Editorial - (2021) Volume 8, Issue 2
Robotics is an interdisciplinary field that integrates computing and engineering. Robotics involves design, construction, operation, and use of robots. The goal of robotics is to style machines which will help and assist humans. Robotics integrates fields of engineering, EE, information engineering, mechatronics, electronics, bioengineering, computer engineering, control engineering, software engineering, among others.
Robotics develops machines which will substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots are often utilized in many situations and for several purposes, but today many are utilized in dangerous environments (including inspection of radioactive materials, bomb detection and deactivation), manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive (e.g. in space, underwater, in high heat, and pack up and containment of hazardous materials and radiation). Robots can combat any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. this is often said to assist within the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots plan to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, or the other act. Many of today's robots are inspired naturally, contributing to the sector of bio-inspired robotics.
In 1948, Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the idea of practical robotics. Fully autonomous robots only appeared within the last half of the 20th century. the primary digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them. Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and wont to perform jobs more cheaply, more accurately and more reliably, than humans. they're extensively utilized in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely utilized in manufacturing, assembly, packing and packaging, mining, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, safety, and therefore the production of consumer and industrial goods.
There are many sorts of robots; they're utilized in many various environments and for several different uses. Although being very diverse in application and form, all of them share three basic similarities when it involves their construction:
1. Robots all have some quite mechanical construction, a frame, form or shape designed to realize a specific task. for instance , a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks. The mechanical aspect is usually the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and handling the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function.
2. Robots have electrical components that power and control the machinery. For instance, the robot with caterpillar tracks would wish some quite power to maneuver the tracker treads. That power comes within the sort of electricity, which can need to travel through a wire and originate from A battery, a basic circuit. Even petrol powered machines that get their power mainly from petrol still require an electrical current to start out the combustion process which is why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries. The electrical aspect of robots is employed for movement (through motors), sensing (where electrical signals are wont to measure things like heat, sound, position, and energy status) and operation (robots need some level of electricity supplied to their motors and sensors so as to activate and perform basic operations)
3. All robots contain some level of programming code. A program is how a robot decides when or the way to do something. Within the track example, a robot that must move across a muddy road may have the right mechanical construction and receive the right amount of power from its battery, but wouldn't go anywhere without a program telling it to maneuver. Programs are the core essence of a robot, it could have excellent mechanical and electrical construction, but if its program is poorly constructed its performance are going to be very poor (or it's going to not perform at all). There are three differing types of robotic programs: remote, AI and hybrid. A robot with remote programming features a preexisting set of commands that it'll only perform if and when it receives a sign from an impact source, typically a person's being with a foreign control. it's perhaps more appropriate to look at devices controlled primarily by human commands as falling within the discipline of automation instead of robotics. Robots that use AI interact with their environment on their own without an impact source, and may determine reactions to things and problems they encounter using their preexisting programming. Hybrid may be a sort of programming that comes with both AI and RC functions in them.
As more and more robots are designed for specific tasks this method of classification becomes more relevant. for instance , many robots are designed for assembly work, which can not be readily adaptable for other applications. They’re termed as "assembly robots". For seam welding, some suppliers provide complete welding systems with the robot i.e. the welding equipment alongside other material handling facilities like turntables, etc. as an integrated unit. Such an integrated robotic system is named a "welding robot" albeit its discrete manipulator unit might be adapted to a spread of tasks. Some robots are specifically designed for heavy load manipulation, and are labeled as "heavy-duty robots".