10th World Congress on Biopolymers and Bioplastics | Journal of Nanosciences: Current Research

Journal of Nanosciences: Current Research

ISSN: 2572-0813

Open Access

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Pages: 1 - 1

Past Conference Editorial of Biopolymers 2020

NG Kwan

Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “Biopolymers”, during August 03-04, 2020 at Zurich, Switzerland with the theme, “Solution for current & future global challenges Biopolymers 2020”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence.

We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.

Biopolymers 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Synthetic polymers and Organic polymers.

Biopolymers Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.

Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Biopolymers 2020”.

  • NG Kwan, RMIT University, Australia.

Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Biopolymers 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC LTD thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Organic polymers and Natural polymers.

Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “11th World Congress on Biopolymers & Bioplastics. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Natural polymers ,Organic polymers, polymer Associations, Biopolymer Researchers, Polymer Industry, polymer Scientists, polymer Engineers, polymer technology Engineers, Chemical Engineers, Biopolymer Organizations and Associations, Biopolymer companies, students and delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of Biopolymers with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.

Bookmark your dates for “Biopolymers 2021” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

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Carbon-based Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems

Abeer Abdullah Al Anazi

Nano Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) integrate critical structural electrical and mechanical elements at or below 100 nm. This is miniaturization of the Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), where the critical structural elements are on the micrometer length scale. Compared to MEMS, NEMS have smaller mass and higher surface area to volume ratio, which is advantageous for applications in manufacturing high frequency resonators and ultrasensitive sensors. Due to the promising potential applications of the emerging NEMS that is expected to have a major impact on our lives, research on NEMS reliability has been of crucial importance on the last decade. Aiming to provide an intuition and insight for researchers who are interested in reliability studies of NEMS, an extensive collection of researches were selected and integrated into this paper to cover the reliability issues of NEMS in different phases of their life cycles including design, manufacturing, logistics, and operation. The paper discusses failure causes on the nano-scales due mechanical, electrical, chemical, thermal factors, or combinations of them, which can occur during manufacturing and post-manufacturing phases. It also reviews common failure modes and mechanisms, the reliability aspects of design and manufacturing, as well as reliability evaluation and testing techniques for NEMS..

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Inorganic charge transport materials for hybrid perovskite solar cells

Kalpana Deevi1 and I.V Subba Reddy2

organic–inorganic metal halide perovskite materials are the new class of hybrid semiconductors with the general formula ABX3, where ‘A’ and ‘B’ are organic and inorganic cations and ‘X’ (Cl, Br and I) is the halide anion, respectively. The exceptional physical properties of hybrid perovskite materials like a tuneable band, high absorption coefficient, and long-range charge transport with high mobilities have brought about a surge of interest in the optoelectronic device community to seek hybrid perovskite materials as potential candidates for solar cell fabrication.  A typical hybrid perovskite solar cell (PSC) device consists of the following six layers:

(i) FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) as transparent electrode,

(ii) c-TiO2 as electron transport material (ETM), which can additionally block the hole from reaching FTO,

(iii) Mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) to infiltrate light harvester and to extract electrons from it,

(iv) Hybrid perovskite material as light harvester,

(v) Hole transport material (HTM) to extract holes from perovskite and

(vi) Metal Au as back electrode.

The currently used HTM, Spiro-OMe-TAD slowly degrades the perovskite and also the material’s cost is significant. The alternative organic HTM is PEDOT:PSS which also has the stability challenges in ambient conditions. Therefore, there is a need to find a stable HTM. In terms of improved stability at low cost use of inorganic materials as HTM is a good choice.

In this current work, nanoparticles of inorganic oxide material, NiO is synthesized and characterized XRD and SEM, TEM to confirm the phase purity and morphology, respectively carry out the structural and microstructural characterization.  Low temperature annealed Ni1-xO appears black in colour and absorbs a fraction of light in the visible region. With high temperature annealing optically transparent near stoichiometric NiO nanoparticles are obtained with a direct band gap of 3.81 eV. For the transparent near stoichiometric NiO nanoparticles a complete energy band diagram is determined and realized a suitable valence band edge to fabricated hybrid perovskite solar cells. By employing as prepared optically transparent NiO as HTM working semi-transparent perovskite solar cells are  fabricated with a demonstrated photo conversion efficiency of 3.46%.

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Interaction of corrosion-induced hydrogen with nascent defects in steel under neutron irradiation

Evgenii Krasikov

As the service life of an operating nuclear power plant (NPP) increases, the potential misunderstanding of the degradation of aging components must receive more attention. Integrity assurance analysis contributes to the effective maintenance of adequate plant safety margins.

In essence, the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is the key structural component of the NPP that determines the lifetime of nuclear power plants. Environmentally induced cracking in the stainless steel corrosion-preventing cladding of RPV’s has been recognized to be one of the technical problems in the maintenance of light-water reactors. Therefore, in the case of cladding failure, the problem arises of hydrogen (as a corrosion product) embrittlement of irradiated RPV steel because of exposure to the coolant.

The effects of neutron fluence and irradiation temperature on steel/hydrogen interactions (adsorption, desorption, diffusion, mechanical properties at different loading velocities, post-irradiation annealing) were studied. Experiments clearly reveal that the higher the neutron fluence and the lower the irradiation temperature, the more hydrogen-radiation defects occur, with corresponding effects on the RPV steel mechanical properties.

Hydrogen accumulation analyses and thermal desorption investigations were performed to prove the evidence of hydrogen trapping at irradiation defects. Extremely high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement was observed with specimens which had been irradiated at relatively low temperature. However, the susceptibility decreases with increasing irradiation temperature. To evaluate methods for the RPV’s residual lifetime evaluation and prediction, more work should be done on the irradiated metal–hydrogen interaction in order to monitor more reliably the status of RPV materials.

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Polymeric stabilization of a calcium sulfate particle produced by 3D printing for bone regeneration applications

Ignacia A Cancino

Bone defects remain an important clinical challenge to medical staff. When bigger bone defects are present, there is a need for placing a scaffold, so that cells can grow and differentiate [1]. Today, different types of bone grafts exist, and depending on its source, they can be natural or synthetic. Synthetic grafts (alloplastic) are ceramics widely available and with lower costs than natural bone grafts (autografts and xenografts) [2]. To allow bone regeneration, the bone graft should possess, among other things, porosity and mechanical properties similar to bone structures [3,4]. For these reasons, a calcium sulfate particle was designed with a geodesic semi-sphere and microporous shape and produced using binder jetting [5] technology. The particle’s shape allows its 3D stabilization creating free spaces so that bone regeneration can occur.

Considering all of the above, the particles were additionally processed so that they can increase their mechanical properties (elastic modulus and ultimate compressive strength), and decrease their solubility in physiological conditions for their use as bone grafts. This was done by impregnating the particles after they were heated at 200ºC for 10 min, with a biocompatible polymer. The results show that, the particles were able to keep their shape after being washed with physiological buffer at 37ºC and they increased 78 times their young modulus in average and and 45 times its ultimate compressive strength. Further tests need to be performed to have statistically robust results.

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Polymeric stabilization of a calcium sulfate particle produced by 3D printing for bone regeneration applications.

Imran Azmana, Jitima Preechawonga, Pornsri Sapsrithong and Manit Nithitanakul

This research explored on a new path of preparation the porous material by using combination of water in oil emulsion templating along with the supplementary of low intensity polymerization reaction. Poly(styrene/ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate)HIPEs were prepared by using a domestic microwave for fabricating the multiscale porosity material. The radical polymerization reaction was precursor at the lowest intensity of 10 watt resulted with prognosticated result towards the surface topography of poly(sty/edgma)HIPEs as the monomer and crosslinker respectively. The ratios of water and oil phase were varied with the constant concentration of crosslinker and stabilizer. The different in the oil phase resulting to the gradually increment of the pores size from 60.2 ð?m, 95.4 ð?m and 126.3 ð?m. Varying of the aqueous phase at 80%, 90% 92% and 94% with 2 wt% of surfactant showed n growing level of pore interconnectivity from 60.2 ð?m to 109.9 ð?m. Cellular morphologies of poly(sty/edgma)HIPEs were observed by using FE-SEM. In addition, to approbate the crosslinked poly(sty/edgma), ATR-FTIR were employed. It displays a distinct narrow peak around 770 cm-1 which explains the C-H stretching between the aromatic planar of styrene and carboxyl group of edgma. A preliminary result of absorption test was recorded for discovering the potential of poly(sty/edgma)HIPEs towards the dye absorption. Poly(sty/edgma)HIPEs with  90% volume of oil phase ratio were tested with varied concentration (g/cm3) of methylene blue and orange. It were appraised a positive results of dyes captivation in between of a week period. Poly(sty/edgma)HIPEs were furthered investigated by TGA/DSC and compression test.

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Influence of different treatments of aspen wood particles on their compatibility with polymer matrix in wood-polymer composites.

Jevgenijs Jaunslavietis, Galia Shulga, Juris Ozolins, Brigita Neiberte, Anrijs Verovkins, Sanita Vitolina

Statement of the Problem: The biocomposites such as wood-polymer composite (WPC) have gained more attention in past years due to their sustainable, environment friendly nature. However, there are still many issues obtaining WPCs, mainly because of the poor compatibility between a hydrophobic polymer matrix and hydrophilic wood filler. The mechanical and wetting properties of WPCs depend on the polymer/filler interfacial adhesion, which represents one of the main problems since wood has a strongly polar structure, but the most polymer matrices are non-polar. The purpose of this study is to compare the treatment of aspen wood filler by acid hydrolysis at different temperatures and ammoxidation with the introduction of different amide groups in the filler for improving its compatibility with recycled polypropylene in WPC. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: aspen wood (Populus tremula) sawdust with a fraction less than 100 μm from Latvian wood mechanical processing company was used. The wetting behaviour and surface free energy of the treated wood particles were analysed using tensiometer Kruss 100M. The composite samples were extruded on a twin-screw extruder at 175oC and then injection moulded at 450 bars. Mechanical tests were carried out according to ASTM D638 and EN ISO 178. Findings: the effectiveness of the acid hydrolysis and ammoxidation of the wood filler for increasing the compatibility with the polymer matrix depend on the hydrolysis temperature and the content of the introduced amide bonds. Conclusion & Significance: Both treatments of aspen wood particles led to increased hydrophobicity of wood particle surface that positively impacted the mechanical properties of the obtained composite samples. With increasing the temperature of the mild hydrolysis from 60 oC to 90 oC, and the content of nitrogen form 1,05% to 2,1%, the mechanical properties of the composite samples have increased, but their wetting with water has decreased. The ammoxidation is a more effective method for modification of the wood filler for enhancing its compatibility with recycled polymer.

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Controlled Drug Delivery Based on Hybrid Crosslinked Hydrogels

Muhammad Asim Raza and Sang Hyun Park

Herein, we developed poly (vinyl phenol) (PVP) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CH) based electron beam crosslinked  hydrogrls for controlled drug delivery. Hydrogels were crosslinked at 15 kGY, 30 kGY and 45 kGY irradiation dose. Swelling analysis was performed in distilled water, buffer and ionic solutions.  Swelling results revealed that 15 kGy hydrogel showed optimum swelling in all solutions wheras as the irradiation was increased networking got severe. In-vitro biodegradation test was performed for one week in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). FTIR analysis exhibited the establishment of physical interactions and confirmed the incorporation of functional groups present in the hydrogel. SEM micrographs depicted porous structure of the hydrogel, which is responsible for swelling and drug loading and release. Antibacterial test exhibited good antimicrobial characteristic aganist gram positive and negative bacteria. In order to analyze drug release behaviour of hydrogrls, PBS (pH= 7.4), SIF (pH= 6.8), SGF (pH= 1.2) were chosen and UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to calculate drug release (%).

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Novel green biosynthesis of vanadium pentoxide by the extraction of the white hibiscus sabdariffa leaves as electrode material for super capacitor Applications

Ngom B D

A novel green biosynthesis of the vanadium [email protected] hibiscus sabdariffa ([email protected]) nano-flowers- like structures was successfully synthesized by solvothermal method. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the materials revealed the orthorhombic structure V2O5. No other peaks from the white hibiscus sabdariffa were observed in the XRD pattern which revealing the high phase purity of the [email protected] material. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrum of the materials exhibited the presence of V3+, V4+ and V5+ in the binding energies of the [email protected] The electrochemical performance of the electrode material was evaluated using a 6 M KOH aqueous electrolyte. The specific capacity of the [email protected] reached a value of 50.4 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. An asymmetric capacitor was also fabricated by adopting an activated carbon negative electrode obtained from the peanut shell waste as raw material and the [email protected] as the positive electrode in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The hybrid capacitor of [email protected]//AC displayed a high energy density of 33 W h kg−1 with a corresponding high power density of 470 W kg−1 at 1 A g−1 in a large voltage window of 0.0 - 1.7 V. The device also exhibited an excellent cycling stability with 87% capacity retention recorded for up to 20.000 constant charging–discharge cycles and an excellent ageing test at a specific current of 10 A g-1.

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The Formation of Sulfide Scales on Carbon Steel in Saturated H2S

Noora Al-Qahtani1, Jiahui Qi2, Aboubakr M Abdullah3, Nicholas J Laycock4 and Mary P Ryan1

There are three contributing elements of corrosion of Carbon Steel in Hâ??S environment: the effect of H2S on water chemistry; electrochemical reactions of the bare iron surface (both anodic and cathodic processes); and the formation and growth of corrosion product layers. The electrochemical reaction commonly contains three stages: first, the reactant transported from the solution (bulk) to the metal surface; then the transfer of the charge reaction on the surface, followed by the reaction product transported away from the iron surface to the bulk solution or the formation and development of the corrosion product which then can decrease the corrosion rate. Development of a robust corrosion model to predict the corrosion process in H2S these requires a mechanistic understanding of all these elements.

An experimental study was carried out to assess the corrosion of C-steel under open-circuit technique conditions and in solutions at several ranges of time and temperatures. The effect of film composition, morphology, structure, thickness, and ion- concentration of corrosion product films formed on pipeline Carbon Steel in an acid sour solution were examined. The electrochemical behavior of the filmed steel was measured, and the film properties assessed using a range of advanced techniques including Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The data will be discussed in terms of film formation mechanisms.

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Economic Analysis of Isoprene production from good year scientific process

Usman Asghar

The isoprene rubber is very much like natural rubber but made artificially or synthetically. Essentially similar to natural rubber in properties, this rubber may be somewhat weaker because it is not 100% the cis-isomer. This rubber is used in the same type of products as natural rubber. About 95% of isoprene production is used to produce cis-1,4-polyisoprene, a synthetic version of natural rubber. The growing demand for fuel efficiency and eco-friendly tires is driving the tire industry and in turn the demand for polyisoprene in the tire industry. The Isoprene Market was valued at USD 1.93 billion in 2015 and is projected to reach USD 2.96 billion by 2021. The isoprene demand in Pakistan will increase up to 24.8% from 2018 to 2025 reportedly. The isoprene market is increasing due to its increasing applications in tires, conveyor belts, hoses, molded rubber, and also in medical equipment such as gloves and balloons. Isoprene can manufacture from four different processes at commercial scale, but Isoprene from formaldehyde is the prevailing process in the industries. This process has disadvantage of low yield and by-products. So this process is further modified to improve the yield and the operating conditions. But still by-products are the main problems which decreases the selectivity and yield. To overcome these issues, manufacturing of Isoprene from propylene is studied in plant design project. It is found that this process has 65% yield and have selectivity of 95%. A cost Analysis was made after the design of different plant equipment, and it is found that a plant of 12000 tons per year has payback period of approximately 4 years.

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