Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering

ISSN: 2169-0022

Open Access

Theoretical and Experimental Proof of Alkali-Metal Atom as Polar Atom


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In addition to polar molecules, there is no polar atom in the natural world, which is a deep-rooted traditional concept that has lasted for more than a century. However, our research showed that alkali-metal atoms form an exception. In theory, we proved that alkali atom may be polar atom doesn't conflict with quantum mechanics, which is a great breakthrough in measurement theory of quantum mechanics. Variation of the capacitance with temperature and density offers a means of separating polar and nonpolar atom, but no one has done these experiments so far. If alkali atom is nonpolar atom, its capacitance should be independent of temperature and density, because atomic nucleus located at the center of the electron cloud. Our experiments showed that Na, K, Rb and Cs atoms are polar atoms, because their capacitance is not only related to temperature, but also to density. Unlike alkali atoms, the capacitance of Hg gas is independent of temperature and density, so mercury is nonpolar atom. Therefore atoms can be divided into two categories: polar and nonpolar atom, this discovery will lead to an exciting revolution in Bose- Einstein condensation (BEC) research and condensed matter physics. BEC experiments have been carried out for decades, but the number of condensed atoms is still very small (<107) because scientists has never applied an electric field. Our innovation lies in the application of an electric field, we don't need magnetic field and lasers. When V=390 volts, condensates contained up to 2.51 × 1017 sodium atoms; when V=350 volts, condensates contained up to 1.93 × 1017 cesium atoms, large-scale BEC at T=343 K or 353 K has been observed. Now scientists generally assume that polar molecules may be used as candidate materials for quantum computers. In the future, polar atoms will replace polar molecules as candidate materials for quantum computers, because of its very small moment of inertia.


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