Commentary - (2023) Volume 14, Issue 1
Received: 02-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. jhmi-23-91204;
Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2023, Pre QC No. P-91204;
Reviewed: 16-Jan-2023, QC No. Q-91204;
Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. R-91204;
, DOI: 10.37421/2157-7420.2023.14.459
Citation: Kindo, Akako. “A Short Note on Several Therapies in Skin Cancer.” J Health Med Informat 14 (2023): 459.
Copyright: © 2023 Kindo A. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer, affecting a significant number of people in numerous nations. The skin has a large surface area that is exposed to a variety of harmful environmental factors, including chemicals, toxic substances and ultraviolet rays. These environmental factors appear to cause abnormal cell growth and, in time, cancer. Melanoma Skin Cancer (MSC) or Non melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) is determined by the cellular origin of the skin cancer. Despite being the least prevalent type, melanoma is responsible for a significant number of deaths among patients with skin cancer. On the other hand, the incidence of NMSC is higher and it can be broken down into two categories: Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma, respectively. Melanoma can develop from cancerous cells that have metastasized and spread to other parts of the body. Melanoma may not be detected and treated promptly.
The most common method for destroying skin cancer cells is chemotherapy. However, it has a number of negative effects when used to treat skin cancer, including decreased bioavailability and systemic effects. Additionally, chemotherapeutic agents are unable to differentiate between cancerous and healthy cells. Consequently, nanotechnology emerges as an outstanding drug delivery solution. Utilizing polymer nanoparticles (NPs), this technology enables a versatile, biocompatible, biodegradable and nano sized delivery vehicle for the primary drug to reach the intended location. Through direct permeation and diffusion to cells or enhanced permeation and retention effects, prolonged NP circulation in cancer tissues increases drug availability [1,2].
The hard and horny stratum corneum multilayer, followed by dermis barriers, may make it difficult for NPs to travel across various skin layers and penetrate. NPs may transport the drug through skin appendages like sweat glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles may serve as reservoirs for polymeric NPs due to their deeper penetration and drug release into various skin layers, including the stratum corneum. Phagocytization and excretion of particles smaller than 10 nm are straightforward. Early and late endosomes fuse with the lysosome, diffuse into the cytoplasm and ultimately end up in the nucleus of target cells are all steps in the biological process of internalizing NPs in cells. They can also get into cells through the processes of pinocytosis or phagocytosis. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticle, such as its size, surface, topography and the nano bio interaction it has with the biological milieu, play a major role in their transport into the tumor.
The most prevalent type of skin cancer in the United States is nonmelanoma. The most prevalent type, BCC, accounts for approximately seventy percent of nonmelanoma skin cancers. The incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer appears to be rising in some, but not all, United States regions. There is a good chance that overall incidence rates in the United States have been rising for a number of years. At least some of this rise may be due to increased awareness of skin cancer and the subsequent examination and biopsy of skin lesions.
Because reporting to cancer registries is not required, neither the total number of nonmelanoma skin cancers nor their incidence rate can be precisely estimated. However, it has been estimated that the total number of people treated for nonmelanoma skin cancers in 2012 was approximately 3.3 million based on extrapolation of Medicare fee-for-service data to the population of the United States. This number is higher than the total of all other annual new cases of cancer that the American Cancer Society estimates to be about 1.9 million. Despite the fact that nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer.
A gel is a three-layered swellable polymeric organization with hydrophilic gatherings that are cross-connected by areas of strength for a power and can contain both hydrophilic and lipophilic medications. It is highly biocompatible, biodegradable, adaptable, stable and capable of controlled drug release. It is also widely used in drug delivery and biomedical engineering because it retains a significant amount of aqueous fluid without dissolving onto it. The gel system's polymeric network is crucial for controlling particle size and determining physicochemical properties and hydrophilicity; the polymeric network's small pores make it possible to accommodate small molecules [3-5].
In the modern era, bioactive agents derived from natural sources have been extensively utilized in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical preparations due to their extensive range of biological activity. Because these bioactive agents typically cause no harm and have minimal side effects and toxicity at appropriate doses, combining nanotechnology and phyto medicine may provide novel cancer treatment options. The activity of phyto constituents can be increased by encapsulating them in polymeric nano carriers. In order to boost the therapeutic potency and efficacy of drugs, several phyto-based NPs are being developed for site-specific targeting.