82% of total variance of the study area surface water quality and the dominant water quality parameters were: Conductivity, Iron, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Coliform (TC), Ammonia (NH3), and pH.
        However, the results from both of FCM clustering and K-means algorithm, based on the dominant parameters concentrations, determined 3 cluster groups and produced cluster centers (prototypes). Based on clustering classification, a noted water quality deteriorating as the cluster number increased from one to three, thus the cluster grouping can be used to identify the physical, chemical and biological processes creating the variations in the water quality parameters.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

        Evaluation of Irrigation Water, Drainage Water, Soil Salinity, and Groundwater for Sustainable Cultivation

        Gabr M

        Use low-quality water has become part of Egypt water strategies to meet its demands especially in the agricultural sector. This study investigates the irrigation water (mixed freshwater with agricultural drainage water), drainage water, soil drainage, salinity and groundwater for Gelbana region (2500 hectare new reclaimed area since 2000) at the East South El-Qantara, North Sinai, Egypt. The findings indicated that irrigation water quality was slightly saline. The drainage water and groundwater were medium saline. Soil was a poorly medium dense sand, have an electrical conductivity (EC) varying from 1 to 4 dS/m, and the vertical drainage was low efficiency. for sustainable cultivation it is recommended that (1) applying subsurface drainage system to improve washing of soil salts (2) changing the cropping system at the scheme to meet soil salinity levels (3) periodic monitoring for the irrigation water, drainage water, soil salinity, and the groundwater are important issue to manage crop pattern and drainage water.

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