Research Article - (2020) Volume 0, Issue 0
It has been recommended that; the disposal of industrial waste would be greatly reduced if it could be incorporated in concrete production. One of these possibilities is the substitution of the fine aggregate by marble waste (MW), which contributes to the reduction of natural resources consumption, while solving a waste management problem. The basic objective of this investigation is to examine the characteristics of concrete using MW as fine aggregate in proportions 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% by weight of cement. Several fresh and harden properties have been reviewed in the current paper. The results observed from the various tests depict that increase the slump value with the increase the percentage level of MW. Moreover, strength was increase up to 60% substitution of MW and then decreases gradually. Therefore, it is recommended to MW as fine aggregate up to 60% substitution.
Marble waste • Slump • Split tensile strength • Flexure strength • Compressive strength
The idea of sustainable development assumes that natural resources should be treated as limited goods and the wastes should be rationally managed. Increasing amounts of collected waste, up to 2500 million tons per year over the world  are encourage researcher to developed new method of disposal. In cement construction industry there are many possibilities to used waste materials in concrete . Waste can be used as a aggregate or cement in concrete.
For a good concrete mix, fine aggregates need to be clean, hard, strong, and free of absorbed chemicals and other fine materials that could cause the deterioration of concrete. Unfortunately, majority of the natural sand used (rolled sand: sand of river, dune sand, and sand of sea) is selected for the price and the availability . Properties of sand affect the durability and performance of mortar, as fine aggregate is an essential component of concrete.
Different industries are the source of waste which is produce as a byproduct during manufacturing process. It is suggested that Marble can be easily used in construction industry to prepare Cement Concrete . The subject of this paper is to used waste marble as fine aggregate obtain from marble industry. Actual figures about the quantity of waste produced in Pakistan from the marble industry are inaccessible since it is not calculated or monitored by the government or any other party. Other references estimate that 20 to 25% of the marble produced results in powder in the form of slurry during the cutting process . These by-products are present in the environment and contribute to pollution.
Since the ancient times marble has been frequently used as a building material. The industry’s disposing of the marble powder materials, which consist of very fine powder, today composes one of the environmental issues around the globe  usage of the marble dust in different industrial areas especially the paper, agriculture, glass and construction industries would help to protect the environment . During the mining process and in the polishing of marble stone, marble dust is perceived as a waste material .
Many developed countries have put in motion legal regulations with respect to the recovery of structural waste aiming to reduce the amount of waste and to ensure waste recycling . We have the example of Japan in front of us; a country which successfully increased the recycling rate of concrete waste up to 98% using waste material as aggregate . They recognized that the Marble Stone slurry produced during processing corresponds to about 40% of the final product from stone industry . They also reported that slump decrease with addition marble waste. Katuwal et al. also indicate that marble as fine aggregate decrease slump . They observed that compressive strength is increased up to 50% replacement of fine aggregate with marble waste which is about 12% higher than from control mix . Compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete is increased about 28% and 13% respectively at 50% replacement and then gradually decrease with the addition WMP . Resistance to acid of concrete containing waste marble was marginally low as in comparison to that of control concrete . The Resistance to acid of concrete containing waste marble was marginally low as in comparison to that of control concrete  suggests that marble slurry can be easily used in construction industry to prepare Cement Concrete .
In existing literature shows that a very scarce number of studies investigated the effects of marble as fine aggregate in cement concrete production. Therefore, more research is required to explore property of concrete modified with marble waste as a fine aggregate. Therefore, the present work used marble waste as fine aggregate in proportion of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% by weight to evaluate fresh and harden properties of concrete modified with marble waste.
Accordance to ASTM C150 , Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) type-1 was used in this research. Its chemical and physical properties are displayed in Table 1.
|Chemical Property||Percentage (%)||Physical Property||Results|
|CaO||64.7||Size||= 75 Âµ|
|Fe2O3||3.7||Initial Stetting Time||33 min|
|MgO||3.5||Final Stetting Time||410 min|
|SO3||2.9||Specific surface||322 m2/kg|
|Na2O||1.2||28-days compressive Strength||42 Mpa|
Fine aggregate and coarse aggregate
Locally available natural sand was used as a fine aggregate in all the mixes in saturated surface dry condition (SSD). Normal weight crush stone was used as coarse aggregate in saturated dry condition which was obtained from Margallah Wah Cantt Punjab, Pakistan. Different tests were performed on aggregate to evaluate its physical property as shown in Table 2 while gradation curve were shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 respectively.
|Physical Property||Fine aggregate||Coarse Aggregate|
|Particle size||4.75 mm to 0.075 mm||19.5 mm to 4.75|
|Bulk density (kg/m3)||1566||1575|
Waste Marble (MW)
Waste Marble (Mw) was procured from National marble factory industrial zone Peshawar Pakistan and grinded at PCSIR lab Peshawar. Different tests were performed on aggregate to evaluate its physical property as shown in Table 3 while gradation curve was shown in Figure 3.
|Chemical Property||Percentage (%)||Physical Property||Results|
|Fe2O3||8.23||Bulk density (kg/m3)||1480|
Size of specimen
Slump cone was used to determine the workability of fresh concrete as per ASTM . ASTM C39/C39M . Cylinder of standard size (150 × 150 mm) will be used to measure the compressive strength at 7 days & 28 days. Similar cylinders of standard size (150 × 300 mm) will be cast & tested to find their tensile strength. Beam of size (150 × 150 × 500 mm) will be casted and tested to find their flexure strength as per ASTM . Three specimens are tested for each test at 7&28 days and the mean value of the specimens is considered as strength” (Figures 2-4).
Sample preparation method
ASTM C-31  method was followed for the preparation of the specimens and compaction was done manually by Roding in three layers having 25 blows per layer. A total of 108 samples having a standard size will be cast & then will be tested. To study the effect of MW on the behaviors of hardened and fresh concrete, six mixes were prepared. Details of the mixes were provided in Table 4.
|Materials||Mix 1||Mix 2||Mix 3||Mix 4||Mix 5||Mix 6|
In this research marble waste was used as a fine aggregate in proportion of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% by weight of fine aggregate. Based on experimental work following conclusion has been drawn.
• Workability of concrete increased as percentage of marble waste increased. Highest slump was achieved at 100% substitutions of marble waste. It is due fact that marble has water absorption than natural sand. Hence more water is available for lubricant between the coarse aggregate particles.
• Strength (compressive, flexure and split tensile) increased up to 60% substitution of marble waste and beyond 60% the strength gradually decreased. It is due to fact that marble acts as a micro filler as they have less fineness modulus than natural sand, which fills the voids in sand and coarse aggregate, giving more dense concrete which results to enhance the mechanical performance.
• It can be concluded that, marble waste as fine aggregate can be used to improve the mechanical properties of conventional concrete. From the economic and environmental point of view this waste can be successfully used as fine aggregates in concrete production.
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.