Reports in Thyroid Research

ISSN: 2684-4273

Open Access

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Volume 3, Issue 1 (2019)

    2020 Conference Announcement Pages: 1 - 3

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    Jie Shen

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    Volume 4, Issue 1 (2020)

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

      Thyroid Disorders 2016 - Next generation sequencing of Thyroid neoplasms to determine mutational status

      Orla Sheils

      DOI: 2020.4.1.2

      The anticipation for patients with thyroid carcinoma is commonly reliant on age and tumor stage at time of determination. In any case, the natural forcefulness of individual tumors can’t generally be anticipated from the underlying clinical highlights, making it troublesome reliably to recognize patients who will kick the bucket from their ailment. Additionally, the event of vague lymphocytic thyroiditis of changing seriousness nearby thyroid tumors is every now and again watched. Hazard factors for the advancement of thyroid malignant growth incorporate radiation presentation, physical and germ line hereditary transformations. Regular transformations that go before the improvement of thyroid carcinoma focus on the mitogen-enacted protein kinase (MAPK pathway) and incorporate BRAF, RET/PTC and RAS. We utilized a NGS sequencing approach for equal cross examination of the nearness of physical transformations in tests from 82 patients.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

      Thyroid Disorders 2016 - Spectrum of Thyroid disorders in Diabetes Mellitus in Nepal

      Robin Maskey

      DOI: 2020.4.1.3

      Background & Aim: The coexistence of Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid disorders is a known clinical observation. The objective of this study was to see the spectrum of Thyroid disorders in Diabetes Mellitus in Nepal.

      Methods: 271 known or newly detected cases of Diabetes Mellitus aged more than 15 years were selected randomly from the patients attending to BPKIHS from September 2012 to September 2013. These patients were subjected to evaluation for Thyroid function – clinically and biochemically and other relevant investigations were done.

      Results: Out of 271 subjects only 23 patients (8.48%) were found to have Thyroid disorders. Among 23 patients; 11 had euThyroid, 4 had subclinical hypoThyroidism; 7 had clinical hypoThyroidism and 1 had subclinical hyperthyroidism. We found majority of patients with female hypoThyroidism. We found body mass index, mean triglyceride and cholesterol levels were more in those diabetic patients having coexisting hypothyroidism. So every diabetic patient should be screened for Thyroid function test.

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

      Thyroid Research 2016-Challenges in the management of patients with differentiated Thyroid carcinoma and renal

      Purushottam Kand

      DOI: 2020.4.1.4


      Renal metastasis has relatively less occurrence in patients with differentiated Thyroid carcinoma. Methods:

      The various clinical, imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters of a series of patients with differentiated Thyroid carcinoma and renal metastasis were assessed, together with follow-up data. Results & Conclusion:

      4 male patients over the age of 45 years with extensive disease at the primary site formed part of the series. Retro-sternal extension of the large goitre was observed in three of the four patients. The primary tumour was 4 cm or larger in all patients (range, 4–14 cm), and three patients had associated lymph node metastasis. None had any genito-urinary symptoms at presentation. Two patients had isolated renal metastases with no other distant metastases, while the others had extensive multiorgan involvement. The bilateral occurrence of lesions was a hallmark, being observed in all cases. The criticality of establishing the diagnosis of renal metastasis had important therapeutic implications. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology and 131I scintigraphy played a significant role in confirming the diagnosis. The optimization of the high dose radioiodine therapy aimed at stabilization of disease with serial meticulous monitoring of renal function facilitated the administration of cumulative average therapy dose of 21.83 GBq (range, 9.176 – 37.666 GBq) 131I in 3 to 4 divided doses. A meticulous and focused approach to establish an accurate diagnosis, ensuring a well maintained renal function without any further compromise due to the therapy or the disease per se and eventually optimization of the high dose radioiodine therapy helped to achieve a stable disease status at a minimum followup period of four years after diagnosis in three patients. One patient had expired due to a poorly differentiated lung carcinoma, which developed subsequently.

      Editorial Note Pages: 1 - 1

      Report on Experiments and Clinical Cases in Thyroid Research

      Parijat De

      DOI: 10.37421/JMA.2020.4.01

      Reports in Thyroid Research journal considers articles from all aspect of understanding related to thyroid which includes thyrotoxicosis, thyroid hormone resistance, and hypothyroidism, Dysthyroid orbitopathy (Graves’ Ophthalmopathy), thyroid status testing, Thyroid surgery, etc. 

      Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 1

      Thyroid Disorders 2016 - Outcomes of trans-cervical surgical management for massive substernal Thyroid goiters; a community hospital experience

      Magid Althbety

      DOI: 2020 Vol. 4, Iss. 1

       Huge substernal goiters are much of the time noted in creating nations, yet are not as every now and again rewarded in created nations. The executives of huge Thyroid goiters is as often as possible alluded to tertiary college medical clinics. In the accompanying investigation, we present our ongoing network medical clinic based experience overseeing such cases utilizing a trans-cervical methodology. A Retrosternal goiter is characterized in which in any event half of the organ is situated in the mediastinum as recognized by figured tomography (CT) and employable discoveries. In spite of the fact that extirpation of the organ can be performed by means of a neckline cut, the specialist ought to be set up for a thoracic methodology particularly in broad mediastinal thyroid masses. There is no unmistakable differentiation for deciding preoperatively which cases will require sternotomy versus open thoracic methodology. The point of this investigation is to dissect the results of 9 patients with retrosternal goiter.

      Volume 3, Issue 2 (2019)

        Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

        Thyroid Disorders 2016-Challenges impacting giant goiter surgery at a tertiary Sub-Saharan Hospita

        Fualal Jane Odubu

        DOI: 2019.3.2.4

        Thyroid disease is pervasive in Africa. Local governments’ and NGO’s push to build up tertiary organizations and encourage careful efforts have yielded pretty much nothing. All around, wellbeing financing faces shortage. Underdeveloped nations have been related to dismissed Thyroid sickness like huge goiters causing deformations, upper aviation route and gastrointestinal tract block or neck vasculature engorgement. Longstanding cases may experience dangerous change or expand retrosternally. This was a forthcoming partner chosen from a pool of worked Thyroid patients at Breast and Endocrine Unit of Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital, Kampala Uganda. Averagely, six (6) Thyroidectomies are done each week. Two (2) out of these certified for the examination as having mammoth goiter. Medical procedure required the group’s campaigning for ICU space, fastidious peri-employable inclusion of anaesthesiology inhabitants and undertaking careful examinations. Age scope of patients was 15 – 70 years with greater part in the 40-multi year age section; a female prevalence of 8:1. Normal usable time was 4 hours with about half used by sedation. Difficulties experienced included group building, scant careful instruments, overseeing troublesome aviation route, removing affected retrosternal goiter, experiencing the notably engorged neck vessels and ICU space. Misfortune to catch up after release was about 30%. In spite of endless difficulties, the outcome shows that 95% of our patients get effective medical procedure; 4% create transient complexities like roughness and hypocalcaemia. One patient required tracheostomy. Goliath Thyroid is genuinely basic at Mulago. Its medical procedure is testing. With sorted out group, ability, by and large careful outcomes are tantamount to those in very much encouraged 
        focuses even in the midst of scant assets. 

        Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 2

        Thyroid Disorders 2016- Chosen immunological aspects in autoimmune Thyroid diseases in developmental age

        Artur Bossowski

        DOI: 2019.3.2

        Up till now, changed equalization of Th1 and Th2 insusceptible cells has been hypothesized to assume a significant job in the pathogenesis of Autoimmune Thyroid Tiseases (AITD). Nonetheless, late investigations on Thyroid infections recommend another job for Th17 (T aide 17) cells that have been delegated another ancestry, particular from Th1, Th2 and T-reg cells. In spite of wide intrigue, the job of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of fiery and immune system sicknesses is as yet being discussed. Th17 cells are engaged with invulnerable reactions against extracellular pathogens and can discharge cytokines: IL-17, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-23. Th17 cells can be portrayed by a few surface markers, for example CCR6 (CD196), IL-23R, IL-12Rbeta2 and CD161. Immune system thyroid illnesses (AITD) are the most common organ-explicit immune system sicknesses (ADs) and influence 2 - 5% of the populace with incredible changeability between sexual orientations (i.e., ladies 5–15% and men 1–5%) . AITD incorporate Graves’ Disease (GD) and Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT), among others. HT and GD are the significant reasons for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, separately. They mirror the loss of immunological resistance and offer the nearness of cell and humoral safe reaction against antigens from the thyroid organ with receptive invasion of T cells and B cells, autoantibody age and, therefore, the advancement of clinical indications. The lymphocytic invasion causes tissue harm and changes the capacity of the thyroid organ. The injury is caused when the autoantibodies or potentially sharpened T cells respond with the thyroid cells causing the provocative response and, now and again, cell lysis. By and large, while T lymphocytes are the principle cell type invading the organ in HT, a B cell reaction prevails and decides the nearness of GD. Likewise with different ADs, there is a multifactorial etiology with a mind boggling communication of ecological factors in hereditarily powerless people. A portion of these qualities are explicit for GD and HT while others are common for the two sicknesses, which shows a hereditary inclination partook in these procedures together. Competitor qualities incorporate immunoregulators [e.g., human leukocyte antigen (HLA), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4)] and others explicit to the thyroid (e.g., TSH receptors, thyroglobulin, and so on.). The primary ecological variables are smoking, stress, and iodine utilization.

        Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

        Thyroid Disorders 2016: The influence of radiation exposure and the source of irradiation

        Daniel Igor Branovan

        DOI: 2019.3.2.3

        The aftereffects of global and neighborhood ultrasound screening programs result the Chernobyl mishap (1990-2005) had demonstrated high varieties of Thyroid malignant growth predominance among kids: 0.2%-0.6% in Gomel, 0.3% in Brest, and 0.008% in Mogilev Oblasts of Belarus. Point: The point of this examination was to assess the neurotic and clinical attributes of radiation actuated Papillary Thyroid C arcinoma (PTC) in youth populace. Patients and Methods: The obsessive and clinical attributes were researched in 1078 youngsters and teenagers with PTC who were carefully rewarded during the years 1990 through 2005. Ultrasonic particularities of Thyroid carcinoma in youngsters presented to radio-nuclides could be described as following: introduction into nodular – 95% and diffuse structures - 5%. The tumors for the most part are imagined as a hypo-echogenic hub - 56% with unpredictable edges - 76%. Cervix lymph hubs were pictured in 42% cases. Results: According to the morphological information pediatric patients had high paces of metastatic PTC at introduction (73.8% - lymph hubs contribution, 11.1% far off spread). The general endurance was 96.9% with a middle follow-up of 16.21 years, and 20-year eventfree endurance and backslide free endurance were 87.8% and 92.3% separately. Patients had fundamentally lower likelihood of both locoregional (P<0.001) and far off backslides (P<0.005) after complete Thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment. The commonness of SPM in this special accomplice was 1%. End: Our examination had demonstrated that the rate paces of pediatric Thyroid malignant growth in Belarus is identified with levels of radiation presentation, Thyroid disease screening, iodine inadequacy and nitrates fixation in groundwater. 

        Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

        Thyroid Disorders 2016- Our experience in treatment of recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after Thyroidectomy

        Aslan Ahmadi

        DOI: 2019.3.2.2

        Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis, a common complication after Thyroidectomy depends on the kind of Thyroidectomy, unilateral or bilateral paralysis may occur. Anterior branch of RLN is in the posterior aspect of cricoThyroid joint so it can simply get injured in blind dissection of this area. After unilateral RLN injury, we have true vocal cord paralysis at the same side. In this category the patients have swallowing problem with voice disorder. Depends on the severity and the type of injury in the operation we can do some procedures with different approach. TVC medicalization with Cortex, cadaveric fascia, fascia late is the procedures of choice in selected patients in our experience. Especially we create a window in lower most border of Thyroid cartilage about 6-10 mm posterior to the anterior commissure. Injection of VOX under general anesthesia in paraglotic space with the special injector is the simplest procedure with good outcome. Neuromuscular pedicle transfer, reinnervation with nerve graft is the other procedure that we can do in this situation. Anyway the best result is in the primary surgery at the time of Thyroidectomy, that the surgeon should carefully dissect the nerve and prevent to damage the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

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