Astrophysics & Aerospace Technology

ISSN: 2329-6542

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    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Understanding Space and Space Warps

    Matthew M. Radmanesh

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        Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Study of the Extensive Geomagnetic Storm with Helio- Spheric Phenomena during the Period of Solar Cycle 24

        Saket Kumar* and PL Verma

        DOI: 10.37421/2329-6542.2023.11.265

        Geomagnetic storms are impactful space weather occurrences because they may disrupt power grids, communication systems, and spacecraft operations. The MC sheath, the leading (or front section) area of an MC, the trailing part of an MC, and collective sheath and MC regions can cause an extensive geomagnetic storm. This paper uses descriptive analysis to identify them with helio-spheric phenomena using the Disturbance Storm Time Index (Dst). Depending on the availability of data during the period of solar cycle 24, we include the four extensive geomagnetic storms allied with various solar parameters/interplanetary magnetic field components that were potentially geo-effective and occurred on "St. Patrick's Day" (17 March 2015), (23 June 2015), (20 Dec 2015), and (26 Aug 2018).

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        On the Need for Correction of Newton′s Law of Universal Gravity within Classical Physics

        Valentyn Nastasenko*

        DOI: 10.37421/2329-6542.2023.11.261

        Newton's law of universal gravitation was discovered by him, perhaps in 1679, and published in 1687 in his paper “Principia”. At the beginning, he simply established a correspondence between the gravitational force F and the masses m1 and m2 of 2 point objects located at a distance r between them: F ~ m1m2/r2. However, this dependence is not a strict physical law, since the numerical value of the gravitational force found from it is not its real value. Therefore, instead of similarity, a transition coefficient should be introduced. It was first determined experimentally by Cavendish in 1798. Further, this coefficient was presented as the gravitational constant G. However, Cavendish did not connect G with Newton's dependence, but used it only to calculate the Earth's mass M within the framework of the GM combination. The constant G from this combination was identified by Jolly in 1878, which reduced Newton's original dependence to the real law of universal gravitation F=Gm1m2/r2, which is currently used. However, Newton got his dependence on the basis of the rotation of the Moon around the Earth, whose orbit is close to circular. Therefore, the radius r in it was taken constant. This law is being criticized because it does not operate at the planetary level, where the planets of the solar system do not move in a circular orbit, but, elliptical, within the framework of Kepler's laws. Eliminating the discrepancy between Newton's law of universal gravitation and Kepler's laws is the goal main of this work, and the formulation of a new corrected law is its scientific novelty. As a result of this work, it was proposed to replace the radius r with the current value ri in Newton's law, which can change according to its own laws. In this case, the new value of the law of universal gravitation has the form: F=Gm1m2/ri2. Unlike the original Newton's law, in which the radius r=const, in the corrected law ri=var, so the original law is a special case of the corrected law. In this case, the value of the radius ri2 can be obtained through the coordinate’s xi2, yi2 of the current points of the trajectory of the center of mass m2 of an object of smaller magnitude relative to the center of mass m1 of an object of larger magnitude. For an object with a spatial form of the trajectory of the center of mass, the 3rd coordinate zi2 is added to determine this radius. In its final form, the new law of universal gravitation will be expressed by the dependence: F=Gm1m2/(xi2+yi2+zi2). Thus, despite the criticism of Newton's law by opponents, he is acted, acts and will act in the material world. Conclusion, the Proposed revised law of universal gravitation are recommended for use in scientific research. This corrected version should be included in all textbooks and reference books on physics, incl. in the encyclopaedia.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 4

        Physics of Cosmic Dark Ages

        Najmuj Sahadat Sarkar*

        DOI: 10.37421/2329-6542.2023.11.262

        Basically in this paper I have tried to show how the Dark Age of our universe started. After the recombination phase of the Big Bang, the universe was shrouded in darkness for some 100 to 200 million years. At this time ordinary matter particles entered the structures created by dark matter. And their gravitational collapse helped create the massive structures in the universe today. All the large structures that we see in the universe today were once organized by the events that took place during the dark ages. Also towards the end of the paper I have tried to provide some observational data, both from gravitational lensing and WMAP satellites. Let's shed some light on the Dark Ages.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 48

        Mars: Humanoids, Bodies, Bones, Skulls, UFOs, UAPs, Spacecraft Wreckage

        Rhawn Gabriel Joseph* and Rudolph Schild

        For thousands of years there have been reports of extra-terrestrial beings and “sky boats” that have visited Earth as recounted in ancient texts from India, Egypt and Greece. During WWII five UFOs appeared above Los Angeles and were impervious to attack and pilots from “allied” and “enemy” countries were repeatedly harassed by extra-terrestrial craft referred to as “Foo Fighters.” In 2023 the U.S. Congress heard testimony that military pilots have repeatedly encountered UFOs and UAPs and those government agencies have obtained the wreckage of and bodies from extra-terrestrial spacecraft. In this report we provide a sample of official NASA Mars photographs of what appears to be the wreckage and debris from extra-terrestrial spacecraft, partially buried bones, the body of a “humanoid” stretched out on a “cushion;” the head of a “humanoid” possibly wearing a metal device on the front of its “face” and adjacent to a cratered debris field, two “humanoid” skulls including one that is atop what may be a raised elongated burial mound, UAPs/UFOs photographed in the skies of Mars and a silver-saucer shaped structure upon the ground. We hypothesize that government agencies refuse to acknowledge any evidence for extra-terrestrial life, be it UAPs or fungi on Mars, because they fear that religious and government authority will be challenged and undermined.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Approaches to describing the motion of stars in galaxies

        Sergey P. Babailov* and P. A. Stabnikov

        Only one gravitational interaction is not enough to explain the anomalous high speeds of rotation of stars on the outskirts of galaxies. Therefore, several approaches have been proposed by various authors, including the existence of dark matter, deformation of the gravitational interaction itself at ultra-long distances, modifications of Newton's classical laws, the introduction of additional additive potentials that are weaker than the gravitational interaction, but which decrease with distance relatively "slower" than the actual gravitational interaction. All these approaches make it possible to explain the experimental data on the velocities of stars, but within the limits of the size of the galaxy. For even more distant distances, the accelerated expansion of the Universe is established. So, to explain this, the concept of dark energy was introduced earlier. The approaches proposed earlier cannot fully explain all the features of the motion of galaxies relative to each other. At the same time, the introduction of two additional potential interactions (with the forces δMm/R and -βMm/Rn) formally makes it possible to explain most of the experimentally found features of the motion of stars at sub galactic and intergalactic distances.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

        Sarkar Singularity in Gravitational Cosmology

        Najmuj Sahadat Sarkar

        In this paper I have tried to derive an equation of my own using Professor Ray Chowdhury's equation which shows the constructing state of the universe just like the Ray Chowdhury equation. Hubble expansion rate and time act as special factors in my equation. In short it says we may get a singularity in the distant future not only in past.

          Thesis Pages: 1 - 4

          Mass-Wavelength Relation in Curved Space-Time Fabric of a Black Hole and Transformation of a Black Hole to a White Hole

          Deepanshu Chouhan*

          DOI: DOI: 10.37421/ 2329-6542.2022.10.220

          According to Stephen Hawking, black hole create and emit particles thereby evaporating and losing their mass slowly with time. As it loses its mass, the wavelength of the emitted particles decreases and the energy of the black hole radiation increases. The wavelength of Hawking radiation is related to the curvature of space-time continuum near the event horizon by the equation


          where λHR is the wavelength of the Hawking radiation. Also, by subtracting this equation from the net energy content of the black hole before emission, we can get the energy of the black hole after emission. Since black holes emit radiation that has immense pressure when it’s mass tends to zero then due to radiation pressure exerted on a body will prevent it from crossing the event horizon which is a property of white holes. In this way a black hole may behave as a white hole.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

            Density of Physical Vacuum

            Yanbikov Vildan Shavkyatovich*

            Applying the wave model of gravity, the density is calculated the physical vacuum. An unusually high virtual density is obtained states of  physical vacuum. Following the wave model of gravity, protons A and B re-emit the gravitational energy of the cosmos into the surrounding space. Is represented (for convenience of calculations) a physical vacuum
            consisting of virtual protons, so that in at any given time, there are n protons in the elementary volume of the dV vacuum

            Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

            Theory of Cause of Time

            K M Sanid

            Time is still an unknown fact to human, but we use time to define every motion and to describe objects. The time is connected with gravity, as the gravity increase the time starts to dilate in space and also we know that as the speed of an object increase the time starts to move slower. The light has the maximum speed in the space.

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