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Journal of Animal Health and Behavioural Science

Open Access

Volume 3, Issue 1 (2019)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

Evaluation of the Open-Access Video Tracking Programme Swarm Sight to Evaluate Lethargy in a Ferret Model of Influenza Infection

Aeron C. Hurt, Celeste Ming-Kay Tai and Ding Yuan Oh

As an animal model of influenza, ferrets are uniquely capable of displaying clinical signs of illness similar to those of human influenza virus infection. To quantify lethargy, we previously established video monitoring as a more sensitive method than the commonly used manual scoring methodology for ferrets infected with influenza virus. Video monitoring is simple to set-up, but its adoption by other laboratories is restricted by the need to purchase costly commercial software, EthoVision® XT, to analyse activity. To broaden the use of video monitoring method in ferrets, we assessed Swarm Sight, a free open-access programme, for analysing activity changes in ferrets infected with seasonal influenza A(H1N1), A(H1N1) pdm09, A(H3N2) and B virus. Swarm Sight could differentiate between the various levels of lethargy associated with the infection of different influenza virus subtypes to a similar degree to EthoVision® XT. However, one major limitation of Swarm Sight is that it does not permit high throughput analysis, which considerably increases the time required to process video clips from experiments involving large numbers of ferrets. Despite this limitation, the open-accessibility and comparable results to EthoVision® XT make Swarm Sight a good alternative for researchers interested in using video monitoring to measure lethargy in ferrets.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Lysophospholipids and Phospholipids Blend on Performance and Carcass Quality Traits of Broilers Fed Energy Deficient Diet

Sunil Chauhan1*, Ashok Priyadarshi1, Bhupesh Gautam1 and Khanitta Saikhlai2

This study was conducted to evaluate productive performance and carcass quality traits of broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with an exogenous emulsifier based on lysophospholipids and Phospholipids. Two hundred and forty, newly hatched male chicks of a commercial strain (ARBOR ACRES PLUS) were randomly divided into four treatment groups.  Each treatment group had6 replicateswith10 birds in each group. Birds were reared in separate pens as an experimental unit. Two basal diets were formulated; one with full energy diet which served as positive control (PC) and another was 80 Kcal/ kg less as compare to PC at each phase of diet which served as negative control (NC). Each of the diet was supplemented with 250 gm /ton of Lysophospholipids & Phospholipids blend emulsifier (JubiDOL plus) and fed to birds from 0 to 35 days of age. At the end of the trial (35 d), birds that received the Lysophospholipids & Phospholipids blend emulsifier had a statistically significant (p<0.05)  higher body weight, lower feed conversion rate and better EEF as compared to the negative control. While mortality and feed intake was similar amongst control and treatment the groups. There was no statistically significant effect of the emulsifier on carcass traits and incidence of foot pad dermatitis.This study concluded that the use of an emulsifier based on Lysophospholipids & Phospholipids blend improved the performance and feed efficiency while there were limited effects on carcass quality traits of broilers.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

Olfactory Mediation of Canine Gastrointestinal Neurobiology

Terry E Brady, Sarah K Abood, Rachel Tinker-Kulberg, Kristen Dellinger, Melinda KM Goddard, Lee Robertson and Anthony Lee Dellinger

Dogs sniff the ground in advance of defecation, irrespective of sex, breed and location. This discussion proposes that canines are not casual “sniffers,” but are rather evolutionarily predisposed to search for particular molecules that activate gastrointestinal neurobiology and physiology via olfaction. Given that canines possess an extremely discriminating olfactory system, it is further proposed that specific scent-stimuli prompt defecation. Such olfactory responses may have been imprinted genetically or always instinctive and manifested in behaviour, biology and physiology (including the vomeronasal organ). Specifically, the canine sphincter reflex and final peristalsis appear to be scent-mediated through synaptic neurobiology, triggered by a specific family of organic aromatic amines. However, as dogs have been making the transition from rural-to suburban-to urban settings, their quest for olfactory stimulation has become more challenging due to increasingly “sanitized” municipal environments. Indeed, while being welcomed into indoor cohabitation with busy and preoccupied human companions, erratic owners’ schedules can compound these dynamics and lead to recurrent frustration with the dogs’ apparent searching with respect to a normal excretion routine.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

Use of a Canine Gastrointestinal Olfactory Stimulant in a Shelter Setting

Abby Anne Williams, Ian Cunningham, Terry E Brady, Sarah K Abood, Rachel Tinker-Kulberg, Kristen Dellinger, Melinda KM Goddard, Lee Robertson and Anthony L Dellinger

A recent investigation linking olfactory triggers to a distinct reflex has highlighted the relationship between “sniffing” the ground and canine defecation. The work presaged the question as to whether dogs awaiting adoption would exhibit the same apparent scent mediation of final peristalsis in a kennel environment. In fact, this study has shown that olfactory gastrointestinal neurobiological pathways remained intact with rescue dogs. Further, use of an olfactory stimulant resulted in more rapid and predictable excretion behavior consistent with prototypical household routines upon adoption. In turn, the canine olfactory stimulant improved operational efficiencies in a shelter management protocol with faster, more reliable “dog walking.” That is, with less time spent literally waiting for dogs to relieve themselves in often stressful, unfamiliar and densely populated shelter settings, more time would be available for interaction and exercise so as to leverage limited resources. Ultimately, this strategy may prove helpful to millions of shelter dogs, improve adoption rates and retention, and reduce relinquishments associated with home soiling.

 

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