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Virology: Current Research

ISSN: 2736-657X

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 6, Issue 1 (2022)

    Volume 6, Issue 2 (2022)

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      Immune Response to Human Rhinovirus C in Highly Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells

      Yu Jin* and Xin-hui Yuan

      DOI: 10.37421/2736-657X.2022.6.146

      Rhinovirus C (HRV-C) cannot be propagated in immortalized cells, and there is relatively little information on host cell responses to HRV-C infection. Human Bronchial Epithelial (HBE) cells are cultured at the Air-liquid Interface (ALI), which can form tight junctions, produce mucin, and differentiate to form cilia, representing an almost native cell system study HRV-C infections in vitro. In the present study, four strains of HRV-C from infectious clones and clinical specimens were infected with HBE-ALI cells. We found that they induced very similar immune responses, showing that the comparison basis was homogeneous.

      Volume 5, Issue 1 (2021)

        Research Pages: 1 - 6

        Direct ACE2- Spike RBD Binding Disruption With Small Molecules: A Strategy For COVID-19 Treatment

        Bartlomiej P. Przychodzen*, Sandra P. Smieszek, Christos M. Polymeropoulos, Vasilios M. Polymeropoulos and Mihael H. Polymeropoulos

        ACE2 is a key receptor for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. Binding of SARS-Cov-2 to ACE2 involves the viral Spike protein. The molecular interaction between ACE2 and Spike has been resolved. Interfering with this interaction might be used in treating patients with COVID-19. Inhibition of this interaction can be attained via multiple routes: here we focus on identifying small molecules that would prevent the interaction. Specifically we focus on small molecules and peptides that have the capacity to effectively bind the ACE2: RBD contact domain to prevent and reduce SARS-CoV-2 entry into the cell. We aim to identify molecules that prevent the docking of viral spike protein (mediated by RBD) onto cells expressing ACE2, without inhibiting the activity of ACE2. We utilize the most recent ACE2-RBD crystallography resolved model (PDB-ID: 6LZG). Based on animal susceptibility data we narrowed down our interest to the location of amino acid 34 (Histidine) located on ACE2. We performed an in silico screen of a chemical library of compounds with several thousand small molecules including FDA approved compounds. All compounds were tested for binding to the proximal binding site located close to histidine 34 on ACE2. We report a list of four potential small molecules that potentially have the capacity to bind target residue: AY-NH2, a selective PAR4 receptor agonist peptide (CAS number: 352017-71-1), NAD+ (CAS number: 53- 84-9), Reproterol, a short-acting β2 adrenoreceptor agonist used in the treatment of asthma (CAS number: 54063-54-6), and Thymopentin, a synthetic immune- stimulant which enhances production of thymic T cells (CAS number: 69558-55-0). The focus is on a High Throughput Screen Assay (HTSA), or in silico screen, delineating small molecules that are selectively binding/masking the crucial interface residue on ACE2 at His34. Consequently, inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 binding to host ACE2 and viral entry is a potent strategy to reduce cellular entry of the virus. We suggest that this anti-viral nature of this interaction is a viable strategy for COVID19 whereas the small molecules including peptides warrant further in vitro screens.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        In silico Docking for Inhibition Neuropilin-1 (Sars-Cov-2 Receptor) by Some Natural Compound and Approved Drugs

        Mohamed Gomaa Seadawy*, Mohamed Shamel Eldesoky, Aya Ahmed and Abdel Rahman Nabwi Zekri

        Background: Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a multifunctional transmembrane receptor for ligands that affect developmental axonal growth and angiogenesis. Beside its role in cancer, NRP-1 is a reported entrance for several viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

        Methods: We made Insilco docking between the spike protein and Neuropilin-1 using Cluspro 2.0 software. Therefore, Neuropilin-1 becomes host factor for SARSCoV- 2 infection. Then by using molecular docking, we test nine compounds against Neuropilin-1 for its inhibition.

        Results and Conclusion: Our study revealed that some drugs and natural compounds success in inhibition of binding between the virus and its new receptor with Insilco docking data.

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

        Establishing PCR Testing in Nepal for COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities

        Ram Bahadur Khadka

        Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) invented by Kary Mullis (1983), has become the centrepiece of molecular detection of various infectious diseases including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Many developing countries like Nepal faces various challenges and grab many future opportunities during and after establishment of molecular PCR laboratories throughout the country. This viewpoint describes the involvement of laboratory employees, development and adoption of new protocols or framework, deliberate partnership with national and international community is very efficient for the establishment of PCR laboratories. Beside this, continued alliance and nation leadership is crucial to generate a unified and sustainable PCR laboratory network in the country like Nepal. In future the established PCR laboratories can be utilized for the diagnosis of others pandemic diseases and can be used for multipurpose like in verification of infectious diseases; Oncology; Blood test; Genetic testing.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Exploring Indian Spices as Promising Antimicrobial Agents

        Kirti Garg and Astha Giri

        Infectious diseases caused by pathogens, and food contamination caused by microorganisms, are compromising human health. The efficacies of antimicrobial agents and antibiotics, which are currently being used, have been weakened by microbial resistance, while antibiotic toxicity is a known challenge. This arises the need of natural antimicrobial agents. Spices and herbs have been long used for centuries, to enhance flavour and aroma of food, and for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. In this study, antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of five Indian spices i.e., Black pepper, Carom, Cinnamon, Clove and Cumin, was explored against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, by agar dilution method and disk diffusion method. For agar dilution, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, with concentrations ranging from 0.5 mg/ml-8 mg/ml, were used. Whereas for disc diffusion method, varying concentrations of the ethanolic extracts (50%, 75% and 100%) were used. The results indicated an inhibitory effect on the growth of the microbes when using higher concentration of the extract. Clove’s bud showed the best antimicrobial effect amongst all the tested spices, having Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) less than 0.5 mg/ml for aqueous extract and 6 mg/ml for ethanolic extract against both bacteria. Amongst the tested spice extracts, Clove also had the biggest zone of inhibition i.e., 21 mm, against E. coli when using 50% ethanolic extract, while Black pepper had a zone of inhibition of 20 mm against S. aureus when using 100% ethanolic extract. It was also noted that the spice extracts, in general, were more effective against S. aureus than E. coli. Therefore, spices and particularly Clove and Black pepper extracts have great potential to be further tested and developed as novel safe antimicrobial agents

        Volume 5, Issue 2 (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Molecular Docking Study of Novel COVID-19 Protease with Low-Risk Terpenoids Compounds of Plants

          Neda Shaghaghi

          Background: Due to the reported high ability of virulence of COVID-19 in recent months, several studies have been conducted to discover and introduce COVID-19 antiviral drugs. The results of numerous studies have shown that protease inhibitors and compounds, which make up the major part of plant derivatives, especially terpenoids, can therefore be very effective in controlling virus-induced infection. The aim of this research is the bioinformatical study of COVID-19 inhibition by terpenoids of plant origin.

          Materials and methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study. In the present study, the structure of Terpene compounds were received from the databases such as PubChem and COVID-19 proteases were received Protein Data Bank (PDB). After that, molecular docking was performed by MVD (molegro virtual docker) software.

           Results: The results are identified to have inhibitory activities against novel COVID-19 protease. Of these compounds, Ginkgolide A has a stronger bond and high affinity with protease. The amount of connecting energy from high to less in order Ginkgolide A> DiThymoquinone>Noscapine>Salvinorin A>Forscolin>Bilobalide>Citral>Beta Selinene>Menthol. All of these compounds were linked to the intermediate flap that the software had predicted, and all of them were binded to 8 residues, and a total of 19 residues were binded.

          Conclusion: Finally, with due attention to the high effectiveness function of terpenoids, we can conclude that these compounds may be considered as effective COVID-19 antiprotease drugs. Also, due to the formation of blood clots in coronavirus infection, a number of these compounds, in addition to antiviral activity, have an effect on inhibiting coagulation.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

          Investigation of Cepharanthine Binding with Viral Proteins Reveal its Potential Targets against Coronavirus

          Donghui Huo, Wenlin An, Huan Xu, Aixia Yan and Yigang Tong

          The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 is becoming a worldwide problem. We previously reported that cepharanthine (CEP) demonstrated strong anti-coronavirus effects, however, the mechanism underlying CEP’s anti-coronavirus effects remains unknown. We herein performed Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) to investigate the biological influence of CEP on different proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, molecular docking study was used to screen the potential binding sites of CEP on the virus. The binding of CEP to the nsp13 helicase with a Kd of 3.806*10-6 M shows that helicase is a relatively strong possible target of CEP. Besides, CEP could bind to the viral main proteinase (3CLpro) that contributes to the intervention of polypeptide cleavage. We also compared the potential binding pockets and binding affinity on viral spike proteins (S1 and S2 subunits) at both open and closed states. Our study revealed that CEP exerts its anti-coronavirus effects at viral genomic RNA replication, transcription, translation and viral invasion levels, providing a theoretical basis for the development of CEP as a promising anti-coronavirus drug.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          WHO Renews Backing for Astrazeneca COVID

          George Sourvinos

          The World Health Organization gave sturdy backing to the AstraZeneca COVID-19 jab on Friday, urging countries to take care of the roll-out once reviewing reports of blood clots. Many European countries resumed AstraZeneca vaccinations on Friday once the European Medical Agency (EMA) likewise gave their inexperienced lightweight. "We perceive that individuals could have had considerations regarding the security of the Oxford-AstraZeneca immunogen. The question with any pharmaceutical or immunogen is whether or not the chance of taking it's bigger or but the chance of the malady it's meant to stop or treat. There's no question: COVID-19 could be a deadly malady and therefore the Oxford-AstraZeneca immunogen will forestall it. The obtainable information don't recommend any overall increase in natural action conditions following administration of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 immunogen. We tend to urge countries to continue victimization this necessary immunogen. 'Tremendous potential' The WHO's world consultatory Committee on immunogen Safety (GACVS) met nearly associated It reviewed obtainable info and information on thromboembolic events (blood clots) and thrombopenia (low platelets) once vaccination with an AstraZeneca COVID-19 shot.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Potential Docking Affinity of Three Approved Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19 Treatment

          Venkata Sambasiva Rao Rachakulla and Hemanjali Devi Rachakulla

          Objectives: As the COVID-19 is rapidly spreading entire world and even though vaccines are distributing on emergency basis. There are enormous delays in supply chain due to huge gap between demand and production and also time factor for different phases of vaccination in the entire world. There is urgent need of alternate effective drug candidates from among the drugs already approved by FDA.

          Methods: We have studied the virtual interaction of crystal data structures of protein downloaded from protein data bank (PDB ID 7BRP) docked with corticosteroid drug candidates approved by FDA for other medical purposes which have less side effects. The results are analyzed in contrast some drugs candidates currently using for the treatment of COVID-19.

          Results: The binding energies in kilocalories/mole obtained from the docking of 7BRP protease with ligands under investigation Betamethasone Phosphate (-6.9), Fluticasone (-6.1) and Dexamethasone (-5.9) and also with currently using drug candidates Remdesivir (-6.5), Lopinavir (-6.0), Baceprivir (-5.7), Rabavirin (-6), Ritinovir (-5.3), Hydroxyquinoline (-5.0), Chloroquine (-4.7), Oseltamivir (-4.6), Favipiravir (-3.9).

          Discussion: The docking results suggest a higher binding affinity of the drug molecules under investigation against SARS-CoV-2 in contrast with other drug candidates currently being used for the treatment of COVID-19. We have analyzed bond interactions of protein-ligand from images in 10 modes of investigated drugs in contrast with Remdesivir and discussed the advantages of inhalation methods of drug fluticasone.

          Conclusion: From this study, it can be suggested that these carticosteroid drugs are promising candidates for antiviral treatment with high potential to fight against SARS-CoV-2 strain which needs further clinical studies. Especially, fluticasone an inhaler drug promising candidate which targets the infected lungs by COVID-1

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          COVID-19 Pandemic and Bangladesh: A Review

          Mohammed Kamruzzaman

          Bangladesh, a developing country in the world. Like the other countries in the world it also hit by COVID-19 pandemic. This review article particularly analyzed some issues (e.g. Government measures, Economy, Mental health, Social issues and Vaccine) of Bangladesh related to COVID-19. Based on the published articles, news from print and electronic media, websites of different government and non-government organizations, available public data and some personal discussions are used to write this review paper. As the pandemic still on at the time of data been collected and no one knows when it’s going to stop, there can be addition of this paper in the future with updated data. It was a big challenge for Bangladesh to cope-up with the situation as a lower-middle-income economy with one of the world's densest populations. As winter is knocking the door here in Bangladesh, experts are assuming that the second wave will start very soon and the damage can be worst then the first wave. This paper may help the concerns to re-think what was there mistakes and how more organized way they can control the second wave and minimize the damage.

          Volume 5, Issue 5 (2021)

            Short Communication Pages: 1 - 0

            A Note on Drug Discovery Approach for Malaria

            Nwankwo Nonyelum Stella* and Neda Shaghaghi

            DOI: 10.37421/2736-657X.2021.5.137

            It is important to develop new antimalarial drugs. Such drugs can target the blood stage of the disease to ease the symptoms, the liver stage to stop deteriorations, and the transmission stage to defend other humans. The tube for the blood stage is flattering healthy, but this should not be a source of satisfaction, as the current treatments set a high standard. Drug discovery labors directed close the liver and transmission phases are in their beginning but are getting increasing care as directing these stages could be contributory in eliminating malaria.

            Research Pages: 1 - 3

            Potential Effect of Pomegranate Peels Extract (Punica granatum) against SARS-CoV-2 Virus

            Ashraf Fawzy Mosa*, Mostafa Abo Elhoda Mohamed and Ahmed Mostafa

            DOI: 10.37421/2736-657X.2021.5.136

            Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus infection poses significant global health challenges and considered a global epidemic sweeping all countries of the world which prompted scientists around the world to search for a quick or safe treatment to preserve people's lives. So far, options for controlling and treating the disease have not been revealed. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pomegranate peels extract against the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the laboratory.

            Methods: In this research, two methods of extraction are carried out ethyl alcohol and distal water extract of pomegranate peels. Activity of the extract assessed using 50% Tissue Culture Infectious Doses (TCID50) method in vero E6 cells.

            Results: Pomegranate peels extract had the highest inhibitory effect against SARS- CoV-2 virus with IC50 values of 0.125 μl, 0.0625 μl and 0.031256 μl in vero E6 cells.

            Conclusion: Based on our results, the aqueous extract of pomegranate peels can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in vitro.

            Volume 5, Issue 3 (2021)

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Early and Late Complications after Abdominal Surgery in Patients with COVID-19 in Armenia

              Karine Aloyan* Hayk Harutyunyan and Arayik Voskanyan

              Importance: A little known on early and late outcomes of abdominal surgery in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To describe early and late complications after abdominal surgery in patients with COVID-19. Design, setting, and participants: A prospective cohort study is conducted at Astghik Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia, from February 1 until October 31, 2020. The study population comprised 259 patients with COVID-19 and 245 patients without COVID-19 matched by operation type, age, sex, and comorbidities, underwent abdominal surgery. Differences between early (1-30 postoperative days) and late (31-60 postoperative days) complications in both groups were analyzed. Exposures: Patients with COVID-19 had been diagnosed based on both clinical and laboratory (RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay in nasopharyngeal swabs) criteria at least 14 days before abdominal surgery. Patients without COVID-19 were not screened at time of surgery, but were free from any respiratory symptoms and had negative RT-PCR results during preoperative 14 days. Main outcomes and measures: The primary endpoints were early and late postoperative complications. Secondary endpoints were to determine 60-day surgical mortality and the impact of comorbidities as additional risk factor of postoperative complications in patients with COVID-19. Results: A total of 29 patients with COVID-19 developed early or late postoperative complications. Only 4 patients without COVID-19 with early postoperative complications were identified. The median age of patients with COVID-19 who had early and late postoperative complications were 54.5 (range: 45-64) and 69.5 (range: 65-74), correspondingly. At least one comorbidity was present in 25 (86.2%) of 29 patients with COVID-19 who developed early or late postoperative complications. A 60-day surgical mortality was 14.3%. Conclusion and Relevance: COVID-19 is associated with high risk for postoperative complications of abdominal surgery even if surgical procedures are performed after 14 days of COVID-19 onset. Only patients aged 45 to 74 years developed complications in our study. Presence of at least one comorbidity was an additional risk factor of postoperative complications. Larger and better designed studies are needed to find out indicators for early detection of postoperative complications in patients with COVID-19, especially in people older than 45 years and in those with comorbidities.

              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              COVID-19: A Global Pandemic

              Joydeb Majumder

              While Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) isn't the primary pandemic of the 21st century, it has produced phenomenal worldwide concern and reactions. COVID-19, brought about by serious intense respiratory disorder Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is thought to have risen up out of a zoonotic source and spread quickly in people through respiratory drops and contact. There is some worry for airborne transmission, yet the part of this transmission course outside the potential aerosolizing methodology in medical services settings is hazy. With an expected regenerative number, R nothing (R0), of somewhere in the range of 1.4 and 5.6, SARS-CoV-2 quickly spread around the world. Since the primary cases revealed in December 2019, there have been more than 106 million affirmed cases and 2.3 million passing’s detailed around the world (starting at 9 February 2021).

              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              Immunoglobulin Reactions on Covid-19

              Tanu Singhal

              While Covid sickness 2019 (COVID-19) isn't the primary pandemic of the 21st century, it has produced phenomenal worldwide concern and reactions. COVID-19, brought about by serious intense respiratory disorder Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is thought to have risen up out of a zoonotic source and spread quickly in people through respiratory drops and contact. There is some worry for airborne transmission, yet the part of this transmission course outside the potential aerosolizing methodology in medical services settings is hazy. With an expected regenerative number, R nothing (R0), of somewhere in the range of 1.4 and 5.6, SARS-CoV-2 quickly spread around the world. Since the primary cases revealed in December 2019, there have been more than 106 million affirmed cases and 2.3 million passing’s detailed around the world (starting at 9 February 2021).

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

              SARS CoV-2 Viral Mutations

              Neda Shaghaghi

              The concern rose even more last week when Anthony Fauci, MD, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), broached the idea during an online chat. A mutation that speeds up COVID19's spread might explain why the virus known as SARS-CoV-2 has so rapidly moved through North America and Europe, where the G614 mutated version is predominant [1]. The original version of the virus, D614, was most widely seen in China and other parts of Asia.

              Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

              COVID-19 pathophysiology

              Koichi Yuki

              It was soon exposed that a novel coronavirus was responsible. The novel coronavirus was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV) due to its high homology (~80%) to SARS-CoV, which caused acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and high mortality during 2002–2003 [1]. The disease produced by this virus was called Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and a pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO).

              Volume 5, Issue 4 (2021)

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

                Footprints of Past Pandemics in the Human Genome

                N Chandra Wickramasinghe*, Edward J. Steele, Daryl H. Wallis, Milton Wainwright, Gensuke Tokoro, Herbert Rebhan, Reginald M Gorczynski and Robert Temple

                Viral pandemics over centuries and millennia have left indelible signatures on our genomes. Deciphering these signatures could give us profoundly important information on our evolutionary history that appears to have been directed by the arrival of new viruses from the deep cosmos. A recent study that shows a residual signature of SARS-CoV-2 (in the form of multiple generational expression of host-specific SARS-CoV targeting viral interacting proteins known as VIPs) in the genomes of a South Asian population suggests that a major COVID-19 type infectious episode may have occurred about 25,000 years ago. The need to monitor the stratosphere for the arrival of new pathogenic viruses, or even the return of old viruses such as Small Pox, is stressed.

                Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

                Illnesses effect on Arms to Get Vaccinated against COVID-19

                Neda Shaghaghi*

                May have pain in the arm where we got the shot and strength run a fever and knowledge body aches, headaches and weariness for a day or two. Anxieties, swollen lymph nodes can also occur. For the vaccines that use two doses, if have not had COVID-19, the chance of having obvious side effects is higher after the second shot. Those who have had COVID-19 may experience stronger side effects after the first dose. Feeling side effects does not mean that having COVID-19, but signs that your immune system is answering to the vaccine. These side effects are significantly less dangerous to health than having COVID-19.

                Mini Review Pages: 1 - 6

                Role of MicroRNAs in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

                Shweta Tripathi* and Pratyusha Bose

                MicroRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are important regulators of various developmental and survival processes of the eukaryotic organisms. They regulate the expression of genes post-transcriptionally. Upregulation or downregulation of miRNA expression leads to alteration of many signalling and developmental processes which can help or harm the organism. Plants are no exception to that. In the last 30 years many miRNAs have been found to be deregulated under various abiotic and biotic stresses in plants and also to be closely associated in tolerance of the same. This review focuses on the involvement of miRNAs in stress tolerance in plants that have been identified so far.

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

                The Effect of COVID-19 on Spermatogenesis

                Mostafa Kamel Abdel Rahman*, Ahmed Abdel Moniem, Mohammed Zarzour, Adel Kurkar and Hosny Behnsawy

                Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) viral pandemic has become a significant public health emergency worldwide, evolving rapidly. Although the lungs are the main organ targeted in this disorder, other vital organs may be involved. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a major component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is the principal host receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (RAAS). The ACE2 is important in testicular male regulation of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A recent report published in JAMA network revealed that in an analysis 38 semen samples from COVID‐19 patients pcr positive. Since SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting the testis via ACE2 and adversely affecting the male reproductive system. From this point the purpose of this study is how covid-19 affect spermatogenesis.

                Methods: How covid-19 affect spermatogenesis.

                Design and setting of the study: A 100 patients had been enrolled in the study by a criteria suggesting good semen analysis. two sets of semen analysis done, the first after 72days of first positive swab for covid-19 to show changes in semen analysis from normal values in the cycle of spermatogenesis during infection, the other sample after 72 days from the first sample to show if the changes regress to normal and to compare it with the first sample.

                Results: A total number 100 patients first sample show 2% of patients oligospermia, 36% of patients teratospermia. The second sample show 4% of patients teratospermia by comparing the two samples there is a significant increase in sperm concentration with mean concentration in the first sample 96.49 m/ml, mean concentration in the second sample 104.67 m/ml, a significant increase in motility (A+B) with mean percentage of 44% in the first sample and 46% in the second sample, a highly significant increase in the normal forms of sperms with mean percentage of 23.4% in the first sample and 30.55% in the second sample.

                Conclusions: Covid-19 affect spermatogenesis in the form of reversible teratospermia, reversable decrease sperm count but within normal level, reversable decrease in the sperm motility but also within normal level.

                Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

                Due to COVID-19 Infection Impact on Secondary Respiratory Distress Syndrome

                Tanu Singhal*

                SARS-CoV-2 infection and its clinical manifestation as Coronavirus Disease 2019 that is COVID-19 present an unmatched worldwide public health problem. The disease presents an exclusive pathophysiology and clinical sequence currently existing therapeutic approaches. COVID-19 patients progressing or presenting into frank Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with typical decreased pulmonary compliance, represents another clinical enigma to many clinicians, since routine therapeutic interventions for ARDS are still a subject of debate.

                Volume 5, Issue 6 (2021)

                  Research Article Pages: -1 - 9

                  Incidence and Case-Fatality Ratio of COVID-19 Infection in Relation to Tobacco Smoking, Access to Healthcare, Poverty, and Population Demographics in the USA

                  Yves Muscat Baron* and Liberato Camilleri

                  Background: Tobacco smoking has been shown to increase the severity of COVID-19 infection and the risk for intra-tracheal ventilation in smokers. Tobacco smoking exposes the user and nearby individuals to very high concentrations of particulate matter in a short period of time. Genes coding for SARS-CoV-2 have been found adherent to particulate matter which has been linked to COVID-19 related mortality PM2.5. The aim of the study was to observe the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection rates in the USA, comparing States differentiated by the degree of smoking bans, exploring a possible link between tobacco smoke-related particulate matter and SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

                  Methodology: Two groups of USA States, differentiated by the degree of smoking legislative restrictions, had a number of variables compared. Variables related to COVID-19 were obtained from the John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Centre between the 20th and the 26th September 2020. The degree of smoking bans and the percentage of the smoking population in the USA States were obtained from the websites of the Nonsmokers Rights Foundation and the Centres of Disease Control database respectively. Population characteristics were obtained from databases concerning USA demographics.

                  Results: The incidence of COVID-19 infection in the States with limited bans on tobacco smoking was 2046/100,000 (sd+/-827) while the infection incidence in States with more restrictive rulings on tobacco smoking was 1660/100,000 (sd+/-686) (p<0.038). The population percentage of smokers in States with minor limitations to smoking was 18.3% (sd+/-3.28), while States with greater smoking restrictions had a smoking population percentage of 15.2% (sd+/-2.68) (p<0.0006). Significant correlations were noted between the percentage of the states’ population which was below the poverty line and access to Healthcare. Population density correlated significantly with the case-fatality ratio (R=0.66 p<0.0001).

                  Conclusion: States in the USA with high levels of tobacco smoking and limited regulation had significantly higher rates of COVID-19 infection incidences than States with greater smoking restrictions. The State population percentage living in poverty, and access to healthcare were significantly different between both groups of States. Densely populated USA States with partial bans on tobacco smoking, with elevated percentages of the population living in poverty and with limited access to healthcare had high incidences of COVID-19 rates during the time period assessed.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

                  The Emergence of Ten SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Airborne PM2.5

                  Yves Muscat Baron* and Liberato Camilleri

                  Background: The atmospheric pollutant PM2.5 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Some of the variants of SARS-CoV-2 possess the attributes of increased transmissibility and immune escape and appear to have been naturally selected to promulgate the pandemic. Variants of SARS-CoV-2 resulted due to a number of persistent SARS-CoV-2 mutations found in widely disparate and distant regions. This paper examines a possible association between airborne pollutant PM2.5 and the emergence of ten SARS-CoV-2 variants.

                  Methods: The daily mean levels of PM2.5 of a number of cities, where SARS-CoV-2 variants were detected, were obtained from the World Air Quality Index (WAQI). The mean daily PM2.5 levels were evaluated just before the occurrence of the first cluster of PM2.5 peaks’ atmospheric concentration, till after the emergence of the SARS- CoV-2 variants. Where available the daily number of new cases of COVID-19 diagnosed was matched to the PM2.5 levels.

                  Results: There appears to be a common pattern of PM2.5 in most of the regions prior to the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 variants. An initial cluster of PM2.5 peaks was noted on average 50 days prior to the emergence of the variants and another group of smaller peaks in PM2.5 were noted just before or contemporaneous with the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 variants. In the regions where the quantity of daily new cases was available, a number of significant correlations were obtained between PM2.5 levels and the number of new cases of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

                  Conclusion: In most regions two clusters of PM2.5 peaks were noted prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants. The first cluster of PM2.5 peaks may suggest that anthropogenic activity was increased possibly reflecting augmented human to human contact. Due to elevated levels of PM2.5, a consequent propagation of the respiratory ACE-2 receptor (port of viral entry into the cell) ensued. Coronavirus- laden PM2.5 may have induced intra-host mutagenesis in the SARS-CoV-2 genome, contemporaneously diminishing pulmonary immunity. With the second cluster of PM2.5 peaks, this airborne pollutant may have also acted as a viral vector. The above findings suggest that antecedent peaks in PM2.5 prior to SARS-CoV-2 variants’ emergence not only contributed to transmission, but also impacted the immediate viral environs which may have led to SARS-CoV-2’s natural selection.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                  Molecular Docking Reveals the Potential of Aliskiren, Dipyridamole, Mopidamol, Rosuvastatin, Rolitetracycline and Metamizole to Inhibit COVID-19 Virus Main Protease

                  Omar M Aly*

                  Drug repurposing is a fast way to rapidly discover a drug for clinical use. In such circumstances of the spreading of the highly contagious COVID-19, searching for already known drugs is a worldwide demand. In this study, many drugs were evaluated by molecular docking. Among the test compounds, aliskiren (the best), dipyridamole, mopidamol and rosuvastatin showed higher energies of binding than that of the co-crystallized ligand N3 with COVID-19 main protease Mpro. Rolitetracycline showed the best binding with the catalytic center of the protease enzyme through binding with CYS 145 and HIS 41. Metamizole showed about 86% of the binding energy of the ligand N3 while the protease inhibitor darunavir showed little bit lower binding energy than N3. These results are promising for using these drugs in the treatment and management of the spreading of COVID-19 virus. Also, it could stimulate clinical trials for the use of these drugs by systemic or inhalation route.

                  Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

                  Comparisons between COVID-19 and Flu

                  Dunham Anya*

                  COVID-19 and flu are both transmissible respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by much type of viruses. COVID-19 is instigated by infection with a coronavirus first recognized in 2019, and flu is instigated by infection with influenza viruses. The viruses that cause COVID-19 and the flu spread in parallel ways. They can both spread between people who are in close contact (within 6 feet, or 2 meters). The viruses feast through respiratory droplets or aerosols unconfined through sneezing, talking, or coughing. These droplets can land in the mouth or nose of someone close. These viruses can also spread if a person traces a surface with one of the viruses on it and then traces his or her mouth, eyes or nose.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                  Suspected SARS-Cov-2 Original Antigenic Sin among Central and West African Populations

                  Marc Souris, Léon Tshilolo, Destin Mbongi, Baltazar Phoba, Marie-Anasthasie Tshilolo, René Mbungu, Daniel Parzy, Line Lobaloba Ingoba, Francine Ntoumi, Rachel Kamgaing, Martin Samuel Sosso, Nadine Fainguem, Tandakha Ndiaye Dieye, Moussa Ndour, Massamba Sylla, Pierre Morand and Jean-Paul Gonzalez

                  More than a year after the emergence of COVID-19, significant regional differences in terms of morbidity persist, showing in particular lower incidence rates in some regions of Africa or Asia. The work reported here aims to test for a pre-pandemic natural immunity among populations in central and western Africa and a suspected SARS-CoV-2 original antigenic sin. To identify such pre-existing immunity, sera samples collected before the emergence of COVID-19 were tested to detect the presence of IgG antibodies reacting against SARS-CoV-2 proteins of major significance. Sera samples from blood donors of France also collected before the pandemic were used as control. The results showed a statistically highly significant difference for antibodies prevalence between the samples collected in Africa and the control samples. Our results suggest that in the tested African sub-regions the populations have been potentially pre-exposed before the COVID-19 pandemic to the antigens of a SARS-CoV-2-like virus.

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