Profile of Unemployed Youth of Liloan, Cebu: Some Proposals

Arts and Social Sciences Journal

ISSN: 2151-6200

Open Access

Research Article - (2022) Volume 13, Issue 6

Profile of Unemployed Youth of Liloan, Cebu: Some Proposals

Kaye Angelie E. Andrade, Arjie U. Icot*, Maybelle R. Pitogo and Ma. April Christine P. Suarez
*Correspondence: Arjie U. Icot, Department of Finance and Economics, Cebu Technological University, Cebu, Philippines, Email:
Department of Finance and Economics, Cebu Technological University, Cebu, Philippines

Received: 09-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. assj-22-66912; Editor assigned: 14-Jun-2022, Pre QC No. P-66912; Reviewed: 29-Jun-2022, QC No. Q-66912; Revised: 11-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. R-66912; Published: 18-Jul-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2151-6200.2022.13.514
Citation: Andrade, Kaye Angelie E., Arjie U. Icot, Maybelle R. Pitogo and Ma. April Christine P. Suarez. “Profile of Unemployed Youth of Liloan, Cebu: Some Proposals.” Arts Social Sci J 13 (2022): 514.
Copyright: © 2022 Andrade KAE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Unemployment youth is one of the major issues of Liloan. Unemployment has become an existing macroeconomic problem for developing and even developed countries. Determining the unemployment status of municipality of Liloan specifically the Barangay Yati, San Vicente, Tayud and Poblacion had much unemployed youth. Taking conveniently the profile which under the civil status, gender, location of residence, educational background. The results show that COVID-19 Pandemic worsen the situation of unemployment youth of Liloan and more, statistically tools used in this research are frequency count and percentage to analyze the results of the survey questionnaire and google Form. This can serve as their guide in looking for prospective employer in order to solve one the global crisis which is youth unemployment. Therefore, most of the unemployed youth are females and majority of the youth are Single and because of the enraging COVID-19 Pandemic causes the unemployment rate rises on the youth.


Employed • Unemployed • Youth


Unemployment has become an existing macroeconomic problem for developing and even developed countries. Despite the efforts of the government to lessen the rate of unemployment, the problem still exists and it negatively affects the unemployed population. The current national census tells that the Philippine population is at 102,377,484. More than six million individuals of this estimate or about 6.1 percent are unemployed; in the province of Misamis Oriental, around 5.6 percent of the population are presently unemployed. In January 2022, the country’s unemployment rate was reported at 6.4 percent. This translates to 2.93 million unemployed Filipinos, projecting a decline of 1.04 million from the 3.96 million reported in January 2021. The youth unemployment rate declined by -6.0 percentage points from 19.8 percent in January 2021 to 13.8 percent in the same month of 2022 [1-7].

Taken in the UNDP Annual Report 2020, one of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the Philippines is, Goal 8. It promotes inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all. Sustained and inclusive economic growth can drive progress, create decent jobs for all and improve living standards. Since COVID-19 has disrupted billions of lives and endangered the global economy. As job losses escalate, the International Labor Organization estimates that nearly half of the global workforce is at risk of losing their livelihoods. Even before the outbreak of COVID-19, one in five countries home to billions of people living in poverty were likely to see per capital incomes stagnate or decline in 2020. Now, the economic and financial shocks associated with COVID-19 such as disruptions to industrial production, falling commodity prices, financial market volatility and rising insecurity are derailing the already tepid economic growth and compounding heightened risks from other factors, based on the article published by United Nation Sustainable Development Corporation framework in Iraq,2021.

Furthermore, the youth labor markets in the Philippine economy are suffering a twin shock due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the current scenario, youngsters will almost certainly face greater longterm economic and social costs as poverty and inequality rise. The imbalanced labor market is also straining youth unemployment. “Jobs mismatch” is frequently blamed for the overstock of graduates in some professions and undersupply in others. Meanwhile, “Skill mismatch,” a shortage of construction manpower: Master carpenters, electricians, plumbers, painters, masons, welders and other artisans are among those who have been compelled to take time off due to the pandemic. Others depend upon the income employment provides and interest to find job since there is a pandemic. Youngsters require appropriate capabilities to navigate future, find the kind of job that will support them and their families in rapidly changing global economy.

This study aimed to gather information about the unemployment status of the youth in order to be endorsed to the Placement and Employment Services Office (PESO) of Liloan, Cebu. This can serve as their guide in looking for prospective employer in order to solve one the global crisis which is youth unemployment.


Research instrument

The researchers used Quantitative Method in gathering data. The research is conducted in an actual and online setting using survey questionnaire as the research instrument. The questionnaire will consist of close ended questions providing respondents number of option to choose response from.

Procedures of data gathering

In gathering the data, the researchers will use actual and online survey. In actual survey the researchers will distribute the printed questionnaire to every youth aged 19-25 yrs. old. In online survey the researchers will distribute the questionnaire through a link to a Google Form. The users or administrators considered as the researchers can invite respondents by electronic mail and can copy the link through social media such as Facebook and Messenger. The youth can respond to the online questionnaire from almost any web browser including mobile smart phones and tablet browsers by clicking the link sent by the research team.


As the researchers conducted the survey the total respondents of this study are two hundred fourteen (214), to show on what are the possible reasons of being unemployed. There are five (5) questions prepared so that the researchers can analyze of what are the reasons of unemployment. The 5 big impact of unemployment which youth choose it for the reason of not staying on their previous job. First is the Pandemic having 54 responses, not satisfied with the salaries that are chosen by 36 respondents, career challenge has 22, not related to course or program of studies has 21 and lastly the far residence has 13 responds. The 5 main reasons for not finding a job, first is COVID-19 pandemic with 135 responses, did not look for a job with 109 responses, not enough educational qualification with 77 responses, lack of experience with 67 and lastly under qualified with 59 responses. The basis of the researchers on how to come the result of the study is to gain answers came from the respondents in knowing the reasons of youth unemployment so that it will scatter by giving ways and opinions of what must be their action to lessen unemployment in the city or in our country. As the basic qualification in able to find a job, educational attainment is the most important as the top requirement, thus it really give a huge impact on the aspiring youth of liloan to have a higher educational attainment.

Results and Discussion

Treatment of data

The statistical tools used in this research are frequency count and percentage to analyze the results of the survey questionnaire and google Form. The frequency counts and the percentage were used to analyze the profile of the respondents with respect to the selected variables such as civil status, gender and location of residence and other (Figures 1-3). The reason for changing the job, reason for being unemployed, was also analyzed by frequency count and percentage. The only present type of employment used rank distribution. The rank was used for identifying the importance of the item used. The weighted mean was used for determining the degree of perception of the youth being unemployed as a respondent.


Figure 1. Civil status.


Figure 2. Gender.


Figure 3. Location of residence.

Respondent’s profile

The Respondents Profile is presented in Tables 1-3. In this section it presents their present civil statuses, permanent address and gender of the respondents that would help the researcher to analyze and conclude base on their data response.

Table 1: Frequency distribution of reasons for not staying on the job with percentage of total.

What are the reasons for not staying on that job? Frequency Percentage
Pandemic 54 23.58%
Not satisfied with the salaries 36 15.72%
Career challenge 22 9.61%
Not Related to course or program of studies 21 9.17%
Far from residence 14 6.11%
Family influence 13 5.68%
Lacking special skills 13 5.68%
Peer influence 9 3.93%
Pursue to my study 9 3.93%
Training or skills aren't being used 8 3.49%
Health reason 7 3.06%
Change Career 7 3.06%
Stay at home with Children 6 2.62%
Performance is unnoticed 4 1.75%
Proximity to residence 2 0.87%
Contract ended 1 0.44%
Full-time tambay 1 0.44%
I still don't have any formal employment yet 1 0.44%
Time conflict 1 0.44%
Total 229 100 %

Table 2:Frequency distribution of reasons for not finding a job with percentage of total.

Reason for not finding a job Frequency Percentage
COVID 19-Pandemic 135 21.77%
Did not look for a job 109 17.58%
Not enough educational qualification 77 12.42%
Lack of work experience 67 10.81%
Under qualified 59 9.52%
Family concerns 45 7.26%
Lack of transportation 27 4.35%
Health-related reason 22 3.55%
Lack of job opportunity 16 2.58%
Lack of in-demand skills 15 2.42%
Still student 13 2.09%
Childcare costs 9 1.45%
Peer Influence 8 1.29%
Family concern and decide not to find a job 7 1.13%
No job opportunity 6 0.97%
Showing by lack of passion 5 0.81%
Overqualified 0 0
Total 620 100 %

Table 3: Frequency distribution of respondents work preference with percentage of total.

Work Preference Frequency Percentage
Teacher 34 15.81%
Engineer 14 6.51%
Criminology 14 6.51%
Information Technology 9 4.19%
Office Work 9 4.19%
Medical Technology 7 3.25%
Accountant 7 3.25%
Marine Engr. 7 3.25%
Business man/women 7 3.25%
Nurse 6 2.79%
Culinary/HRM/HM 6 2.79%
Chef 6 2.79%
Flight Attendant 6 2.79%
Sales Lady 6 2.79%
In the field 5 2.33%
Doctor 5 2.33%
Care Giver 5 2.33%
Chief 5 2.33%
Psychology 4 1.86%
Pharmacist 3 1.40%
Call Center 3 1.40%
Social Worker 3 1.40%
Hotelier 3 1.40%
Tourism 3 1.40%
Architect 3 1.40%
Electrical. Engr. 3 1.40%
Manager 3 1.40%
Seaman 3 1.40%
Factory Worker 3 1.40%
Domestic Worker 2 0.93%
Cashier 2 0.93%
Computer Engr.  2 0.93%
Farmer 2 0.93%
Production Technician 2 0.93%
Wielder 2 0.93%
Pilot 2 0.93%
Room Attended 2 0.93%
Air Force 2 0.93%
Botanist 1 0.47%
Cruise Liner 1 0.47%
Seafarer 1 0.47%
Human Resource 1 0.47%
Fire Fighter 1 0.47%
Total 215 100%

Employment data

The employment data are presented below. In this section it presents the present employment status, why did not stay on that job, why did not find a job, preferred location of the job and preferred (Figures 4-6).


Figure 4. Educational background.


Figure 5. Employment status of previous work.


Figure 6. Preferred location for work.

Table 1 illustrates that pandemic caused big impact of unemployment which 54 (23.58%) youth choose it for the reason of not staying on their previous job. Followed by Not satisfied with the salaries who are chosen by 36 (15.72%) respondents, Career challenge has 22 (9.61%), Not related to course or program of studies has 21(9.17%), then 14 (6.11%) for the far the residence, 13 (5.68%) for the Family Influence and Lacking special skills. Peer influence and Pursue to my studies both have 9 (3.93%), training or skills aren’t being used has 8 (3.49%) and 7 (3.06%) on both health reason and change career. And 6 (2.62%) for the stay at home with children, then performance unnoticed which has 4 (1.75%) and proximity to residence has 2 (0.87%), the rest has 1 (0.44%).

Table 2 shows that the major reason for not finding a job is COVID-19 Pandemic which 135 (21.77%) of the youth choose this followed by Did not look for a job which got 109 (17.58%) response, Not enough educational qualification have 77 (12.42%), Lack or work experience got 67 (10.81%), Under qualified have 59 (9.52%), Family concerns which has 45 (7.26%), Lack of transportation have 27 (4.35%), Health-related concern has 22 (3.55%) and the Lack or job opportunity got 16 (2.58%) response, Lack of in-demand skills have 15 (2.42%), next is Still a student which responses of 13 (2.09%) youth, Children costs got 9 (1.45%), Peer influence have 8 (1.29%) response, Family concern and decided not to find a job has 7 (1.13%) response, third from the least is No job opportunity which has 6 (0.97%), Showing by lack of passion got only 5 (0.81%) responses and lastly, Overqualified which has 0 response. According to Tejvan Pettinger 2019, In the UK, youth unemployment has averaged higher than the main unemployment rate. The reasons for youth unemployed include first are Lack of qualifications and then Geographical Unemployment, Real Wage Unemployment, Lack of Graduate Jobs and lastly Cyclical Unemployment.

Table 3 illustrates that Teacher has the highest count of having preferred to work with which have 34 915.81%) response followed by Engineer and Criminology got 14 (6.51%) responses, next is Information Technology and Office Work has 9 (4.19%) response, (Medical Technology, Accountant, Marine Engineer and Business man/woman) got 7 (3.25%) response, (Nurse, Culinary/ HRM/HM, Chef, Flight Attendant and Sales Lady) have the same responses which is 6 (2.79%) and next is (In the field, Doctor, Caregiver and Chief) got only 5 (2.33%), Psychology has 4 (1.86%) response, (Pharmacist, Call Center, Social Worker, Hotelier, Tourism, Architect, Electrical Engineer, Manager, Seaman and Factory Worker) each of the work got 3 (1.40%) responses, next is (Domestic Worker, Cashier, Computer Engineer, Farmer, Production Technician, Welder, Pilot, Room Attendant and Air Force) has 2 (0.93%) response each, lastly, (Botanist, Cruise liner, Seafarer, Human Resource and Fire Fighter) which only got 1 (0.47%) response each.


The researchers have concluded that there is a lack of collaboration between the university to both local and abroad which results to a decreasing employment rate. Based on the data gathered mostly of the unemployed youth are caused by COVID-19 pandemic which a hindrance for them to look for a job, and some are decided not to look for a job, and as a common qualification to find a better job which is the not enough educational attainment and some state that lacking of job experience. Thus, the entire question helps the researchers to analyze the possible reasons of the youth and to prove that it leads to unemployment. The researchers also have some youth respondents experienced job, majority of the analysis made by the researchers made them quit or lose their job still the same of the majority reason of those unexperienced youth because of COVID-19 Pandemic, followed by not satisfied with the benefits and salaries and career challenge that gave them a hard time adopting with their field of work.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study focuses on the youth unemployed of Barangay’s in Lilo-an, Cebu which in Poblacion, Tayud, San Vicente and Yati of having difficulties in finding during COVID-19 pandemic. The selection of respondent’s covers only limited since many youths are unemployed during this pandemic. All the gathered data is based only on the respondents’ answers online and from actual survey, those who did not respond in the survey are beyond our capabilities.


The researchers would like to express their deepest appreciation to the remarkable persons that have lend their time and effort for the success of this study:

• To the Almighty God, who is the source of knowledge, the owner of our life strength and provider of our wisdom.

• Special Thanks to Mrs. Delfa Castilla our Methodology of Research Instructor, for her genuine encouragement, apprehension patience, guidance and knowledge were genuinely shared;

• To the Respondents, for giving their full cooperation, time and truthfulness in answering the survey questionnaire;

• To the beloved Parents, for their undying love and support especially to the researcher’s financial aspects and contribution.

• The Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, this piece of work is heartedly offer.


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