Vitamins & Minerals

ISSN: 2376-1318

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    The Assessment of Some Heavy Metals in the Commonly Consumed Wheat Bread

    Muhammed Saeed Rasheed

    This study was aimed at investigating the content of heavy metals in the different types of wheat bread. A total of 50 various bread categories including Lawasha, Mashini, Samoon, Hawrami and Tiry supplied in 50 bakery stores in Sulaimanyah City were analyzed for some heavy metals by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry instrument (ICP-MS). The mean concentration of the Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, As and Co in all the studied bread samples were ranged in (µg kg-1) as follows: 0-173.7 for Cr, 117.2-313.3 for Ni, 0-16.1 for Cd, 0.89-357.3 for Pb, 5.60-33.9 for As and 3.06-17.8 for Co. the heist concentration was found for Ni followed by Pb, Cr, As, Cd and Co. The mean daily intake of Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, As and Co with the consumed bread was 0, 0.5, 4.2, 6.4, 7.4, and 1.6 μg kg-1, respectively. The total daily intake of the studied heavy metals in 300 g bread was determined as follows: Lawasha 1.38, Mashini 1.72, Samoon 1.21, Hawrami 0.88 and Tiry 1.21 μg d-1 bw. The high contents of daily intake of Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, As, and Co by the bread affect people health effects. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that bread types which consumed by Sulaimanyah city population are safe from heavy metals. Total daily intake is lower than the permissible limit which recommended by FAO/WHO. While heavy metals reduce in bread during wheat cultivation is required to and also during the bread-making process. Keyword.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    The Most Effective Dose of Riboflavin Supplementation to Reduce EGR-AC Levels in Different Age/Gender and Duration Subgroups: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Mohammad Gholizadeh, and Ahmad Saedisomeolia

    It has been reported that the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGR-AC) corresponds to the antioxidant activity of riboflavin. It is found that riboflavin supplements decrease EGR-AC. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the most effective doses of riboflavin supplementation to reduce EGR-AC levels in different age, gender and duration subgroups. A systematic search of relevant articles was performed on the PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholars from inception to April of 2019. The clinical trials which administered riboflavin as an intervention were included. The mean and standard deviation of the main outcome (EGR-AC level) in intervention and placebo groups were considered for analysis. A total of 44 studies were identified and 10 studies were eligible. In total 362 subjects were enrolled into this study. The data of the EGR-AC level (WMD: - 0.38; 99.9% CI, -0.39 to -0.38; P<0.001) were compared between intervention and placebo groups. It was found that the most effective supplementation dosages of riboflavin to reduce the EGRAC level were 2 mg, 4 mg, and 5 mg daily. Higher or lower doses only had a minor or no effect on EGR-AC level. Moreover, the results showed that the potential doses (2-5 mg of riboflavin supplementation daily) have more effect on reducing the EGR-AC level in female than males. In Conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that 2-5 mg/daily of riboflavin supplementation (for 48,6,8 and 12 weeks, respectively) is the most effective dose to reduce the EGR-AC levels in two subgroups of male/female subjects.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Comparative Insight into the Reducing Effect of Vitamin C on Iron Content in the Cabbage Irrigated with Fresh and Sewage Water

    Kamal Asghar

    This research work is based on the comparative study of vitamin C and Fe-content present in cabbage grown with different water regimes used for irrigation purposes as well as reducing effect of vitamin C on Fe-content because of the increasing consumption of cabbage across the world. The concentration of vitamin C was estimated by two methods; iodimetry and indophenol method while 1, 10-Orthophenonthrolein (OPT) and potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) methods were applied for total iron and ferric ion estimation, respectively. The experimental results unambiguously demonstrate that the concentration of vitamin C was observed in higher concentration in the cabbage grown in sewage water than in cabbage grown in freshwater. However, the amount of the iron observed was comparatively higher in the cabbage grown in freshwater (CK). The estimated amount of Fe+2 in the cabbage sample was observed that is; the vitamin C plays an important role in the reduction of ferric into ferrous in the cabbage.

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