Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products

ISSN: 2472-0992

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

    Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Screening Studies of Calotropis gigantea Leaves

    Dibikshya Bhandari*, Mohan Amatya and Sabyata Gautam

    DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2022.8.205

    Introduction: Calotropis gigantea (Apocynaceae) is a wild herb that can be used to cure a variety of ailments, including fever, indigestion, colds, coughs, asthma, and scabies.

    Methods: The powdered C. gigantea leaves was examined for ash value, extractive value, organoleptic properties, and microscopy. Also, the extract of the plant in several solvents (petroleum ether, diethyl ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) was successively calculated. Each extract was screened for phytochemicals and evaluated for total phenolic content and total flavonoid content. The antioxidant activity of aqueous and alcohol extracts was assessed, along with the antibacterial properties of each extract.

    Results: Alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, proteins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, glycosides, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, proteins, tannins, amino acids, phenols, coumarin, and quinones were found in preliminary phytochemical analyses of extracts. The aqueous extract had a greater total phenolic concentration and total flavonoids content. The DPPH scavenging experiment showed dosage dependent result in both the aqueous and alcohol extracts. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the plant were found to be effective against E. coli in a dose dependent manner during antibacterial screening. On TLC analysis, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts displayed distinct visible tailing in the TLC plates, spots of other extracts could only be seen under a UV light.

    Conclusion: The recent study in the extracts of the C. gigantea leaves indicated the presence of antioxidants with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Therefore, this could be potential lead molecule for antibiotic.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Standardization and Biological activity of Calotropis gigantea

    Vijay Danapur*, Gopinath, Shravani, Annapurna G, Sinchana and Goutami Hadimani

    DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2023.9.247

    Calotropis gigantea (L.) is an important plant drug of Ayurveda from the ancient times of medicinal system? The Sanskrit name of Calotropis gigantea is Arka, it is also commonly called as crown flower or gaint milk weed. It is antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, expectorant and anti-inflammatory drug. The Calotropis (L.) contains anti-diabetic properties that can be identified as having a good influence on diabetes. It has specific properties that are responsible for stimulation of insulin production. The leaves and flower of Arka have certain anti-diabetic agents that improve the sensitivity of insulin and trigger secretion of insulin. The present study is on the determination of pharmacology, preliminary phyto-chemical analysis, fluorescence studies of leaves of Calotropis gigantean (L.). It also comprises the biological activities like antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-bacterial activities.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

      Review: Approach of herbal constituent in fertility regulation

      Seema Devi**

      DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2023.9.249

      Population is increasing day by day but now, it reaches to an alarming position. Various approaches have been applied in the control population. Many studies have been done on the basis of traditional system of herbal medicine. Most of the studies until are mainly based on the plant with anti-fertility activity. Now, this article is further approach in fertility control in both male and female by giving main attention on active phytoconstituent present in anti-fertility plants. In this article active constituents are discussed based on their abortifacient, anti-estrogenic, anti-spermatogenic and their anti-fertility activity based on their mechanism of action in various animal models. In this article we discussed 37 active anti-fertility constituents some of these have antifertility activity both in male and female and other only in female. Recent study on anti-fertility constituent is published with basic aim to control the population.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 21

        A Review on: Synthetic and Herbal Approaches for the Treatment of Alzheimer?s disease

        Abhijit N Daf*, Gauri S Dhandre, Akash S Kapse, Shailesh B Pise and Kanchan S Pise

        DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2023.9.248

        Alzheimer’s Disease/Disorder (AD) is common kind of neurodegenerative cause of dementia. The treatments available for AD are completely symptoms preventive this Review was done with the objective to analyze and estimate for the herbal and synthetic approaches for the treatment of AD. The article review and analysis has gone through 8-10 herbal drugs and around 10-12 drugs from synthetic sources. The antioxidant potential of herbal drugs is found to be quite effective as that of synthetics. Thus this article proves more potency of herbs in the treatment of AD.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Antidepressant Activity of Embelin Isolated from the Methanol Extract of Fruits of Embelia ribes Burm

          Dhanapal Venkatachalam*

          DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2023.9.256

          Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the major known active principle embelin of Embelia ribes for possible antidepressant activity. Embelia ribes Burm (Family: Myrsinaceae) is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating various disease conditions including chronic inflammatory disorders, heart and urinary conditions, snake and insect bites and tumour.

          Methodology: Fractionation of the methanlic extract of dried powdered fruits using column chromatography over silica gel afforded embelin. Experimental depression was induced by subjecting mice to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swimming Test (FST) experimental models. Intraperitonial administration of embelin (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) 30 min prior to induction of experimental depression resulted in dose-dependent reduction of immobility under both test conditions.

          Results: The effects of embelin on immobility time of mice in the TST at the doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, embelin induced antidepressant like effect with significance level of p<0.05; p<0.001 respectively when compared with the control group. The positive control, imipramine, administered at the dose of 15 mg/kg did also show antidepressant like effect comparable with that of 5 mg/kg embelin (p>0.001). As with the FST, treatment of mice with 2.5 and 5 mg/kg of embelin given by intra-peritoneal route significantly decreased immobility in the FST. The data obtained at these two doses were significantly different from the control group (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). The positive control, imipramine, did also shorten immobility time in the FST (p<0.001).

          Conclusions: The result concludes that, the major bioactive constituent of Embelia ribes, embelin, exhibited significant activity in mice TST and FST experimental models. The observed potent activity at doses lower than the standard antidepressant drug, imipramine, suggests the potential of embelin and Embelia ribes for treating mental depression.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            In Vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Calpurnia aurea and Bidens macroptera in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice

            Getachew Moges* and Yohannes Mengesha

            DOI: 10.37421/2472-0992.2022.8.200

            Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic health problems globally. There is no satisfactory effective therapy to cure diabetes mellitus. Currently available drugs for managing diabetes produce some serious side effects and have decreased efficacy over time. Calpurnia aurea and Bidens macroptera have been used traditionally for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and other ailments in Ethiopia.

            Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activities of Bidens macroptera and Calpurnia aurea in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

            Methods: Qualitative phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the chemical constituents of the plants. Healthy swiss albino mice of either sex (25 g-30 g) with no prior drug treatment were used for the present study. An acute toxicity study was carried out according to the 2008 organization for economic cooperation and development guideline 425. The effects of extracts of the plants on fasting blood glucose level and body weight of diabetic mice were evaluated using repeated dose antidiabetic activity test model. Fasting blood samples were collected from the control and test groups weekly to monitor blood glucose levels. Changes in body weight were also recorded weekly.

            Results: Phytochemical screening of both plants indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic compounds that might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The medium Lethal Doses (LD50) of both extracts were higher than 2 g/kg body weight. The extracts also reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and improved the body weight loss of streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

            Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of Bidens macroptera and Calpurnia aurea revealed blood glucose lowering activity and improved body weight loss of diabetic mice over the 14 days treatment period.

              Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

              Essential Oils of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants as Botanical Biocide for Management of Coconut Eriophyid Mite (Aceria guerreronis Keifer)

              Hadiza Fadel

              The eriophyid parasite (Aceria guerreronis Keifer) is an infinitesimal creature that stays under the perianth of the coconut and has been one of the genuine vermin of coconut throughout the previous thirty years in significant coconut developing nations. These little bugs total in states in the internal and external bracts and under the tepals and feed on the meristematic tissues on the nut surface. Because of bug assembly and taking care of the meristematic tissue underneath the perianth becomes chlorotic and afterward breaks. A. guererronis pervasion prompts surface scars, decreased organic product development, and untimely organic product fall. The announced yield misfortune brought about by A. guererronis was discovered to be 34% in India. In the previous few years, a few examinations have zeroed in on the expected utilization of fundamental oil details in natural control of different bug and illnesses. The fundamental oils which get more quickly corrupted into the climate than substance compounds have been read for their activity against different bug of put away items. Late examinations have exhibited the antilarval and antifeeding, postponed grown-up rise and egg mortality, arrestant and repellant activities of fundamental oils. The current examination has been expected to utilize these characteristic subordinates as an option ecofriendly intends to control the eriophyid bugs (A. guererronis Keifer), one of the genuine bugs of coconut.              

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                In Vivo Effect of Medicinal Plants on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters in Laying Hens

                Muhammad Mushtaq*, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan, and Umer Saddique

                Effect of medicinal plants on overall performance and serological parameters were explored in the laying birds. Forty weeks old 210-egg type birds were used as tested criteria. Birds were randomly alienated to 7 experimental groups with 3 replicates, consisted of 10 birds/replicate. Data were recorded for serology and haematology of laying birds. Serum hepatic, lipids, kidney function parameters, serum antibody titre against Newcastle disease and haematological parameters were estimated at the end of trial. Significantly lower egg yolk and serum cholesterol was recorded in group Bl-1. Medicinal plants supplementation significantly lower the triglycerides level over the control group. Significantly improve/high level of high density lipoprotein was recorded in Tg-1, Bl-1 and Ta-1, while low level of low density lipoprotein was recorded in Bl-1 and Ta-1.  Haematological parameters significantly improved in medicinal plants treated groups except haemoglobin and red blood cells counts. Hepatic biomarkers ALT and AST were recorded non-significant in all treated groups, while serum ALP and total protein was significantly altered in groups Bl-1 and Ta-0.5. Non-significant observations were recorded for nephro-protective effect of medicinal plants in laying birds. It is concluded from the results that medicinal plants possess hypolipidemic, haematological and hepato-nephro protective effects.

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