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Alternative & Integrative Medicine

ISSN: 2327-5162

Open Access

Current Issue

COVID-19 and Its Treatment using Alternative Medicines (2020)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

    Virus or Visha? Anti-Toxins/Detoxification Solution of SARS-CoV-2

    Divya Kajaria and Tanuja Nesari

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.296

    The article explores the concept of developing pathogenesis specific medicines for the management of SARS-CoV-2. This is high time to shift the paradigm from pathogen specific (vaccine) treatment to pathogenesis specific treatment for the permanent solution of such pandemics. The article gives an empherical outlook about the fact that immune system gives a sequential response to any invading matter and augmenting the immune response at first step prevents the development of disease. During evolution, immune responses for invading proteins are specified and categorize based on their lethality. Those proteins which are encounter during envenomation are recognized by the immune cell as toxin. The core concept that the human body has stored memory for venomous protein response conclude possibility that envelop proteins of coronavirus belongs
    to venom group of protein. The article introduces the concept that human immune system recognizes novel coronavirus envelop protein and nucleocapsid as toxin and therefore giving hyper-immune response like cytokines storm. Potential of this concept and its utility in the management of COVID-19 is discussed under two headings (1) Use of anti-toxin herbs and (2) Detoxification therapies. Herbs described as Anti-toxin can be extracted and use as natural source of neutralizing antibodies for passive immunity. The article gives the details of natural ways described in Ayurveda for creating HERD immunity and also explains the concept of cosmic immunity, its role in the outbreak of epidemics and utility in prevention of spread of disease. Novel concept of neuro-endocrine-immune response (using thought modulation as immune-stimulant) and the possibility of pseudo-illness due to infodemic is also converse in the article. The Ayurvedic measures described in the article can be used for asymptomatic patients, quarantine people and high risk health workers. These are simple, safe measures that can be easily followed to maintain physical as well as mental health during pandemic.
     

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    A Comparative Analysis between Nanomembrane-Based Therapeutic Plasmapheresis and Other Plasmapheresis Methods and Their Potential Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic

    Diego R Delgado and Ernesto Romero

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.298

    During a plasmapheresis session, a centrifugation device or membrane-based replacement equipment removes a portion of blood plasma, and separates pathologic macro-molecules from the patient´s blood for therapeutic purposes. The removed substances include alloantibodies, autoantibodies, cytokines, toxins, monoclonal proteins, lipoproteins and other plasma components. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) reviews its clinical indications for various medical fields, such as hematology, oncology, neurology, rheumatology and nephrology. In addition, a relevant aspect about plasmapheresis is that it is an effective adjuvant treatment for acute liver failure, peripheral vascular disease, Guillain- Barré syndrome, sepsis, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP), which are all possible complications of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Different organizations around the world have made much progress in plasmapheresis´ biomedical engineering. One of such advances is the creation of more practical equipment and of a filter for nanomembrane-based therapeutic plasmapheresis. The nanopores of this multi-membrane filter allow for a more specific and less traumatic blood filtration. This process requires a single needle insertion and functions with an extracorporeal volume of only 70 mL, thus reducing risks and allowing its use even for pediatric patients. Other advantages include its relative lower cost, the short duration of treatment and the fact that donor plasma as a replacement fluid is optional, reducing in that way the risk of infection and allergic reactions. This comparative review will focus on these advantages and also on the aforementioned potential applications of nanomembrane-based therapeutic plasmapheresis for some of the complications of COVID-19.

    Review Pages: 1 - 4

    Role of Unani Medicine in the Management of Tinnitus (Taneen)

    Abdul Nasir* and Gazala Fatma

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.291

    The word tinnitus is derived from a latin word ‘tinnire’ which means a “jingle” or “to ring, defined as ringing of sound or noise in the ear by the patient without any external
    stimulation. This sound may be described by the patient as roaring, hissing, swishing, rustling or clicking type of noise. Unani physicians have defined the tinnitus in the
    name of Taneen wa Dawi and explained it is a ringing sound in the ear, or a condition in which patient hears non-existing voices. According to Allama Nafees ‘Taneen’
    means ‘tasht ki khakhnahat’ and taneen is called where patient hears non-existing voices. This sound may appear continuously or time to time. According to unani
    physicians diversion of ghaleez akhlat wa riyah (waste material) from the brain towards ear is a causative factors for tinnitus. Malnutrition, dryness, starvation and general
    weakness also predispose the tinnitus. Unani scholars have described the symptoms like heaviness in ear and head with tinnitus (Taneen), sound in the ear is increased
    in empty stomach or starvation, the symptoms of general weakness may appear. Unani system of medicine possesses quality approach in the management of tinnitus
    with use of Ilaj-bil-Dawa (pharmacotherapy), Ilaj-bil-Ghiza (dietotherapy), Ilaj-bil-Tadabeer (regimental therapy) and Ilaj-bil-Yad (manual therapy/surgery). Tinnitus is one
    of the most complicated conditions to treat through conventional method, so, the material regarding the concept and management of tinnitus from unani system of
    medicine may be beneficial or helpful through this review paper.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Can COVID-19 be Controlled over the World?

    Tamer A. Addissouky, Ahmed A. Khalil and Ayman E. Elagroudy

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.286

    By March 9th, 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 caused 114 019 confirmed cases and 3831 deaths globally, more than Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which recorded then (8273 cases, 775 deaths) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) recorded (1139 cases, 431 deaths) caused in 2003 and 2013 respectively. A new virus which called COVID-19 causes illness as well as severe symptoms has been inoculated in infected area Wuhan, Hubei, China. Data about this virus is still controversial such as rapid development, increasing cases, and unknown transplantation. However, recently, protocol of protection and prevention of COVID-19 infection has been implementing. Using specific drugs as an effective way to treat infected cases has been implementing also. Consequently, COVID-19 is in the way to be controlled over the world.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

    Acupuncture Treatment the Feasibility of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (COVID-19) during Rehabilitation

    Mengjie Zeng and Zhiquan Wu

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.289

    Acupuncture has rich experience in the treatment of epidemic diseases, and also has special advantages in disease prevention and health care. Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is being cured novel coronavirus pneumonia, and there are varying degrees of lung function impairment, interstitial pneumonia and even pulmonary fibrosis in patients with convalescence. Novel coronavirus pneumonia is a new method for treating convalescent pneumonia. It is aimed at the feasibility of acupuncture intervention therapy in order to achieve better rehabilitation effect.

    Volume 9, Issue 3 (2020)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Challenges of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescription in Dentistry and Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries - Medicinal Plants to the Rescue

      Onoriode Oyiborhoro*

      DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.293

      Studies have revealed that Dentists across the globe are widely involved in the inappropriate prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics, a practice that is believed to
      contribute significantly to the current problem of antimicrobial resistance. The factors responsible for the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics by Dentists vary from
      country to country but the aim of such prescriptions appears to be universal-prevention of possible post-operative infections and complications. In developing countries,
      Dentists face some unique challenges that make such inappropriate prescription of antibiotics almost inevitable. Some of such challenges include an epileptic power
      supply and lack of potable water, both of which facilitate the poor infection control practices prevalent in these countries. The invasive nature of minor procedures such as
      simple tooth extractions and frequent use of poorly sterilized metal-based reusable equipment contribute to an increased risk of transmission of infections in dental
      practice. In the search for alternative antimicrobial drugs, medicinal plants have been observed to be potential sources of safer and cheaper agents, when compared to
      synthetic antibiotics. Interestingly, extracts from medicinal plants have long been applied for the treatment of oral infections and maintenance of oral health in many parts
      of the world, including developing countries, where they are widely distributed. Surprisingly, a very limited number of these extracts, if any, have found their way into the
      clinics as refined agents such as tablets, for the prophylactic control of post-operative infections in dentistry, especially in developing countries. This is largely due to lack
      of confidence on the part of Dentists and poor co-ordination among research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies in these nations. This review
      therefore seeks to reawaken the interest of all parties concerned, on the need to harness the potentials of medicinal plants in solving the problem of inappropriate
      antibiotics prescription in dentistry.

      Research Pages: 1 - 3

      Efficacy of Fibromyalgia Treatment Using Bach Flower Therapy: Preliminary Results

      Jozelio Freire de Carvalho*, Cassia Jesus Rocha, Natasha Lima Bastos de Queiroz and Jordan Campos

      DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.292

      Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent disease and often presents symptoms of anxiety and depression. Bach florals (BF) are widely used  to treat such manifestations. No studies on the use of BF in FM were found. 

      Objective: To evaluate the effects of BF (Rescue) in FM patients. 

      Patients and methods: 6 patients and 6 healthy controls were included. They were evaluated at pre-intervention and after 60 days of BF using. Demographic data, anxiety and depression were evaluated by Beck inventories; sleep quality by the Pittsburgh scale and symptoms of dysbiosis  by symptoms form. 

      Results: The median age was 60 years old (22-77) in patients and 41 (40-43) years old in controls. The disease duration was 3 years (4 months  -10 years old). Caucasian race was 33% in the patient group and 66% in the controls. There was a statistically significant reduction between the Beck Anxiety Questionnaire before and after 60 days [16 (6-42) vs. 10 (2-27), p=0.05), Beck Depression Questionnaire before and after 60 days [16 (8-52) vs. 10 (6-35), p=0.02) and dysbiosis questionnaire before and after 60 days [18 (10-27) vs. 15 .5 (7-27), p=0.03). Regarding the sleep form, no significant differences were observed before and after BF. 

      Conclusion: Treatment with Bach flower in patients with fibromyalgia seems promising, as it reduces tender points, symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as improvement of symptoms of dysbiosis.

      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Stimulation of Phagocytosis in Alveolar Macrophages and Resistance against Infection in Mice by the Aqueous Extract of Rhizomes of Aframomum danielli, Schum (zingiberaceae)

      Oumar Mahamat*, Tume Christopher, Guessom Oulianovie and Kamanyi Albert

      DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.294

      Background: Alveolar Macrophages (AMs) play important role in preservation of lungs from infectious diseases development through a series of activities including phagocytosis. The present study examined the effects of aqueous extract of Aframomum danielli rhizomes on the AMs functions.

      Methods: Extract was investigated for microbe’s ingestion, bacteria killing and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in alveolar macrophages. Extract was investigated for repository, suppressive and curative treatments of S. aureus infection in mice. 

      Results: The extract of Aframomum danielli augmented (approximately threefold) the ingestion of Candida albicans by phagocytes. Furthermore, extract concentration dependently increased the killing ability of S. aureus of mice AMs. Moreover, the extract significantly stimulated the production of O2, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) by mice
      AMs. In addition, extract make mice to become more resistant to S. aureus infection. Finally, aqueous extract of A. danielli dose dependently increased reduced the bacteremia density in Dex-mice in suppressive, curative and repository treatments.

      Conclusion: Together the results showed that aqueous extract of A. dalnielli promotes the phagocytosis of microbes by alveolar macrophages and thereby may contribute
      to respiratory tract prevention from bacterial colonization.

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