The Nanosize particles are likely to increase an unnecessary infinite toxicological effect on animals and environment, although their toxicological effects associated with human exposure are still unknown. In order to understand the effects of these exposures, this review seeks to examine the various toxicological portal routes associated with NPs exposures. These NPs can enter the host systems via skin spores, debilitated tissues, injection, olfactory, respiratory and intestinal tracts. These uptake routes of NPs may be intentional or unintentional. Their entry may lead to various diversified adverse biological effects. Until a clearer picture emerges, the limited data available suggest that caution must be exercised when potential exposures to NPs are encountered. Methods used in determining NPs portal of entry into experimental animals include pharyngeal instillation, injection, inhalation, cell culture lines and gavage exposures.
Related Journals of Nano Toxicity
Nano Research & Applications, Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Bioceramics Development and Applications, Micro and Nano Letters, Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures, Fullerenes Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures