Alternative & Integrative Medicine

ISSN: 2327-5162

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 9, Issue 3 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Challenges of Inappropriate Antibiotic Prescription in Dentistry and Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance in Developing Countries - Medicinal Plants to the Rescue

    Onoriode Oyiborhoro

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.293

    Studies have revealed that Dentists across the globe are widely involved in the inappropriate prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics, a practice that is believed to
    contribute significantly to the current problem of antimicrobial resistance. The factors responsible for the inappropriate prescription of antibiotics by Dentists vary from
    country to country but the aim of such prescriptions appears to be universal-prevention of possible post-operative infections and complications. In developing countries,
    Dentists face some unique challenges that make such inappropriate prescription of antibiotics almost inevitable. Some of such challenges include an epileptic power
    supply and lack of potable water, both of which facilitate the poor infection control practices prevalent in these countries. The invasive nature of minor procedures such as
    simple tooth extractions and frequent use of poorly sterilized metal-based reusable equipment contribute to an increased risk of transmission of infections in dental
    practice. In the search for alternative antimicrobial drugs, medicinal plants have been observed to be potential sources of safer and cheaper agents, when compared to
    synthetic antibiotics. Interestingly, extracts from medicinal plants have long been applied for the treatment of oral infections and maintenance of oral health in many parts
    of the world, including developing countries, where they are widely distributed. Surprisingly, a very limited number of these extracts, if any, have found their way into the
    clinics as refined agents such as tablets, for the prophylactic control of post-operative infections in dentistry, especially in developing countries. This is largely due to lack
    of confidence on the part of Dentists and poor co-ordination among research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and regulatory bodies in these nations. This review
    therefore seeks to reawaken the interest of all parties concerned, on the need to harness the potentials of medicinal plants in solving the problem of inappropriate
    antibiotics prescription in dentistry.

    Review Pages: 1 - 4

    Role of Unani Medicine in the Management of Tinnitus (Taneen)

    Abdul Nasir and Gazala Fatma

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.291

    The word tinnitus is derived from a latin word ‘tinnire’ which means a “jingle” or “to ring, defined as ringing of sound or noise in the ear by the patient without any external
    stimulation. This sound may be described by the patient as roaring, hissing, swishing, rustling or clicking type of noise. Unani physicians have defined the tinnitus in the
    name of Taneen wa Dawi and explained it is a ringing sound in the ear, or a condition in which patient hears non-existing voices. According to Allama Nafees ‘Taneen’
    means ‘tasht ki khakhnahat’ and taneen is called where patient hears non-existing voices. This sound may appear continuously or time to time. According to unani
    physicians diversion of ghaleez akhlat wa riyah (waste material) from the brain towards ear is a causative factors for tinnitus. Malnutrition, dryness, starvation and general
    weakness also predispose the tinnitus. Unani scholars have described the symptoms like heaviness in ear and head with tinnitus (Taneen), sound in the ear is increased
    in empty stomach or starvation, the symptoms of general weakness may appear. Unani system of medicine possesses quality approach in the management of tinnitus
    with use of Ilaj-bil-Dawa (pharmacotherapy), Ilaj-bil-Ghiza (dietotherapy), Ilaj-bil-Tadabeer (regimental therapy) and Ilaj-bil-Yad (manual therapy/surgery). Tinnitus is one
    of the most complicated conditions to treat through conventional method, so, the material regarding the concept and management of tinnitus from unani system of
    medicine may be beneficial or helpful through this review paper.

    Research Pages: 1 - 3

    Efficacy of Fibromyalgia Treatment Using Bach Flower Therapy: Preliminary Results

    Jozelio Freire de Carvalho, Cassia Jesus Rocha, Natasha Lima Bastos de Queiroz and Jordan Campos

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.292

    Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent disease and often presents symptoms of anxiety and depression. Bach florals (BF) are widely used  to treat such manifestations. No studies on the use of BF in FM were found. 

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of BF (Rescue) in FM patients. 

    Patients and methods: 6 patients and 6 healthy controls were included. They were evaluated at pre-intervention and after 60 days of BF using. Demographic data, anxiety and depression were evaluated by Beck inventories; sleep quality by the Pittsburgh scale and symptoms of dysbiosis  by symptoms form. 

    Results: The median age was 60 years old (22-77) in patients and 41 (40-43) years old in controls. The disease duration was 3 years (4 months  -10 years old). Caucasian race was 33% in the patient group and 66% in the controls. There was a statistically significant reduction between the Beck Anxiety Questionnaire before and after 60 days [16 (6-42) vs. 10 (2-27), p=0.05), Beck Depression Questionnaire before and after 60 days [16 (8-52) vs. 10 (6-35), p=0.02) and dysbiosis questionnaire before and after 60 days [18 (10-27) vs. 15 .5 (7-27), p=0.03). Regarding the sleep form, no significant differences were observed before and after BF. 

    Conclusion: Treatment with Bach flower in patients with fibromyalgia seems promising, as it reduces tender points, symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as improvement of symptoms of dysbiosis.

    Research Pages: 1 - 7

    Stimulation of Phagocytosis in Alveolar Macrophages and Resistance against Infection in Mice by the Aqueous Extract of Rhizomes of Aframomum danielli, Schum (zingiberaceae)

    Oumar Mahamat, Tume Christopher, Guessom Oulianovie and Kamanyi Albert

    DOI: 10.37421/aim.2020.9.294

    Background: Alveolar Macrophages (AMs) play important role in preservation of lungs from infectious diseases development through a series of activities including phagocytosis. The present study examined the effects of aqueous extract of Aframomum danielli rhizomes on the AMs functions.

    Methods: Extract was investigated for microbe’s ingestion, bacteria killing and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in alveolar macrophages. Extract was investigated for repository, suppressive and curative treatments of S. aureus infection in mice. 

    Results: The extract of Aframomum danielli augmented (approximately threefold) the ingestion of Candida albicans by phagocytes. Furthermore, extract concentration dependently increased the killing ability of S. aureus of mice AMs. Moreover, the extract significantly stimulated the production of O2, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) by mice
    AMs. In addition, extract make mice to become more resistant to S. aureus infection. Finally, aqueous extract of A. danielli dose dependently increased reduced the bacteremia density in Dex-mice in suppressive, curative and repository treatments.

    Conclusion: Together the results showed that aqueous extract of A. dalnielli promotes the phagocytosis of microbes by alveolar macrophages and thereby may contribute
    to respiratory tract prevention from bacterial colonization.

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