Virology: Current Research

ISSN: 2736-657X

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 5, Issue 1 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 6

    Direct ACE2- Spike RBD Binding Disruption With Small Molecules: A Strategy For COVID-19 Treatment

    Bartlomiej P. Przychodzen*, Sandra P. Smieszek, Christos M. Polymeropoulos, Vasilios M. Polymeropoulos and Mihael H. Polymeropoulos

    ACE2 is a key receptor for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. Binding of SARS-Cov-2 to ACE2 involves the viral Spike protein. The molecular interaction between ACE2 and Spike has been resolved. Interfering with this interaction might be used in treating patients with COVID-19. Inhibition of this interaction can be attained via multiple routes: here we focus on identifying small molecules that would prevent the interaction. Specifically we focus on small molecules and peptides that have the capacity to effectively bind the ACE2: RBD contact domain to prevent and reduce SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell. We aim to identify molecules that prevent the docking of viral spike protein (mediated by RBD) onto cells expressing ACE2, without inhibiting the activity of ACE2. We utilize the most recent ACE2-RBD crystallography resolved model (PDB-ID: 6LZG). Based on animal susceptibility data we narrowed down our interest to the location of amino acid 34 (Histidine) located on ACE2. We performed an in silico screen of a chemical library of compounds with several thousand small molecules including FDA approved compounds. All compounds were tested for binding to the proximal binding site located close to histidine 34 on ACE2. We report a list of four potential small molecules that potentially have the capacity to bind target residue: AY-NH2, a selective PAR4 receptor agonist peptide (CAS number: 352017-71-1), NAD+ (CAS number: 53- 84-9), Reproterol, a short-acting β2 adrenoreceptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma (CAS number: 54063-54-6), and Thymopentin, a synthetic immune- stimulant which enhances production of thymic T cells (CAS number: 69558-55-0). The focus is on a High Throughput Screen Assay (HTSA), or in silico screen, delineating small molecules that are selectively binding/masking the crucial interface residue on ACE2 at His34. Consequently, inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 binding to host ACE2 and viral entry is a potent strategy to reduce cellular entry of the virus. We suggest that this anti-viral nature of this interaction is a viable strategy for COVID19 whereas the small molecules including peptides warrant further in vitro screens.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    In silico Docking for Inhibition Neuropilin-1 (Sars-Cov-2 Receptor) by Some Natural Compound and Approved Drugs

    Mohamed Gomaa Seadawy*, Mohamed Shamel Eldesoky, Aya Ahmed and Abdel Rahman Nabwi Zekri

    Background: Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a multifunctional transmembrane receptor for ligands that affect developmental axonal growth and angiogenesis. Beside its role in cancer, NRP-1 is a reported entrance for several viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

    Methods: We made Insilco docking between the spike protein and Neuropilin-1 using Cluspro 2.0 software. Therefore, Neuropilin-1 becomes host factor for SARSCoV- 2 infection. Then by using molecular docking, we test nine compounds against Neuropilin-1 for its inhibition.

    Results and Conclusion: Our study revealed that some drugs and natural compounds success in inhibition of binding between the virus and its new receptor with Insilco docking data.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

    Establishing PCR Testing in Nepal for COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities

    Ram Bahadur Khadka

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) invented by Kary Mullis (1983), has become the centrepiece of molecular detection of various infectious diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many developing countries like Nepal faces various challenges and grab many future opportunities during and after establishment of molecular PCR laboratories throughout the country. This viewpoint describes the involvement of laboratory employees, development and adoption of new protocols or framework, deliberate partnership with national and international community is very efficient for the establishment of PCR laboratories. Beside this, continued alliance and nation leadership is crucial to generate a unified and sustainable PCR laboratory network in the country like Nepal. In future the established PCR laboratories can be utilized for the diagnosis of others pandemic diseases and can be used for multipurpose like in verification of infectious diseases; Oncology; Blood test; Genetic testing.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Exploring Indian Spices as Promising Antimicrobial Agents

    Kirti Garg and Astha Giri

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogens, and food contamination caused by microorganisms, are compromising human health. The efficacies of antimicrobial agents and antibiotics, which are currently being used, have been weakened by microbial resistance, while antibiotic toxicity is a known challenge. This arises the need of natural antimicrobial agents. Spices and herbs have been long used for centuries, to enhance flavour and aroma of food, and for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In this study, antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of five Indian spices i.e., Black pepper, Carom, Cinnamon, Clove and Cumin, was explored against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, by agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. For agar dilution, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, with concentrations ranging from 0.5 mg/ml-8 mg/ml, were used. Whereas for disc diffusion method, varying concentrations of the ethanolic extracts (50%, 75% and 100%) were used. The results indicated an inhibitory effect on the growth of the microbes when using higher concentration of the extract. Clove’s bud showed the best antimicrobial effect amongst all the tested spices, having Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) less than 0.5 mg/ml for aqueous extract and 6 mg/ml for ethanolic extract against both bacteria. Amongst the tested spice extracts, Clove also had the biggest zone of inhibition i.e., 21 mm, against E. coli when using 50% ethanolic extract, while Black pepper had a zone of inhibition of 20 mm against S. aureus when using 100% ethanolic extract. It was also noted that the spice extracts, in general, were more effective against S. aureus than E. coli. Therefore, spices and particularly Clove and Black pepper extracts have great potential to be further tested and developed as novel safe antimicrobial agents

    Volume 5, Issue 2 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Molecular Docking Study of Novel COVID-19 Protease with Low-Risk Terpenoids Compounds of Plants

      Neda Shaghaghi

      Background: Due to the reported high ability of virulence of COVID-19 in recent months, several studies have been conducted to discover and introduce COVID-19 antiviral drugs. The results of numerous studies have shown that protease inhibitors and compounds, which make up the major part of plant derivatives, especially terpenoids, can therefore be very effective in controlling virus-induced infection. The aim of this research is the bioinformatical study of COVID-19 inhibition by terpenoids of plant origin.

      Materials and methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. In the present study, the structure of Terpene compounds were received from the databases such as PubChem and COVID-19 proteases were received Protein Data Bank (PDB). After that, molecular docking was performed by MVD (molegro virtual docker) software.

       Results: The results are identified to have inhibitory activities against novel COVID-19 protease. Of these compounds, Ginkgolide A has a stronger bond and high affinity with protease. The amount of connecting energy from high to less in order Ginkgolide A> DiThymoquinone>Noscapine>Salvinorin A>Forscolin>Bilobalide>Citral>Beta Selinene>Menthol. All of these compounds were linked to the intermediate flap that the software had predicted, and all of them were binded to 8 residues, and a total of 19 residues were binded.

      Conclusion: Finally, with due attention to the high effectiveness function of terpenoids, we can conclude that these compounds may be considered as effective COVID-19 antiprotease drugs. Also, due to the formation of blood clots in coronavirus infection, a number of these compounds, in addition to antiviral activity, have an effect on inhibiting coagulation.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Investigation of Cepharanthine Binding with Viral Proteins Reveal its Potential Targets against Coronavirus

      Donghui Huo, Wenlin An, Huan Xu, Aixia Yan and Yigang Tong

      The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is becoming a worldwide problem. We previously reported that cepharanthine (CEP) demonstrated strong anti-coronavirus effects, however, the mechanism underlying CEP’s anti-coronavirus effects remains unknown. We herein performed Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) to investigate the biological influence of CEP on different proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, molecular docking study was used to screen the potential binding sites of CEP on the virus. The binding of CEP to the nsp13 helicase with a Kd of 3.806*10-6 M shows that helicase is a relatively strong possible target of CEP. Besides, CEP could bind to the viral main proteinase (3CLpro) that contributes to the intervention of polypeptide cleavage. We also compared the potential binding pockets and binding affinity on viral spike proteins (S1 and S2 subunits) at both open and closed states. Our study revealed that CEP exerts its anti-coronavirus effects at viral genomic RNA replication, transcription, translation and viral invasion levels, providing a theoretical basis for the development of CEP as a promising anti-coronavirus drug.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      WHO Renews Backing for Astrazeneca COVID

      George Sourvinos

      The World Health Organization gave sturdy backing to the AstraZeneca COVID-19 jab on Friday, urging countries to take care of the roll-out once reviewing reports of blood clots. Many European countries resumed AstraZeneca vaccinations on Friday once the European Medical Agency (EMA) likewise gave their inexperienced lightweight. "We perceive that individuals could have had considerations regarding the security of the Oxford-AstraZeneca immunogen. The question with any pharmaceutical or immunogen is whether or not the chance of taking it's bigger or but the chance of the malady it's meant to stop or treat. There's no question: COVID-19 could be a deadly malady and therefore the Oxford-AstraZeneca immunogen will forestall it. The obtainable information don't recommend any overall increase in natural action conditions following administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 immunogen. We tend to urge countries to continue victimization this necessary immunogen. 'Tremendous potential' The WHO's world consultatory Committee on immunogen Safety (GACVS) met nearly associated It reviewed obtainable info and information on thromboembolic events (blood clots) and thrombopenia (low platelets) once vaccination with an AstraZeneca COVID-19 shot.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Potential Docking Affinity of Three Approved Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 Treatment

      Venkata Sambasiva Rao Rachakulla and Hemanjali Devi Rachakulla

      Objectives: As the COVID-19 is rapidly spreading entire world and even though vaccines are distributing on emergency basis. There are enormous delays in supply chain due to huge gap between demand and production and also time factor for different phases of vaccination in the entire world. There is urgent need of alternate effective drug candidates from among the drugs already approved by FDA.

      Methods: We have studied the virtual interaction of crystal data structures of protein downloaded from protein data bank (PDB ID 7BRP) docked with corticosteroid drug candidates approved by FDA for other medical purposes which have less side effects. The results are analyzed in contrast some drugs candidates currently using for the treatment of COVID-19.

      Results: The binding energies in kilocalories/mole obtained from the docking of 7BRP protease with ligands under investigation Betamethasone Phosphate (-6.9), Fluticasone (-6.1) and Dexamethasone (-5.9) and also with currently using drug candidates Remdesivir (-6.5), Lopinavir (-6.0), Baceprivir (-5.7), Rabavirin (-6), Ritinovir (-5.3), Hydroxyquinoline (-5.0), Chloroquine (-4.7), Oseltamivir (-4.6), Favipiravir (-3.9).

      Discussion: The docking results suggest a higher binding affinity of the drug molecules under investigation against SARS-CoV-2 in contrast with other drug candidates currently being used for the treatment of COVID-19. We have analyzed bond interactions of protein-ligand from images in 10 modes of investigated drugs in contrast with Remdesivir and discussed the advantages of inhalation methods of drug fluticasone.

      Conclusion: From this study, it can be suggested that these carticosteroid drugs are promising candidates for antiviral treatment with high potential to fight against SARS-CoV-2 strain which needs further clinical studies. Especially, fluticasone an inhaler drug promising candidate which targets the infected lungs by COVID-1

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

      COVID-19 Pandemic and Bangladesh: A Review

      Mohammed Kamruzzaman

      Bangladesh, a developing country in the world. Like the other countries in the world it also hit by COVID-19 pandemic. This review article particularly analyzed some issues (e.g. Government measures, Economy, Mental health, Social issues and Vaccine) of Bangladesh related to COVID-19. Based on the published articles, news from print and electronic media, websites of different government and non-government organizations, available public data and some personal discussions are used to write this review paper. As the pandemic still on at the time of data been collected and no one knows when it’s going to stop, there can be addition of this paper in the future with updated data. It was a big challenge for Bangladesh to cope-up with the situation as a lower-middle-income economy with one of the world's densest populations. As winter is knocking the door here in Bangladesh, experts are assuming that the second wave will start very soon and the damage can be worst then the first wave. This paper may help the concerns to re-think what was there mistakes and how more organized way they can control the second wave and minimize the damage.

      Volume 5, Issue 3 (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Early and Late Complications after Abdominal Surgery in Patients with COVID-19 in Armenia

        Karine Aloyan* Hayk Harutyunyan and Arayik Voskanyan

        Importance: A little known on early and late outcomes of abdominal surgery in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To describe early and late complications after abdominal surgery in patients with COVID-19. Design, setting, and participants: A prospective cohort study is conducted at Astghik Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia, from February 1 until October 31, 2020. The study population comprised 259 patients with COVID-19 and 245 patients without COVID-19 matched by operation type, age, sex, and comorbidities, underwent abdominal surgery. Differences between early (1-30 postoperative days) and late (31-60 postoperative days) complications in both groups were analyzed. Exposures: Patients with COVID-19 had been diagnosed based on both clinical and laboratory (RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in nasopharyngeal swabs) criteria at least 14 days before abdominal surgery. Patients without COVID-19 were not screened at time of surgery, but were free from any respiratory symptoms and had negative RT-PCR results during preoperative 14 days. Main outcomes and measures: The primary endpoints were early and late postoperative complications. Secondary endpoints were to determine 60-day surgical mortality and the impact of comorbidities as additional risk factor of postoperative complications in patients with COVID-19. Results: A total of 29 patients with COVID-19 developed early or late postoperative complications. Only 4 patients without COVID-19 with early postoperative complications were identified. The median age of patients with COVID-19 who had early and late postoperative complications were 54.5 (range: 45-64) and 69.5 (range: 65-74), correspondingly. At least one comorbidity was present in 25 (86.2%) of 29 patients with COVID-19 who developed early or late postoperative complications. A 60-day surgical mortality was 14.3%. Conclusion and Relevance: COVID-19 is associated with high risk for postoperative complications of abdominal surgery even if surgical procedures are performed after 14 days of COVID-19 onset. Only patients aged 45 to 74 years developed complications in our study. Presence of at least one comorbidity was an additional risk factor of postoperative complications. Larger and better designed studies are needed to find out indicators for early detection of postoperative complications in patients with COVID-19, especially in people older than 45 years and in those with comorbidities.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        COVID-19: A Global Pandemic

        Joydeb Majumder

        While Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) isn't the primary pandemic of the 21st century, it has produced phenomenal worldwide concern and reactions. COVID-19, brought about by serious intense respiratory disorder Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is thought to have risen up out of a zoonotic source and spread quickly in people through respiratory drops and contact. There is some worry for airborne transmission, yet the part of this transmission course outside the potential aerosolizing methodology in medical services settings is hazy. With an expected regenerative number, R nothing (R0), of somewhere in the range of 1.4 and 5.6, SARS-CoV-2 quickly spread around the world. Since the primary cases revealed in December 2019, there have been more than 106 million affirmed cases and 2.3 million passing’s detailed around the world (starting at 9 February 2021).

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Immunoglobulin Reactions on Covid-19

        Tanu Singhal

        While Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) isn't the primary pandemic of the 21st century, it has produced phenomenal worldwide concern and reactions. COVID-19, brought about by serious intense respiratory disorder Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is thought to have risen up out of a zoonotic source and spread quickly in people through respiratory drops and contact. There is some worry for airborne transmission, yet the part of this transmission course outside the potential aerosolizing methodology in medical services settings is hazy. With an expected regenerative number, R nothing (R0), of somewhere in the range of 1.4 and 5.6, SARS-CoV-2 quickly spread around the world. Since the primary cases revealed in December 2019, there have been more than 106 million affirmed cases and 2.3 million passing’s detailed around the world (starting at 9 February 2021).

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        SARS CoV-2 Viral Mutations

        Neda Shaghaghi

        The concern rose even more last week when Anthony Fauci, MD, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), broached the idea during an online chat. A mutation that speeds up COVID19's spread might explain why the virus known as SARS-CoV-2 has so rapidly moved through North America and Europe, where the G614 mutated version is predominant [1]. The original version of the virus, D614, was most widely seen in China and other parts of Asia.

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        COVID-19 pathophysiology

        Koichi Yuki

        It was soon exposed that a novel coronavirus was responsible. The novel coronavirus was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV) due to its high homology (~80%) to SARS-CoV, which caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high mortality during 2002–2003 [1]. The disease produced by this virus was called Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and a pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO).

        Volume 5, Issue 4 (2021)

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Footprints of Past Pandemics in the Human Genome

          N Chandra Wickramasinghe*, Edward J. Steele, Daryl H. Wallis, Milton Wainwright, Gensuke Tokoro, Herbert Rebhan, Reginald M Gorczynski and Robert Temple

          Viral pandemics over centuries and millennia have left indelible signatures on our genomes. Deciphering these signatures could give us profoundly important information on our evolutionary history that appears to have been directed by the arrival of new viruses from the deep cosmos. A recent study that shows a residual signature of SARS-CoV-2 (in the form of multiple generational expression of host-specific SARS-CoV targeting viral interacting proteins known as VIPs) in the genomes of a South Asian population suggests that a major COVID-19 type infectious episode may have occurred about 25,000 years ago. The need to monitor the stratosphere for the arrival of new pathogenic viruses, or even the return of old viruses such as Small Pox, is stressed.

          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

          Illnesses effect on Arms to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19

          Neda Shaghaghi*

          May have pain in the arm where we got the shot and strength run a fever and knowledge body aches, headaches and weariness for a day or two. Anxieties, swollen lymph nodes can also occur. For the vaccines that use two doses, if have not had COVID-19, the chance of having obvious side effects is higher after the second shot. Those who have had COVID-19 may experience stronger side effects after the first dose. Feeling side effects does not mean that having COVID-19, but signs that your immune system is answering to the vaccine. These side effects are significantly less dangerous to health than having COVID-19.

          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 6

          Role of MicroRNAs in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

          Shweta Tripathi* and Pratyusha Bose

          MicroRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are important regulators of various developmental and survival processes of the eukaryotic organisms. They regulate the expression of genes post-transcriptionally. Upregulation or downregulation of miRNA expression leads to alteration of many signalling and developmental processes which can help or harm the organism. Plants are no exception to that. In the last 30 years many miRNAs have been found to be deregulated under various abiotic and biotic stresses in plants and also to be closely associated in tolerance of the same. This review focuses on the involvement of miRNAs in stress tolerance in plants that have been identified so far.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

          The Effect of COVID-19 on Spermatogenesis

          Mostafa Kamel Abdel Rahman*, Ahmed Abdel Moniem, Mohammed Zarzour, Adel Kurkar and Hosny Behnsawy

          Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) viral pandemic has become a significant public health emergency worldwide, evolving rapidly. Although the lungs are the main organ targeted in this disorder, other vital organs may be involved. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a major component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is the principal host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (RAAS). The ACE2 is important in testicular male regulation of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A recent report published in JAMA network revealed that in an analysis 38 semen samples from COVID‐19 patients pcr positive. Since SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting the testis via ACE2 and adversely affecting the male reproductive system. From this point the purpose of this study is how covid-19 affect spermatogenesis.

          Methods: How covid-19 affect spermatogenesis.

          Design and setting of the study: A 100 patients had been enrolled in the study by a criteria suggesting good semen analysis. two sets of semen analysis done, the first after 72days of first positive swab for covid-19 to show changes in semen analysis from normal values in the cycle of spermatogenesis during infection, the other sample after 72 days from the first sample to show if the changes regress to normal and to compare it with the first sample.

          Results: A total number 100 patients first sample show 2% of patients oligospermia, 36% of patients teratospermia. The second sample show 4% of patients teratospermia by comparing the two samples there is a significant increase in sperm concentration with mean concentration in the first sample 96.49 m/ml, mean concentration in the second sample 104.67 m/ml, a significant increase in motility (A+B) with mean percentage of 44% in the first sample and 46% in the second sample, a highly significant increase in the normal forms of sperms with mean percentage of 23.4% in the first sample and 30.55% in the second sample.

          Conclusions: Covid-19 affect spermatogenesis in the form of reversible teratospermia, reversable decrease sperm count but within normal level, reversable decrease in the sperm motility but also within normal level.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Due to COVID-19 Infection Impact on Secondary Respiratory Distress Syndrome

          Tanu Singhal*

          SARS-CoV-2 infection and its clinical manifestation as Coronavirus Disease 2019 that is COVID-19 present an unmatched worldwide public health problem. The disease presents an exclusive pathophysiology and clinical sequence currently existing therapeutic approaches. COVID-19 patients progressing or presenting into frank Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with typical decreased pulmonary compliance, represents another clinical enigma to many clinicians, since routine therapeutic interventions for ARDS are still a subject of debate.

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