Arts and Social Sciences Journal

ISSN: 2151-6200

Open Access

Current Issue

Policy and Society (2021)

    Editorials Pages: 1 - 1

    Policy Instrument Development and Effectiveness of a Public Policy in Terms of its Perceived Intentions

    Jang Wangh

    A strategy may be a conscious arrangement of standards to direct choices and accomplishes reasonable results. an appointment is an assertion of expectation, and is executed as a way or convention. Strategies are by and enormous embraced by an administration body inside an association. Arrangements can aid both abstract and target dynamic. Arrangements utilized in abstract dynamic generally help senior administration with choices that ought to be founded on the general benefits of varied elements, and subsequently are regularly difficult to check unbiased, for instance equilibrium between fun and high stuff strategy. Interestingly, approaches to assist target dynamic are normally operational in nature and may be impartially tried, for instance secret key arrangement

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    The Roots of Human Rights and the Role of Social Psychology

    R. Dean Stalnaker

    Since the 1930s the field of social psychology has built a distinctive reputation for its work in understanding human rights and advancement of the cause. The focus of the field is interested in the processes of the way we think and behave in relation to other individuals, in group relationships, one-on-one, and how we think, developing a point of views, and how attitudes impact the way we interrelate with each other. Social psychologists in the 1930s also focused on issues associated with prejudice and discrimination in various locations in Europe and the United States. These factors contributed to many issues associated with human rights. The United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner (2018) defines human rights as moral principles innate to all humans, whatever their nationality, location, gender, ethnic origins, religion, language, or other statuses.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Rapid Urbanization and Environmental Degradation: Practices and Reality

    Farzana, Syeda Zehan

    Globally, urbanization is one of the major issue contains such impacts on human being due to hampering the protection of nature and over access of human across the nature, are the ultimate of increasing temperature especially increased Carbon-di-oxide (Co2) in air. The degradation of surrounding environment due to over Carbon-di-oxide (Co2) leads people to being attacked by various diseases. Urbanization is the process of expansion of a city by increasing of total population/area in urban localities over time1. In the developing nations compare to the developed nations of the world, urban areas are containing largest population which are the ultimate of becoming mega cities and rapid urbanization. As per the data, by 1990 the average population of 100 largest cities of the world was above 5 million whereas in 1800 it was below 2 lacs. Further by 1990, there were 12 �??mega cities�?? along with above 10 million inhabitants and among these cities seven were in Asia, three in Latin America and two in the United States of America.

    Short Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

    Evolution characteristics of the spatial network structure of tourism efficiency in China: A province-level analysis

    Zhaofeng Wang

    Evolution characteristics of the spatial network structure of tourism efficiency in China: A province-level analysis�?� conducted a study to explore the evolution characteristics of the spatial network structure of tourism efficiency at the provincial level in China. These valuable conclusions are as follows. First, during the sample period, tourism efficiency was generally stable nationwide, except for a slight decline at the end of the sample period. Spatially, the distribution pattern was approximately: eastern region, central region, northeastern region, western region. Second, the overall fluctuations of network density and network correlation degree decrease, which indicated that the spatial network structure of tourism efficiency became loosely linked during the sample period; a cooperation mechanism for tourism development in various provinces should be established as soon as possible. Third, province-level tourism efficiency in China shows apparent core-periphery structure characteristics; the overall core-periphery structure development tends to be group-centered, and the spatial connection is strengthened

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 5

    Establishing Essentials in Professional Development

    Rick Stalnaker

    The New Horizons Agency is an essential voice in educational services associated with autistic children. This educational feature of the organization will be the functional framework of this study. The agency is well-respected in mentoring governmental groups and driving the direction of policy for the treatment of autistic children. Communication is critical for optimal operation at New Horizons, and the forms of communication can sometimes be difficult to navigate. Therefore, training on how to use certain forms of communication are essential. Equally important is a development process for staff to reflect on how they are progressing in the learning of organizational policies on using various modes of communication.

    Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

      A Practical Framework for Evaluating Distance Learning Programs in Kenyan Universities

      Lydiah Nyaguthii Wambugu and Naomi Njoroge

      Distance learning is not a new phenomenon. Technology has ensured that learning takes place anywhere at any time by freeing learners from the constraints of space and/or time respectively. Despite of this benefit, there is apprehension among some scholars that distance education compromises the quality of learning. Substantial research has been conducted comparing the academic performance of the conventional face-to-face and distance learners leading to the ‘no significant difference phenomena’. However, a number of researchers have questioned this claim and branded it as inconclusive in that it does not show whether the two modes are equally good or bad. These researchers suggest a shift from comparative studies to evaluation of specific distance education program. The argument for this assertion is that evaluation as a discipline assigns a value or worth of a phenomen based on certain criteria. This criteria may be in terms of fulfillment of outcomes, appropriateness of results (relevance and effectiveness), justification for resources used (efficiency), extent of the change that is attributed to the intervention (impact) and extent of the results lasting beyond the life of the intervention (sustainability). This paper seeks to synthesis program evaluation and distance education literature to recommend a framework for conducting evaluations of distance learning programs. This is because evaluation elements that are used to determine the worth and value of distance learning programs cannot be quite the same terms as the conventional face-to-face teaching that academicians are most familiar with.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Conceptualization of ′Foot′ in Iranian Expressions and Proverbs

      Zaynab Karimi

      A significant claim of CMT, as asserted by Lakoff (2014), is “the centrality of embodiment as the mechanism of meaningfulness.” Peoples’ experiences with their bodies play an essential role in the emergence of figurative thought. Hence, body-organ terms as a mapping process between the two domains are closely connected to the speakers’ conceptual system. This study scrutinizes conceptualizations of ‘foot’ in as many as 10000 Persian proverbs and expressions in the six related Iranian proverb books. Conducting a corpus-based analysis according to schematic's model conceptualization of cultural cognition developed by Sharifian 2011, this study indicates how ‘Pa,’ the Persian equivalent for foot, is conceptualized as being either tantamount to or being in the locality of feelings, thoughts, and memories, and personality traits. In general, it seems that the body part ‘Pa’ provides a conceptual foundation for speakers of Persian to represent their cognitive, emotional, socio-cultural, and linguistic experiences.

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

      What do Students Think of Online Education? Experience of Agriculture Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic

      Muthuprasad T*, Aditya K S, Aiswarya S and Girish K Jha

      Covid-19 pandemic and consequent shut downs to prevent the gatherings has disrupted the structured education programs across the world. In spite of the scare that the students might miss out on learning, this also provided opportunity to explore the possibility of moving classrooms online. As this transformation from traditional classroom education to online mode has been quick and unanticipated, it was challenging for both faculty and students. We conducted a study to determine the perception and preferences of agricultural students for online learning through an online survey of 307 students. In spite of the advantages of online learning such as flexibility, convenience etc., students have reported that poor internet connection, lack of devices and quality content, incompetency of faculty in preparing digital content as the major challenges. Therefore, all these aspects should be weighed while designing curriculum as educational institutes embrace the instructional challenges brought by the COVID- 19 pandemic.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Strategy of Overall Social Development: The Challenge of Sustainability

      Arkady Martynov

      The author exposes an idea of universal sustainability, which capturing on a whole the interconnected pro-cesses of sustainable changes in society. Applying this conceptual idea opens the door for ripen implementation of overall social strategy at global and national levels in the coming decade.

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

      Current State of Affairs: Ghana′s Informal Economic Sector in the Face of a Pandemi

      Philipa Birago Akuoko*, Vincent Aggrey and Anastasia Amoako-Arhen

      The author exposes an idea of universal sustainability, which capturing on a whole the interconnected pro-cesses of sustainable changes in society. Applying this conceptual idea opens the door for ripen implementation of overall social strategy at global and national levels in the coming decade.

      Translation and Censorship (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        A Framework for Analyzing Competitive Hypotheses in Method Tracing for Political Analysis

        Patricia Ahmut

        Political science is the scientific study of politics. It is a social science dealing with systems of governance and power, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, political behavior, and associated constitutions and laws. Modern political science can generally be divided into the three sub disciplines of comparative politics, international relations, and political theory. Other notable sub disciplines are public policy and administration, domestic politics and government (often studied within comparative politics), as well as political economy and political methodology, Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics, law, sociology, history, philosophy, human geography, journalism, political anthropology, and social policy. Political science is methodologically diverse and appropriates many methods originating in psychology, social research and cognitive neuroscience. Approaches include positivism, interpretivism, rational choice theory, behaviourism, structuralism, post-structuralism, realism, institutionalism, and pluralism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources, such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, survey research, statistical analysis, case studies, experimental research, and model building.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Alternative Approaches to Educational Thought and Practice in Non-Western Educational Traditions

        Gael Benjaafar

        Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom.

        Research Pages: 1 - 4

        Plastic Waste Management in Rural Eswatini-A Mini Review

        Sizwe D. Mabaso*, Sizwe M. Nxumalo, Sipho F. Mamba, Saico S. Singwane & Ian B. van Zuydam

        This paper explored plastic waste management practices employed by rural households in rural households of Kingdom of Eswatini. It identified the types of plastic waste generated, estimated the average daily (and annual) amount generated, and established the different strategies employed by rural households in managing plastic waste. A semi-structured questionnaire, accompanied by an observation matrix, was used to solicit data from heads of households in Ezikhotheni and Zombodze emuva communities. Data on the types and amount of generated plastic waste (per household) were gathered for two consecutive months (December 2018 and January 2019) from the two rural communities. The results revealed that rural communities in Eswatini generate different types of plastic waste materials, and these include: Polyethylene Terephathalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), Poly propylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and other plastic waste materials layered from other plastic. On average, it was found that a rural household generates approximately 15.9 g of plastic waste per day, equating to about 5.8 kg per annum. Common plastic waste management practices found in these rural communities included; open burning, burying, reusing, disposing in backyard pit, indiscriminate disposal in the backyard, selling and upcycling. The study concluded that primitive traditional plastic waste disposal and management methods still characterize most rural households in Eswatini. However, modern and recommended plastic waste management practices were also observed in some households, particularly in Zombodze Emuva community.

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 4

        A Mini-Review of the RPA Framework (A Conceptual Framework for Resilient Place Assessment)

        Masoud Shafiei-Dastjerdi

        Spatial resilience’ discourse can be used to guide the development of a conceptual framework for resilient place assessment. In this regard, a resilient place should feature a combination of physical and non-physical characteristics that can contribute to improved response and adaptation to a broad range of natural and manmade hazards. In this context, resilience is claimed to be the ability to adapt to varied risks and changes that threaten the quality of the functionality, liability, and vitality of a place. To further elaborate on the concept of resilient place, in a study, urban resilience literature were reviewed and conceptual framework for Resilient Place Assessment (RPA) was introduced. The conceptual framework of place assessment was developed concerning the constituent attributes of ‘place’ and ‘spatial resilience.’ In the proposed framework, the constructive dimensions of Resilient Place Assessment (RPA) include four dimensions, three of which are semantic resilience dimensions. Insights provided in this conceptual framework can be used by urban planners, designers, and policy makers in their efforts towards creating more resilient places.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 11

        Indian Narrative Over the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): A Perspective from Pakistan

        Muhammad Nauman Akhter

        The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) makes up one of the largest foreign investments in the substructure of China’s ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). CPEC has become an unavoidable disquiet in South Asia with particular regard to Pakistan-India relations. The distinct transport corridor between Pakistan and China passes over Jammu and Kashmir, a disputed territory between India and Pakistan since 1947. Additionally, the Indian policy elite also anticipates CPEC’s economic and security implications for India. The emerging consensus in India appears that, far from being exclusively an economic and infrastructure development program, CPEC may be conceived as a longâ?term strategic initiative that seeks to convert China's current economic might into diplomatic influence. In comparison, Pakistan believes that CPEC will strengthen the economic, security and trade cooperation between China and Pakistan. Therefore, the paper attempts to answer the following questions: What is the Indian perception of CPEC? How does Pakistan attempt to shape the new narrative of CPEC? In the end, the paper will try to figure out some solutions for potential challenges.

        Statistical study on modern cultures (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

          Statistical Study on the Impact of E-Learning on Children in Saudi Arabia

          Jana Majdy Rehan, Elham Fahad Almutawa, Shaimaa Ali Towerib and Amal Tolba Badawi*

          In our research, we presented a statistical study about the impact of e-learning on the child’s psychological and physical health, and the importance of the study is to draw attention to the child’s psychological and physical health, which is essential in their influence at the academic level of the child on the elementary grades (kindergarten-primary stage), and most of the governments in the world have temporarily closed educational institutions, in an effort to reduce the spread of the corona pandemic (COVID-19), which led to their decision-making to convert urban classrooms into virtual classes as it had a great impact on children from kindergarten to primary. And the result was that e-learning had a negative impact on the health of the child, whereas, the result and data were obtained through a questionnaire that was answered by the parents.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 6

          Street Children: Reasons for Becoming, Challenges and Coping Mechanisms; A Study on Street Children in Nekemte Town

          Bayissa Kisi Lemi*

          Nowadays, the increasing number of unsupervised children working or/and living on streets has become one of urban social problems, particularly in developing nations. Ethiopia as one of the developing countries with rapid urbanization is also facing rapid increase in the size of street children. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that lead children to street, challenges they face on streets and their coping mechanisms with particular reference to street children in Nekemte town; a capital of East Wallega Zone, Oromia National Regional state of Ethiopia. Nekemte as one of the growing large urban centers in Western Ethiopia and due to its strategic location attracts large number of immigrants including street children. The study was qualitative in nature. Data were gathered through interview, focus group discussion and observation. Research informants were selected through snowball and purposive sampling. Twenty children were interviewed and two focus group discussions were held. The size was determined during data collection based on the principle of data saturation. Poverty was found to be the main factor that leads children to street as many children are working on street to support themselves or their families. Besides, abuse and mistreatment at home, harassment at school, urban life attraction, and displacement and peer pressure were also found to be among the causes. Street children face several challenges while working or/and living on urban streets. Difficulty of securing basic necessities of life, abuse by adults including police and older street children, stigma and marginalization, lack of toilet facility and place to bath and extreme weather conditions (cold and hot) were the main challenges they face. The study indicated that street children use both positive and negative coping mechanisms to overcome these challenges. Positive coping strategies include carrying personal belongings of passengers, engaging in various petty businesses, shoe shinning and doing errands of persons. The study indicated that most children try to survive engaging in these positive or socially acceptable coping strategies. Street children also resort to negative coping mechanisms when positive coping strategies fail to support children’s living, especially to get basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. These strategies include: begging, stealing, selling sex, chewing and drinking alcohol.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Conceptualizations of Mazeh ‘Gustatory Sense’: A Cultural Linguistic Study

          Zaynab Karimi*

          This paper aims to scrutinize conceptualizations of gustatory sensation in contemporary Persian cultural pragmatic schema from a perspective of Cultural Linguistics. Several expressions in which gustatory terms are used reflect cultural metaphors where gustatory is used as a primary domain for conceptual mapping to the domain of emotion. Conducting a corpus-based analysis according to schematic’s model conceptualization of cultural cognition developed by Sharifian, this study indicates how gustatory sensation as English equivalent for Maze is conceptualized. This study also examines particular cultural categorizations of food. Human nature pertains to the concept of ‘gustatory’ in Persian and traces back the root of these categorizations to Iranian culture. The gustatory terms are also used to describe and categorize some things such as color and smell. All in all, the observations made in this paper support the view those conceptualizations of gustatory supply an interface for the interaction between sensory and bodily experiences (embodiment), human conceptual faculties, and cultural conceptualizations.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

          The Acquisition of English Interrogative Structures in the Light of L2 Generative Models: The Case of Monolingual Persian and Bilingual Kurdish-Persian Speakers

          Zaynab Karimi*

          This study investigates the interaction of L1, L2, and L3 in the acquisition of English interrogative structures by Persian monolinguals and Kurdish-Persian Bilinguals across different levels of language proficiency in light of generative UG models (Full Transfer Full Access (FA/FT), Representational Deficit Hypothesis (RDH), Shallow Structure Hypothesis, Direct Access (DA), Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH), and Modulated Structure Building Hypothesis (MBSH). The participants were 108 learners, including Persian monolinguals and Kurdish-Persian bilinguals, assigned to lower intermediate, upper-intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels. The participants were then given two experimental tests (GJTandTT), to analyze the data; the inferential Statistics of ANOVA and Post hoc Scheffe tests were employed. The results indicated no significant difference between the performances of monolinguals and bilinguals at each level of language proficiency, yet the difference was statistically significant across proficiency levels; also, no single generative hypothesis can offer a comprehensive explanation of the whole process of L2 and L3 interrogative language acquisition. The results support the predictions made by FT/FA, DA, and MBSH and contradict with the predictions made by RDH, MSIH, and SSH.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Sociodemographic and Clinical Profile of Punto Esperanza Clinic: A Student-Run Free Urban Community Primary Care Clinic

          Grisel Burgos-Barreto*, Edison Martínez-Monegro and German Garcia

          Background: Access to primary care services in low-income rural and urban areas of Puerto Rico remains a significant public health challenge. Punto Esperanza Clinic (PEC) is a free primary care medical clinic in the urban area of Santurce, which is a densely populated, low-income area with a mixed local Puerto Rican and immigrant community. The present study aims to establish a sociodemographic and clinical profile of the patient population at PEC.

          Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from clinical interviews and surveys provided to participants over a two-year period from 2018 to 2020.

          Results: The population (145) between ages 22-97 years that received medical care services at Punto Esperanza Clinic from January 2018 to March 2020, had a mean age of 60.6. In addition, 57.9% were males and 32.2% were single. The majority of participants received their income from government benefits (23.4%) and 90.1% lived in San Juan, PR. On the clinical aspect, the analysis based on reported medical conditions, categorized by body system, the leading cause of disease were cardiovascular disease (51.9%), this was followed by endocrine conditions (32%), psychiatric conditions (18.9%), gastrointestinal conditions (15%), respiratory conditions (11.3%), and immunological conditions (11.3%).

          Conclusion: Given these results, more research is encouraged to examine current healthcare protocols and develop ways to provide better access to primary care in the vulnerable community around and near Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico in the future.

          Violation of Human Rights (2021)

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