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Perceived Stress, Sleep Disturbances, and Symptoms of Depression among University Students with by the use of Mobile Phone Study
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Journal of Advanced Practices in Nursing

ISSN: 2573-0347

Open Access

Research - (2021) Volume 6, Issue 8

Perceived Stress, Sleep Disturbances, and Symptoms of Depression among University Students with by the use of Mobile Phone Study

AR. Bharathi*
*Correspondence: AR. Bharathi, Department of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Selaiyur, Chennai Tamil Nadu, India, Email:
Department of Nursing, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

To identify the socio demographic variables among college students To assess the level of stress among college students using mobile phones and study to assess the level of stress among college students regarding mobile addiction at Hindu mission college of Nursing, Tambaram Evaluate or estimate the nature, ability of quality calculate or value. The committee must access the relative importance of the issues. Stress is the “non - specific response body to any kind of demand made upon if'. Students enrolled in a college or university a college student who is teaching under the supervision of a certified teacher in order to qualify for a degree in education. Mobile addiction is defined as chronic or periodic obsession caused by repeated use of mobile phones, which may lead to intense and sustained demand and reliance.

Keywords

Mobile Phone •Stress •Population •Messaging •Alarm •Navigation

Introduction

The addition to use of mobile phone for communication people used cell phone for many features such as games access to the internet and social networks messaging, alarm, navigation. The concept and ideas of the adolescent with excessive mobile phone use leads to stress. College student are the most rapid adopters of cell phone technology and research suggests association between cell phone uses and their health and academic achievement with the direction of the latter association being party determined by the nature of task a student is engage in when using the cell phone [1,2]. Stress is a procure or tension exerted on a material object a state of mental or emotional strain or demanding circumstances. Addiction of mobile phone is mainly observed among the college students as they have the urge to always stay connected with their friends and peer to know about the latest happing among their friends. The students seen to be addicted to their cell phones with 64% of students observed on campus interacting with their device one way or another common health effects of cell phones amongst college students [3-5].

The fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance or activity is called addiction The two categories of addiction involve either substance addiction such as mobile phone addiction mobile phone addiction one of the forms of compulsive use of a mobile phone by adolescents across the world. A new kind of health disorders in this category among adolescent. 'Cell phone addiction health policy makers globally to think on this rapidly emerging by this high cell phone engagement and the current paper will we meta-analysis to discuss their addictive behavior [6].

In recent years, the use of cell phones has played a vital role in communication across the globe; citizens of the United States, like people in other countries, are consumed in the technological revolution. It is hard for members of generation who were born between the early 1980s and the early 2000s, to imagine a time to instant and constant communication was not a main focus for them socially [7]. A generation ago people left their home without any form of electronic device; made plans in person; wrote personal, hand-written letters ’’more than 90 percent of Americans adults have a cell phone some kind, and for the people under the age of 44, that number is closer to 97 percent.” For those with phones, particularly smart phones that allow individuals to instantly connect to anyone via the world wide web, personal, face-to-face connections seem to be disappearing at a rapid pace. In reaction, the McMillan family, of Ontario, Canada, conducted a social experiment were they “instituted a ban on technology invited after 1986.” This year-long experiment was not designed to punish the children, but rather to show then a simpler way of life, before the world was instantly connected [8].

Over the past several decades, the number of cell phones subscriptions in the United States has grown significantly as people’s reliance on this technology has increased. There were 681,000 cellular phone subscriptions in the United States in 1986 and 326.4 million in December 2012. As late as December 2002, there were no houses that relied solely on wireless devices, but in 2012, 35.8 percent U.S. households were wireless only. Throughout this study, we are tired to address the questions related to mobile addiction and analysis its consequent of level of stress. The mobile phone is a modern day invention which has managed to reach many parts of the world enabling tele communication across areas where it was not possible before .In the year 2000 there estimated 500million mobile phone users worldwide [9-10].

Today there is about 3.3billion uses. The use of mobile phone among college students is increasing dramatically. It is an intended need which is necessary to increase the awareness of the negative effects of excessive phone use in the day to day life of college students. Hence it requires the assessment of knowledge and attitude regarding the level of stress on using mobile phones. Prevalence of mobile phone over use depends largely on definition and thus the scales used to quantify a subject’s behaviors. Two scales are in use, the 20-Item self-reported problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) scales, and the mobile phone problem use scale (MPPUS), which have been used both with adult and adolescent populations. There are variation in the age, gender, and percentage of the population affected problematically according to the scales and definitions used. The prevalence among British adolescents aged 11-14 was 10%. In India, addiction is stated at 39-44% for this age group. Under different diagnostic criteria, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0 to 38%, with self-attribution of mobile phone addiction was 4.9-10.7% in Korea, and is now regarded as a serious public health issue [11,12].

Behaviors associated with mobile-phone addiction differ between genders. Women are more likely to develop addictive mobile phone behavior than men. Men experience less social stress than women and use their mobile phones less for social purposes. Older people are less likely to develop addictive mobile phone behavior because of different social usage, stress, and greater self-regulation. A nursing school / college is a type of educational institution or part there of Providing education and training to became a fully qualified nurse.

The nature of nursing education and nursing qualification varies considerably across the world. A concern to examine differences between students at the high school and college level conducted a research on a sample of students from 2 schools, private and public versus another sample of university students. The students were 15 also categorized into shy students [5]. Time spent using various type of technology in particular activities was defined in terms of categories denoting of the hours of use. The prevalence of mobile technologies is in itself a motivator to exploit them for learning [13].

Mobile technology is already widespread among teens. Presented that from a sample of 97 internet user the majority of participants (89%) perceived that the PC impacted their family relations. Of those participants, 45% cited a mostly positive impact; 24% a mixed impact and 20% a mostly negative impact. presented that 68% of smart phone owners access the internet or email on their handheld, including two-thirds (68%) who do so on a typical day. Also, 25% of smart phone owners say that they mostly go online using their phone, rather than with a PC. This supports our assumption that smart phones replaced PC as a mean of access to the internet. Focused on the behavioral and psychological aspects of cell phone usage among college students. They tried to find the reasons behind why a technology is adopted in a particular way. They identified several attitudinal factors based on the exploratory stud including, necessity in modern times, cost efficiency when compared to landline phone, safety of security, and dependency. The study also endeavored to look at the motivational and behavioral characteristics of mobile phone and usage. The authors tried to combine their results and the result of previous research to find the trends in usage by the youth, “why college students in the US use the cell phone, what they think of the technology and how they use it”. Conducted a study on Australian students and identified a higher usage rate of 1.5 hours - 5 hours a day. They also highlighted the financial costs, emotional stress, damaged relationships and falling literacy as adverse consequences of excessive usage. An additional consideration is that many people check their mobile phone regularly for missed messages or calls and keep their phone in close proximity (Walsh & White, 2006) without actually using their phone; behaviors’ which that are unlikely to be captured in measures of mobile phone use. Thus, measures relying on time or frequency of mobile phone use alone may not gauge adequately the extent to which people interact with their phones [11].

To overcome this limitation, some recent research has developed alternative measures of mobile phone behavior drawn from addiction literature which capture broader aspects of mobile phone behavior than level of use alone. The lowering of costs, which encouraged price wars among the cellular operators, and their promotions as fashionable technology has led to a massive boom in the mobile phone subscription levels, especially among the younger population. The new digital environment presented an exceptional array of possibilities for communication, interaction, and information retrieval at the fingertips that was never before available studied the relationship between cell phone usage and social interaction with others focusing on helping behavior in particular [14].The sample considered of 28 students of various communication courses. The result was that cell phone users are less likely to help strangers or to smile to them than non-cell phone users. Studied the pattern of usage of a new technology among school students. They concluded that boys spend more time on using mobile phone than girls do. Also, adolescents consume more time on using mobile phones on weekend than on casual week days. It reflects that various factors contribute towards the extent of mobile phone usage [15].

Materials and Method

This chapter deals with the brief description of varied steps undertaken by the investigator for the study. It includes the research approach, research design, variables, setting of the study, population, sample and sample techniques development and description of the tool, data collection procedure and plan for the data analysis.

Design

A descriptive research design was adopted to assess the level of stress regarding mobile addiction among college students at selected college at Tambaram.

Variable

The two categories of variable discussed under in this study where.

Dependent Variable

Level of stress regarding mobile addiction.

Attribute Variable

Age ,educational status educational status of the parent, type of family living, occupational status of the parents, economical status of the parent ,place of residence, year of present graduation, number of siblings in the family, pocket money per month.

Target Population

The target populations of the study were college students who are at Hindu Mission College of Nursing.

Assessable Population

The assessable population was 30 college students who were met the inclusion criteria at Hindu Mission College of Nursing, Tambaram.

Sample Characteristics and Selection

Sample

The samples of this study were college students with the age group (18- 20) years were available during the time of data collection at Hindu Mission College of Nursing, Tambaram.

Sample Size

A sample size of 30 college students with 18-20years selected for this study.

Sampling Technique

Non probability convenience sampling techniques were used to select the samples.

Inclusion Criteria

Students who are all studying at Hindu Mission College of Nursing.

Students who are all willing to participate in this study.

Exclusion Criteria

Subjects those who are not present during the time of data collection.

Section A

Socio demographic details such as age, educational status, educational status(Mother, Father),type of family living, occupational status(Mother, Father),economic status of parents(Father, Mother),place of residence ,year of present graduation, number siblings in the family, pocket money per month (Table 1).

S.NO Demographic variables Frequency Percentage (%)
1 Age
18 years 7 23%
19 years 15 50%
20 years 8 27%
2 B.SC (Nursing) 30 100%
3 Educational status of the father
Illiterate 4 13%
Primary 2 7%
Secondary 21 70%
Degree 3 10%
Educational status of the mother
Illiterate 6 20%
Primary 13%
Secondary 19 64%
Degree 1 3%
4 Type of family living
Nuclear 27 90%
Joint family 3 10%
5 Occupational status of the father
Employee 29 97%
Un employee 1 3%
6 Occupational status of the mother
A) employee 6 20%
B) un employee 24 80%
7 Economic status of the father
Above 10000 rs 20 67%
Below 10000 rs 9 30%
Nil 1 3%
8 Economic status of the mother
Above 10000 rs - -
Below 10000 rs 6 20%
Nil 24 80%
9 Place of residence
Urban 10 33%
Rural 20 67%
10 Year of present graduation
2nd year 10 33%
3rd year 20 67%
11 No of siblings
A) 1 11 37%
B) 2 11 37%
C) 3 4 13%
D) Nil 4 13%
12 Pocket money
A) 100-300 15 50%
B) 400-600 11 37%
C) 700-1000 3 10%
D) Nil 1 3%

Table 1: Description of demographic variables.

Section B

Self-structured scale. It is used to assess the level of stress among college students. It consists of Yes/No questions. It consists of 10 questions regarding stress.

Pilot Study

Pilot study is a trial run for the main study to assess the level of stress. The main objective of the pilot study is to help the researcher to become familiar with the use of tool and to find out the difficulties of main study .this study was conducted after getting a formal permission from the principal of Hindu Mission College of Nursing. It was conducted for a period of one week. Sample of 10 college students were selected by non-probability convenience sampling technique .informed consent was obtained from the college students before collection of data .Data were collected from the college students by administered self-structured questionnaire to assess the level of stress.

Results

Data analysis is the method of organizing data in such a way that the research questions can be answered. Interpretation is the process of making sense of results and of examining the implication of the findings with a border contacts. This deals with the analysis and interpretation of data collected from subjects with mobile addiction. The data collected was edited, tabulated, interpreted and findings obtained were presented in the form of tables and diagrams represent the following headings.

Section A: Frequency and percentage of demographic variables among college students

Section B: Level of stress among college students regarding mobile addiction

Table 2 show the distribution of population who belongs to 18 years was 7(23%) and 19 years were 15(50%) and 20 years were 8(27%). according to education 30(100%). According to their parents education Father illiterate were 4(13%) and primary were 2(2%) and secondary were 21(70%) and degree etc. were 3( 10%).mother illiterate were 6(20%) and primary were 4(13%) and secondary were 19(64%) and degree were 1 (3%). According to their type of family living Nuclear family were 27(90%) and joint family were 3(10%). according to occupational status of parents. Father employee were 29(97%) and unemployed were 1(3%). Mother employees were 6(20%) and employed were 24(80%). According to their economic status, Father above 10,000rs was 20(67%) and below 10,000rs was 9(30%) and nil were 1 (3%). Mother above 10,000rs was 0 and below 10,000rs was 6(20%) and nil were 24(80%). according to their place of residence Urban were 25(83%) and rural were 5(17%). Distribution of population according to their ear of present graduation 2nd year were 10(33%) and 3rd year were 20(67%). according to their number of siblings. No of siblings 1 were 11(37%) and 2 were 11 (37%) and 3 were 4(13%) and nil were 4(13%). according to pocket money. Rs 100-300 were 15(50%) and RS400-600 were 11(37%) and RS700-1000 were 3(10%) and Nil were 1(3%).

S.NO Level of stress score Frequency Percentage
1 Mild 5 17%
2 Moderate 11 36%
3 Severe 14 47%

Table 2: Frequency and distribution of samples according to level of stress.

Table 3 shows that distribution of subjects according to level of stress. Mild were 5(17%) and moderate were 11(36%) and severe were 14 (47%).

S.NO Level of stress Score
1 MILD 1-4
2 MODERATE 5-8
3 SEVERE 9-12

Table 3: Scoring scale.

Figure 1 shows the distribution of population. The population who belongs to 18 years was 7(23%) and 19 years were 15(50%) and 20 years were 8(27%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Population-According

Figure 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Population According to their Age.

Figure 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of population according to the education wise.

advanced-practices-nursing-Education-Wise

Figure 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Population According to the Education Wise.

Figure 3 shows the frequency and distribution of population. Father illiterate were 4(13%) and primary were 2(2%) and secondary were 21(70%) and degree etc. were 3(10%).mother illiterate were 6(20%) and primary were 4(13%) and secondary were 19(64%) and degree were 1 (3%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Educational-Status

Figure 3. Frequency and Distribution of Population According to the Educational Status of the Parents.

Figure 4 shows the frequency and distribution of population according to the type of family living. Nuclear family was 27(90%) and joint family were 3(10%)

advanced-practices-nursing-Family-Living

Figure 4. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Population According to their Type of Family Living.

Figure 5 shows that frequency and distribution of population according to occupational status of parents. Father employee were 29(97%) and unemployed were 1(3%). Mother employee were 6(20%) and employed were 24(80%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Occupational-Status

Figure 5. Frequency and Distribution of Population According to their Family Occupational Status

Figure 6 shows that the frequency and distribution of population according to their economic status. Father above 10,000rs were 20(67%) and below 10,000rs were 9(30%) and nil were 1 (3%). Mother above 10,000rs were 0 and below 10,000rs were 6(20%) and nil were 24(80%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Economic-Status

Figure 6. Frequency and Distribution of Population According to their Family Economic Status.

Figure 7 shows that frequency and percentage distribution of population according to their place of residence. Urban were 25(83%) and rural were 5(17%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Place-Residence

Figure 7. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Population According to their Place of Residence.

Figure 8 shows that the frequency and percentage distribution of population according to their number of siblings. No of siblings 1 were 11(37%) and 2 were 11 (37%) and 3 were 4(13%) and nil were 4(13%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Number-Siblings

Figure 8. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Population According to their Number of Siblings.

Figure 9 shows that the frequency and percentage distribution of population according to pocket money. Rs 100-300 were 15(50%) and RS400-600 were 11(37%) and RS700-1000 were 3(10%) and Nil were 1(3%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Pocket-Money

Figure 9. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Population According to their Pocket Money.

Figure 10 shows that distribution of subjects according to level of stress. Mild were 5(17%) and moderate were 11(36%) and severe were 14 (47%).

advanced-practices-nursing-Level-Stress

Figure 10. Distribution of Subjects According to Level of Stress.

Discussion

Our study results that the description of population. The population who belongs to 18 years was 7 (23%) 19 years were 15(50%) and 20 years were 8 (27%). Distribution of population according to education 30 (100%).Frequency and distribution of population father illiterate were 4(13%) primary were 2(2%) secondary were 21(70%) and degree etc., Were in illiterate mother 3(10%) were in primary 4(13%) secondary were 19(64%) and degree were 1(3%). According to the type of family living nuclear family were 27 (90%) and joint family were 3 (10%).According to occupational status of the parents. Father employee were 29(97%) and unemployed were 1 (3%).Mother employee were 6(20%).According to economic status of parents were father salary above 10,000rs were 20(60%) below 10,000rs were 9(27%) and nil were 1(3%). Mother salary above 10,000 were 0 and below 10,000rs were 6(20%) and Nil were 24(80%).According to the place of residence urban were 25(83%) and rural were 5(7%).According to the year of present graduation 2nd year were 10(33%) and 3rd year were 20(67%).According to pocket money RS 100-300 were 15(50%) RS 400-600 were 11(37%) and RS 700-1000 were 3(10%) and nil were 1(3%) [15,16]. The findings of our study consistent with the study which is conducted by chao. Giancola, et al. has conducted a study on demographic variables among college students. The total number of 50 students is selected. The students age group of 18-20 were 20(40%) 21-22 years were 18(36%) and 23-25years were 12 (24%).According to the type of family living were joint 10(20%) and nuclear family were 10(80%).According to the place of residence rural were 12(24%) urban were 28(56%)and slum were 10(20%) [17,18]. The second objective of the study is to assess the level of stress among college students regarding mobile addiction. Our study results that the level of stress mild was 5(7%) moderate were 11(36%) and severe were 14(47%). The findings of our study consistent with the study which is conducted by Nastaran Norouzi et al. The results indicate that 3 out of 55 respondents (5.45%) have severe level of addiction, 30 out of 55 respondents (54.54%) have moderate level of addiction and out 22 Out of 55 respondents (40%) have mild level of addiction. This is the most creative part of this study. This chapter gives a brief account of the present study including summary, findings and conclusion draw from the finding, limitation, recommendation, and nursing implication [19,20].

Among the college students who belongs in 18 years was 7(23%) and 19 years were 15(50%) and 20 years were 8(27%). According to educational status BSc nursing 30(100%). According to their parents education Father illiterate were 4(13%) and primary were 2(2%) and secondary were 21(70%) and degree etc. were 3(10%).mother illiterate were 6(20%) and primary were 4( 13%) and secondary were 19(64%) and degree were 1 (3%). According to their type of family living Nuclear family were 27(90%) and joint family were 3(10%). According to occupational status of parents Father Employee were 29(97%) and unemployed were 1(3%). Mother employees were 6(20%) and employed were 24(80%). According to their economic status, Father above 10,000rs was 20(67%) and below 10,000rs was According to their place of residence Urban were 25(83%) and rural were 5(17%). Distribution of population. According to their year of present graduation 2nd year were 10(33%) and 3,d year were 20(67%.

According to their number of siblings 1 were 11(37%) and 2 were 11 (37%) and 3 were 4(13%) and nil were 4(13%). According to pocket money Rs 100-300 were 15(50%) and RS400-600 were 11(37%) and RS700- 1000 were 3(10%) and Nil were 1(3%). The self-structured questionnaire was administered regarding mobile addiction among college students were assessed level of stress.

Conclusion

As the conclusion, stress is the combination of the physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions .Our study is conducted among students in Hindu mission, college of nursing to investigate the level of stress and recommend suitable and appropriate actions that can be taken to overcome the problem. The study concluded that the level of stress is assessed by self-structured stress scale, we can decrease the stress level.so researcher should educate the college students about the effects of stress. This chapter enlightens the importance of their research and reveals the effects of stress among college students.

Funding

No funding sources.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgement

The encouragement and support from Bharath University, Chennai, is gratefully acknowledged. For provided the laboratory facilities to carry out the research work.

References

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