Biomarkers and molecular targets for inflammatory diseases

Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science

ISSN: 2155-9538

Open Access

Biomarkers and molecular targets for inflammatory diseases

Tripathi B Rajavashisth

: J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci

Abstract :

Numerous studies indicate that persistent inflammation importantly contributes to the pathophysiology of many chronic human diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, neurodegerative and autoimmune disorders. Interacting cells (among them mononuclear phagocytes, T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells), all thought to originate from circulating hematopoietic and immune precursors and key resident cells of the tissues orchestrate aspects of the acute and chronic inflammation that underlie diseases of many organs. Inflammatory diseases are accompanied by a coordinated series of common mechanisms that is initiated by expression of cytokines, growth factors, mitogens, and morphogens leading to a disturbance in homeostatic balance causing oxidative stress, tissue injury, extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and fibrosis in diverse target tissues. Arterial disease atherosclerosis features prominently among diseases that involve inflammatory mechanisms. Serum lipoproteins diffusing through extracellular space become entangled in the arterial space and begin to undergo oxidative and covalent modifications that render them proinflammatory in this disease. Local recruitment of blood leukocytes follows with progression that involves many inflammatory mediators that are modulated by interacting cells of the arterial wall and immune (both innate and adaptive) systems. The homeostatic balance between normal proteolytic remodeling and inhibition of extracellular proteolytic activity tips toward excessive tissue destruction. Structural deterioration can result in erosion or rupture of the plaque cap, which directly precipitates arterial thrombosis with frequently disastrous consequences, all these complications of the disease may intimately involve inflammatory mechanisms. A better understanding of the inflammatory cells, molecules and mechanisms should result in novel strategies to the detrimental effects of chronic inflammation, control of the inflammatory mechanisms in various diseases, and may aid the development of potential molecular targets to favorably modify inflammatory diseases.

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