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Journal of Health & Medical Informatics

ISSN: 2157-7420

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

    Dental Education 2020: Acceleration of Orthodontic Tooth Movement-Rabab Alsabbagh-Hama University

    Rabab Alsabbagh

    Abstract

     

    Introduction: The duration of orthodontic treatment is one of the issues patients complain about most, especially adult patients which maybe the reason beyond many refusals of undergoing orthodontic treatment [1]. To shorten orthodontic tooth movement times, various attempts have

     

    been made local or systemic administration of medicines, [2-5] mechanical or physical stimulation, [6,7] and oral surgery, including gingival fiberotomy, [8] alveolar surgery, [9] and distraction osteogenesis [1]. In 1959, Köle described a surgical procedure involved a radicular corticotomy and supraapical osteotomy. This was accomplished by creating blocks of bone with vertical buccal and lingual corticotomies and a

     

    supraapical horizontal osteotomy connecting cut to enable rapid movement of the dentoalveolar process [10,11]. Suya believed that a corticotomy was able to make tooth movement faster because of the simultaneous movement of the tooth and the surrounding bone block [12]. Wilcko et al. in a series of case reports [10,13] mentioned that rapid orthodontics with corticotomies could increase tooth movement by increasing bone turnover, decreasing bone density [14,15] and decreasing hyalinization of the periodontal ligament [1]. Frost found a direct correlation between the severity of bone corticotomy and/or osteotomy and the magnitude of the healing response, leading to accelerated bone turnover at the surgical

     

     

     

     

     

    site. This was called “Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon” (RAP). RAP was explained as a temporary stage of localized soft and hardtissue remodeling that resulted in rebuilding of the injured sites to a normal state through recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts via local

     

    intercellular mediator mechanisms involving precursors [16]. Bogoch found a five-fold increase in bone turnover in a long bone adjacent to a corticotomy surgery site. In alveolar bone adjacent to corticotomy, there is a marked increase in regional bone turnover due to activation of new remodeling. Calcium is released from alveolar bone creating a reversible demineralized condition (alveolar osteopenia) resulting in a decrease in bone mass (mineral content or density) but no change in bone volume [17]. According to Hajji, the active orthodontic treatment times in patients with corticotomies were 3 to 4 times shorter compared to those of patients without corticotomies [18]. According to Al Naoum et al. Tooth

    movement velocities following corticotomies were 2-4 times faster on the experimental side than on the control side particularly during the early stage after corticotomy [19]. Nowzari et al. stated in their case report, using a modified surgical approach and limiting the corticotomy to the buccal and labial aspects, that the PAOO was an effective treatment approach in adults in decreasing treatment duration and in reducing the risk of root

    resorption. Final lateral cephalometric analysis showed proclination of the upper and the lower anterior teeth [20]. Aljhani and Zawawi [21] applied the combined non-extraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient, 25 years old, with severely crowded dental arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Buccal and lingual corticotomies with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and the mandible were performed. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication          procedure           to           the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Compared with traditional orthodontic treatment, the PAOO procedure that combines the advantages of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics and periodontal alveolar augmentation offers the advantage of achieving the desired results in a significantly reduced treatment duration.

    Note: This work is partly presented at 25th International Conference on Dental Education during July 20-21, 2020 held at Florence, Italy

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Community-Based Survey Determining the Prevalence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Amongst the Baka and Bantu Populations in the Abong-Mbang Health District, Cameroon.

    Achangwa Chiara, Boock Alphonse

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global issue still affecting many people in different communities and community-level interventions maybe helpful in population-focused HIV prevention. The pygmy populations’ traditional hunter-gather life style is observed to be changing. Because of the transformations of the traditional lifestyles of pygmies caused by agriculture and infrastructure projects, their health situation too is observed to be changing. Numerous findings on HIV have been reported in literature but to the best of our knowledge, very few studies on the prevalence of HIV in the Baka people in the Abong-Mbang district of Cameroon exist. The study had as main objective to determine the prevalence of HIV in the Baka and Bantou communities who live and interact together.

    Method: A community based sero-epidemiologic survey of HIV infection was carried out. 529 people took part in the study. After pre-counselling, venous blood (3ml) was collected from each participant into an EDTA tube. Determine was used as the first-line test, Immunocomb® ELISA HIV-1/2 was used as a second line test and Western blotting was done as a confirmatory test. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package.

    Results: The HIV prevalence in the Baka community was found to be 2.1 %. The HIV-prevalence in the Bantou community was 4.8 %. The age group 41-50 years had the highest HIV-prevalence (8.06 %).  Life style factors that significantly affected the prevalence of HIV were; Knowledge about HIV, HIV prevention, and the presence of multiple sexual partners.

    Conclusion: Contrary to the local believes of absence of HIV in the Baka population, HIV is shown to exist. Baka people’s knowledge about HIV/AIDS is limited. Educating on HIV prevention will be important to control the spread in the Baka community.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Managing the intersection of global healthcare innovation in Value-based healthcare systems

      Singithi Chandrasiri

      Innovative transformation is currently creating monumental impacts across the world. Whether it be the exponential development of artificial intelligence and robotic surgical platforms or the adoption of value based health care systems, global health systems are facing the challenges of leading innovation for delivering better healthcare.  In spite of health care reform efforts around the world, unwarranted variation, frequent errors, and unsustainable costs continue to persist.

      To solve our global healthcare crisis, we must begin to reorient health care around value for patients, we must nurture and equip our clinical leaders with new and specific skills to lead this transformation and we must begin to move away from the zero-sum competition nature that our health system is structured around. We must incorporate healthcare innovations as part of an overarching outcome based value generating assessment in the management of health services.

      This presentation will explore Michael Porter’s teachings of generating positive-sum competition to achieve value based healthcare, present strategies for financial incentivising of health providers, funders and regulators and will discuss the intersection of value in medical robotics and artificial intelligence. Adopting a global perspective, this presentation will further explore the key leadership personas and leadership styles essential in the monumental shift from volume to value based healthcare systems in leading the future of robotics and artificial intelligence.

      This session will be relevant for all healthcare stakeholders -providers, funders, employers, clinicians and administrators, in looking at how we can adapt and embrace the monumental transformation towards value based healthcare that is facing our industry today

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Establishing and implementing the role of pharmacy informatics lab in a tertiary care hospital

        Aziz Ullah Khan*, Muhammad Amir and Maqsood Ahmad

        Department of Pharmacy Services is a part of the clinical support services available in LRH-MTI. Pharmacy informatics lab was established with an aim to develop an interdepartmental drug information system that will record individual patient's medications history, drug allergies, prescribed and dispensed medications and current as well as past drug treatments. The prime focus of the system is to perform automatic drug-interaction checks while adding to the patients' medication profiles. With the establishment of the first Pharmacy informatics lab of the region, the department of pharmacy services LRH-MTI has achieved two major objectives; implementation of electronic prescribing and administration systems and pharmacy information management system. Vigorous and ongoing trainings of all healthcare professionals including pharmacists, prescribers, nursing team, technicians and nursing care assistants by the faculty of Pharmacy informatics lab, collaboration of information technology professionals and the commitment of all other health care professionals towards digitalization helped achieved this goal.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Brazilian Patient Summary Exchange Health Data Using IPS and FHIR

          Neusa Andrade* and Jair G. M Torres

          This paper summarizes a successful experience in a Brazilian small city that improve its health infrastructure that became to exchange information reducing many duplicate records and unnecessary costs and also build engagement of health agents and citizens using a set of free tools provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (BUHS) and health data acquisition through Quality Tools as PDCA and DMAIC and Communities of Practice (CoP) to engage stakeholders, without extra costs for the municipality. The experience inspired in best practices of International Patient Summary (IPS) by exchanging messages that use Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR). The main contribution of this paper is to present general lines of steps to collect data aiming to fulfill a task of HL7 Workgroup that systematized IPS parameters with National Network Health Data (NNHD) using FHIR generating an Implementation Guide.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Detection of Brain Tumor Using Digital Image Processing

            Sheeba Khan*

            Brain tumor detection is an important task in medical image processing. Early diagnosis of brain tumors plays an important role in improving treatment possibilities and increases the survival rate of the patients. The detection of brain tumor from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is a vital, but time consuming task performed by medical experts. The knowledge of this information regarding tumor in the brain is important for diagnosis planning and treatment..The location of the brain tumor and precise size are detected with brain tumor detection. Sometimes MRI brain images corrupted by some noise. In this project we specially focus on detecting tumor from brain MRI images. By using thresholding technique extraction of the tumor takes place and then calculates the tumor area.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Auto-Identification in Dentistry: A Detailed Analysis and the Literature Review of Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Dental Care

            Preetham Kodimoole*

            This literature review is a short analysis of the technological utilization of the auto-identification in the healthcare field, especially in dentistry. The expedient of the utilization of RFID tags in dentistry is quite astonishing which provided good results exhibiting a pathway for advanced technological future by designates of auto-identification in the field of Healthcare including the field of dentistry. In this report, we are having a detailed summary on the technicalities of the utilization of RFPD in dentistry including the forensic science (forensic odontology).

              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              Editorial Note on Human Malaria Control Strategies

              Chen Jiang*

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              Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

              Control of Vector-borne Diseases

              Daniel Petras*

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              Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

              Predicting Sedative Implantation Occasions

              Jose Javier*

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                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 6

                Association between polycystic ovarian syndrome and adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among women in Oman

                Hana ALSumri, Linda Fiaschi, Jack Gibson, Manpreet Bains, Lisa Szatkowski

                Objectives: To examine the association between PCOS and selected metabolic, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women and their newborns.

                Methods: Cohort study using electronic hospital records from two tertiary hospitals in Oman. Data were collected from 922 women, contributing 1,939 pregnancies and 1,721 live born infants, in the period from 1 January 2006 to 31 May 2017. Metabolic, pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in the 305 women with a diagnosis of PCOS were compared to outcomes in 617 women without PCOS using multivariable multilevel regression models.

                Results: Women with PCOS were more likely to develop adverse metabolic outcomes during pregnancy compared to women without PCOS, including developing gestational diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) 3.79, 95% CI 2.22, 6.48) and pregnancy induced hypertension (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.26, 6.24). The odds of adverse birth outcomes of miscarriage (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.92, 6.71) and preterm delivery (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.94, 6.16) were also higher, as was the risk of undergoing emergency caesarean section (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.80, 6.86). Infants born to mothers with PCOS were not at increased risk of macrosomia, low weight for gestational age or low APGAR score, but they were more likely to require admission to a neonatal unit (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.10, 5.27).

                Conclusions: Pregnant women in Oman with PCOS are at a significantly increased risk of metabolic disorders during pregnancy and several adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. Close antenatal monitoring will help early detection and control of metabolic disorders and timely intervention.

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Journal of Health & Medical Informatics received 1306 citations as per Google Scholar report

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