Journal of Health & Medical Informatics

ISSN: 2157-7420

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

    Dental Education 2020: Acceleration of Orthodontic Tooth Movement-Rabab Alsabbagh-Hama University

    Rabab Alsabbagh



    Introduction: The duration of orthodontic treatment is one of the issues patients complain about most, especially adult patients which maybe the reason beyond many refusals of undergoing orthodontic treatment [1]. To shorten orthodontic tooth movement times, various attempts have


    been made local or systemic administration of medicines, [2-5] mechanical or physical stimulation, [6,7] and oral surgery, including gingival fiberotomy, [8] alveolar surgery, [9] and distraction osteogenesis [1]. In 1959, Köle described a surgical procedure involved a radicular corticotomy and supraapical osteotomy. This was accomplished by creating blocks of bone with vertical buccal and lingual corticotomies and a


    supraapical horizontal osteotomy connecting cut to enable rapid movement of the dentoalveolar process [10,11]. Suya believed that a corticotomy was able to make tooth movement faster because of the simultaneous movement of the tooth and the surrounding bone block [12]. Wilcko et al. in a series of case reports [10,13] mentioned that rapid orthodontics with corticotomies could increase tooth movement by increasing bone turnover, decreasing bone density [14,15] and decreasing hyalinization of the periodontal ligament [1]. Frost found a direct correlation between the severity of bone corticotomy and/or osteotomy and the magnitude of the healing response, leading to accelerated bone turnover at the surgical






    site. This was called “Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon” (RAP). RAP was explained as a temporary stage of localized soft and hardtissue remodeling that resulted in rebuilding of the injured sites to a normal state through recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts via local


    intercellular mediator mechanisms involving precursors [16]. Bogoch found a five-fold increase in bone turnover in a long bone adjacent to a corticotomy surgery site. In alveolar bone adjacent to corticotomy, there is a marked increase in regional bone turnover due to activation of new remodeling. Calcium is released from alveolar bone creating a reversible demineralized condition (alveolar osteopenia) resulting in a decrease in bone mass (mineral content or density) but no change in bone volume [17]. According to Hajji, the active orthodontic treatment times in patients with corticotomies were 3 to 4 times shorter compared to those of patients without corticotomies [18]. According to Al Naoum et al. Tooth

    movement velocities following corticotomies were 2-4 times faster on the experimental side than on the control side particularly during the early stage after corticotomy [19]. Nowzari et al. stated in their case report, using a modified surgical approach and limiting the corticotomy to the buccal and labial aspects, that the PAOO was an effective treatment approach in adults in decreasing treatment duration and in reducing the risk of root

    resorption. Final lateral cephalometric analysis showed proclination of the upper and the lower anterior teeth [20]. Aljhani and Zawawi [21] applied the combined non-extraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient, 25 years old, with severely crowded dental arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Buccal and lingual corticotomies with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and the mandible were performed. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication          procedure           to           the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Compared with traditional orthodontic treatment, the PAOO procedure that combines the advantages of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics and periodontal alveolar augmentation offers the advantage of achieving the desired results in a significantly reduced treatment duration.

    Note: This work is partly presented at 25th International Conference on Dental Education during July 20-21, 2020 held at Florence, Italy

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Community-Based Survey Determining the Prevalence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Amongst the Baka and Bantu Populations in the Abong-Mbang Health District, Cameroon.

    Achangwa Chiara, Boock Alphonse

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global issue still affecting many people in different communities and community-level interventions maybe helpful in population-focused HIV prevention. The pygmy populations’ traditional hunter-gather life style is observed to be changing. Because of the transformations of the traditional lifestyles of pygmies caused by agriculture and infrastructure projects, their health situation too is observed to be changing. Numerous findings on HIV have been reported in literature but to the best of our knowledge, very few studies on the prevalence of HIV in the Baka people in the Abong-Mbang district of Cameroon exist. The study had as main objective to determine the prevalence of HIV in the Baka and Bantou communities who live and interact together.

    Method: A community based sero-epidemiologic survey of HIV infection was carried out. 529 people took part in the study. After pre-counselling, venous blood (3ml) was collected from each participant into an EDTA tube. Determine was used as the first-line test, Immunocomb® ELISA HIV-1/2 was used as a second line test and Western blotting was done as a confirmatory test. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package.

    Results: The HIV prevalence in the Baka community was found to be 2.1 %. The HIV-prevalence in the Bantou community was 4.8 %. The age group 41-50 years had the highest HIV-prevalence (8.06 %).  Life style factors that significantly affected the prevalence of HIV were; Knowledge about HIV, HIV prevention, and the presence of multiple sexual partners.

    Conclusion: Contrary to the local believes of absence of HIV in the Baka population, HIV is shown to exist. Baka people’s knowledge about HIV/AIDS is limited. Educating on HIV prevention will be important to control the spread in the Baka community.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Managing the intersection of global healthcare innovation in Value-based healthcare systems

      Singithi Chandrasiri

      Innovative transformation is currently creating monumental impacts across the world. Whether it be the exponential development of artificial intelligence and robotic surgical platforms or the adoption of value based health care systems, global health systems are facing the challenges of leading innovation for delivering better healthcare.  In spite of health care reform efforts around the world, unwarranted variation, frequent errors, and unsustainable costs continue to persist.

      To solve our global healthcare crisis, we must begin to reorient health care around value for patients, we must nurture and equip our clinical leaders with new and specific skills to lead this transformation and we must begin to move away from the zero-sum competition nature that our health system is structured around. We must incorporate healthcare innovations as part of an overarching outcome based value generating assessment in the management of health services.

      This presentation will explore Michael Porter’s teachings of generating positive-sum competition to achieve value based healthcare, present strategies for financial incentivising of health providers, funders and regulators and will discuss the intersection of value in medical robotics and artificial intelligence. Adopting a global perspective, this presentation will further explore the key leadership personas and leadership styles essential in the monumental shift from volume to value based healthcare systems in leading the future of robotics and artificial intelligence.

      This session will be relevant for all healthcare stakeholders -providers, funders, employers, clinicians and administrators, in looking at how we can adapt and embrace the monumental transformation towards value based healthcare that is facing our industry today

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Aziz Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Amir and Maqsood Ahmad

        Department of Pharmacy Services is a part of the clinical support services available in LRH-MTI. Pharmacy informatics lab was established with an aim to develop an interdepartmental drug information system that will record individual patient's medications history, drug allergies, prescribed and dispensed medications and current as well as past drug treatments. The prime focus of the system is to perform automatic drug-interaction checks while adding to the patients' medication profiles. With the establishment of the first Pharmacy informatics lab of the region, the department of pharmacy services LRH-MTI has achieved two major objectives; implementation of electronic prescribing and administration systems and pharmacy information management system. Vigorous and ongoing trainings of all healthcare professionals including pharmacists, prescribers, nursing team, technicians and nursing care assistants by the faculty of Pharmacy informatics lab, collaboration of information technology professionals and the commitment of all other health care professionals towards digitalization helped achieved this goal.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Brazilian Patient Summary Exchange Health Data Using IPS and FHIR

          Neusa Andrade* and Jair G. M Torres

          This paper summarizes a successful experience in a Brazilian small city that improve its health infrastructure that became to exchange information reducing many duplicate records and unnecessary costs and also build engagement of health agents and citizens using a set of free tools provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (BUHS) and health data acquisition through Quality Tools as PDCA and DMAIC and Communities of Practice (CoP) to engage stakeholders, without extra costs for the municipality. The experience inspired in best practices of International Patient Summary (IPS) by exchanging messages that use Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR). The main contribution of this paper is to present general lines of steps to collect data aiming to fulfill a task of HL7 Workgroup that systematized IPS parameters with National Network Health Data (NNHD) using FHIR generating an Implementation Guide.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Detection of Brain Tumor Using Digital Image Processing

            Sheeba Khan*

            Brain tumor detection is an important task in medical image processing. Early diagnosis of brain tumors plays an important role in improving treatment possibilities and increases the survival rate of the patients. The detection of brain tumor from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is a vital, but time consuming task performed by medical experts. The knowledge of this information regarding tumor in the brain is important for diagnosis planning and treatment..The location of the brain tumor and precise size are detected with brain tumor detection. Sometimes MRI brain images corrupted by some noise. In this project we specially focus on detecting tumor from brain MRI images. By using thresholding technique extraction of the tumor takes place and then calculates the tumor area.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Auto-Identification in Dentistry: A Detailed Analysis and the Literature Review of Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Dental Care

            Preetham Kodimoole*

            This literature review is a short analysis of the technological utilization of the auto-identification in the healthcare field, especially in dentistry. The expedient of the utilization of RFID tags in dentistry is quite astonishing which provided good results exhibiting a pathway for advanced technological future by designates of auto-identification in the field of Healthcare including the field of dentistry. In this report, we are having a detailed summary on the technicalities of the utilization of RFPD in dentistry including the forensic science (forensic odontology).

              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              Editorial Note on Human Malaria Control Strategies

              Chen Jiang*

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              Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

              Control of Vector-borne Diseases

              Daniel Petras*

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              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              Predicting Sedative Implantation Occasions

              Jose Javier*

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                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

                Association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women in Oman

                Hana ALSumri, Linda Fiaschi, Jack Gibson, Manpreet Bains, Lisa Szatkowski

                Objectives: To examine the association between PCOS and selected metabolic, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women and their newborns.

                Methods: Cohort study using electronic hospital records from two tertiary hospitals in Oman. Data were collected from 922 women, contributing 1,939 pregnancies and 1,721 live born infants, in the period from 1 January 2006 to 31 May 2017. Metabolic, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in the 305 women with a diagnosis of PCOS were compared to outcomes in 617 women without PCOS using multivariable multilevel regression models.

                Results: Women with PCOS were more likely to develop adverse metabolic outcomes during pregnancy compared to women without PCOS, including developing gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) 3.79, 95% CI 2.22, 6.48) and pregnancy induced hypertension (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.26, 6.24). The odds of adverse birth outcomes of miscarriage (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.92, 6.71) and preterm delivery (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.94, 6.16) were also higher, as was the risk of undergoing emergency caesarean section (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.80, 6.86). Infants born to mothers with PCOS were not at increased risk of macrosomia, low weight for gestational age or low APGAR score, but they were more likely to require admission to a neonatal unit (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.10, 5.27).

                Conclusions: Pregnant women in Oman with PCOS are at a significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders during pregnancy and several adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. Close antenatal monitoring will help early detection and control of metabolic disorders and timely intervention.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                  Factors Related with Time to Cessation of Breastfeeding amongst Mothers who have Children Birth to Three Years of Age in Mekelle Town, Tigray Region: Retrospective Follow up Study

                  Kelali Tesfaye Techane*, Dinkesa Aklilu Bezu

                  Background: Human milk is very important for infant nourishing. Scholars in the field recommend that mothers begin early and only breast milk for their new born babies until the age of 6 month. Infants should breast fed until the age of two and above besides supplementary foods.

                  Purpose: The main objective of the study is to assess the time to cessation of breastfeeding in mothers with children aged birth to three years in Mekelle town, 2019.

                  Methods: A retrospective follow up study was conducted at Mekelle town from November 2018/2019 to April 30, 2019. A probability sampling technique was used to select 503 mother-child pairs. Data was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data entered in to EPI-data before exported to SPSS 23. Bivariate cox was used to identify factors associated with cessation of breast feeding and multivariate cox proportional regression models were used to prevent the effect of cofounding.

                  Results: Cessation of breast-feeding incidence rate before 24 months was 3.017 per 100 person-months. Above 54.3% of study subjects were found breastfeeding for 2 years long. After removing potential cofounders’ maternal employee, mode of delivery, first feeding and bottle feeding were importantly related with time to cessation of breastfeeding.

                  Conclusion: According to this study cessation of breastfeeding was virtuous. Maternal occupation, time of solid food introduction, bottle feeding, maternal depression and first feeding were significantly associated to cessation of breastfeeding.

                  Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

                  Rhabdomyolysis in an Obese Patient Prompting Renal Disappointment: A Case Report

                  Wasinee Wisesrith*

                  Rhabdomyolysis is one of the feared confusions following delayed medical procedure in an extremely chubby patient normally brought about by muscle ischemia/reperfusion or squash wounds and if not perceived well in time prompts expanded bleakness and mortality. We report an instance of beefy beyond belief quiet who created rhadomyolysis with intense renal disappointment after medical procedure for lumbar trench decompression and spinal combination.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                    Performance Analysis of Data Mining Algorithms: Breast Cancer Predictive Models

                    Appiah Stephen* and Adebayo Felix Adekoya

                    DOI: 10.37421/2157-7420.2022.13.426

                    One out of eight women over their lifetime will be diagnosed of breast cancer and it is recorded to be the world major cause of women’s deaths. Data mining methods are an effective way to classify data, especially in medical field, where those methods are widely used in diagnosis and analysis to make decisions. In this study, a performance comparison between five different data mining technique: Random forest, random tree, Bayes net, Naïve Bayes and J48 on the breast cancer Wisconsin (Diagnostic) data set is conducted. It is aimed to assess the correctness in classifying data with respect to efficiency and effectiveness of each algorithm in terms of accuracy, precision, sensitivity/recall and specificity. Experimental outcome indicates that Bayes net and random forest gives the highest weighted average accuracy of 97.1% with lowest type I and II error rate. All experiments conducted in WEKA data mining tool.

                    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

                    A Deep Learning based Clinical Decision Support System for Malaria Diagnosis and Detection

                    Alamu Femi O, Abiodun Adeyinka O* and Jinadu Ahmad Adekunle

                    DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2157-7420.2022.13.427

                    Malaria remains one of the major challenges faced in healthcare in Africa, especially in Nigeria with an estimated 300,000 children killed by malaria annually. Apart from low doctor to patient ratio in Nigeria, poor diagnosis is another major cause of increase in malaria death rate.

                    This research developed a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) to detect malaria infected patients using deep and machine learning technique. For this, we developed an in-depth learning method from camera captured Giemsa-stained thin blood smear slides from 150 Plasmodium Falciparum infected and 50 non-infected patients from a national center for biomedical communications. The dataset contains 27,558 cell images with equal number of malaria infected and non-infected cell images which are 13,779. The architecture of the proposed model predicted patient’s malaria status and was evaluated using 5-fold cross-validation. The images were preprocessed and resized after which the learning stage began. Deep learning and classification were carried out using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The CNN model was trained by using Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) and Nesterov’s momentum to optimizing the multinomial logistic regression objective. The proposed model achieved a training accuracy of 99%, validation accuracy of 97%, 40% train loss, 35% validation loss a 98% prediction.

                      Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

                      Social Media Use for Healthcare in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

                      Behailu Haile*

                      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7420.2023.14.466

                      Background: The application of SM in healthcare is increasing from time to time, which might highly benefit patients, professionals, and healthcare providers. Studies suggested that patients, professionals, and healthcare providers’ use of SM for healthcare purposes could significantly benefit individuals and institutes to improve healthcare management. However, little is known about the use of social media in healthcare in developing countries, this systematic review is based on the objective of exploring the uses of SM in healthcare in developing countries and identifying effective SM platforms used in healthcare in developing countries.

                      Methods: We developed the search strategy, which includes five databases: PubMed, Science direct, ERIC, IEEE, and Google scholars. Searching on those databases included all English language studies published since 2018 and discussed SM use in developing countries for health care. Searching was conducted between October 2021 and July 2022.

                      Results: The search obtained 1535 article titles based on the search strings formed by the combination of keywords. Of the total searched article titles, each database has a share of Pubmed=241, ERIC=222, Science direct=995 and IEEE=77 of these 16 studies are identified as relevant. From studies included in the review the number of articles is in South Africa (4), Nigeria (4), Ghana (2), Cameroon (1), China (2), Pakistan (1), Colombia (1), and Indonesia (1). 37.5% of the included studies were focused on the use of SM for organizing healthcare campaigns and promotion, 18.75% of the included studies were focused on the application of SM for healthcare information sharing, of the included studies 18.75% of them discussed the use of SM for health communication, and 25% of the included studies focused on SM content analysis. It is identified that Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Instagram, Wechat, Nairland, WhatsApp, Grindr, Wikipedia, Google Plus, and LinkedIn were the SM platforms used by the authors of the included studies as interventions to conduct their research.

                      Conclusion: This review gave a significant view on the uses of SM in developing countries for healthcare and identified SM platforms that are effective for healthcare. In doing so, in the review, we understand that the use of SM is not only limited to social and individual interactions for social affairs; it also has a great role in healthcare sectors. The use of SM in healthcare in developing countries improves healthcare activities such as campaign organizations, information sharing and healthcare communication by increasing the access and availability of relevant healthcare information.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                      Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Workers on Routine Data Reporting at two Public Hospitals in Namibia.

                      Indileni Nakale*, Ndilimeke Elia and Jomin George

                      DOI: 10.37421/2157-7420.2023.14.477

                      Background: The study purpose was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers on data routine reporting where doctors and nurses from Walvis Bay and Windhoek central hospitals were participants. The aim of the study was to evaluate healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding routine data reporting.

                      Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted and quantitative method was used for data collection. Probability sampling method was used to randomly draw a sample size of 102, where 51 participants were drawn from each hospital. Respondents were given self-administered structured questionnaires, and data were analyzed using google forms and Microsoft excel. The data were compiled and summarized using cross-tabulations.

                      Results: The results indicated that among 102 respondents, the majority of respondents (n=59; 58%) were aware of the key components of data routine reporting and more than half of the respondents (n=75; 74%) have knowledge of what data routine reporting is. Workload was one of the contributors which are the highest chosen as more than 44% of healthcare workers complain of time constraints due to workload. 39% of healthcare workers indicated that they had not received proper training on the data reporting system and more than half 63% were not trained occasionally.

                      Conclusion: HCWs from both hospitals showed an excellent level of knowledge and practice toward reporting however, bad attitude was determined to be their main weakness. Finally, occasional training and hiring administrators were highly recommended.

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