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Journal of Health & Medical Informatics

ISSN: 2157-7420

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 11, Issue 4 (2020)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    A Community-Based Survey Determining the Prevalence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Amongst the Baka and Bantu Populations in the Abong-Mbang Health District, Cameroon.

    Achangwa Chiara, Boock Alphonse

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global issue still affecting many people in different communities and community-level interventions maybe helpful in population-focused HIV prevention. The pygmy populations’ traditional hunter-gather life style is observed to be changing. Because of the transformations of the traditional lifestyles of pygmies caused by agriculture and infrastructure projects, their health situation too is observed to be changing. Numerous findings on HIV have been reported in literature but to the best of our knowledge, very few studies on the prevalence of HIV in the Baka people in the Abong-Mbang district of Cameroon exist. The study had as main objective to determine the prevalence of HIV in the Baka and Bantou communities who live and interact together.

    Method: A community based sero-epidemiologic survey of HIV infection was carried out. 529 people took part in the study. After pre-counselling, venous blood (3ml) was collected from each participant into an EDTA tube. Determine was used as the first-line test, Immunocomb® ELISA HIV-1/2 was used as a second line test and Western blotting was done as a confirmatory test. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package.

    Results: The HIV prevalence in the Baka community was found to be 2.1 %. The HIV-prevalence in the Bantou community was 4.8 %. The age group 41-50 years had the highest HIV-prevalence (8.06 %).  Life style factors that significantly affected the prevalence of HIV were; Knowledge about HIV, HIV prevention, and the presence of multiple sexual partners.

    Conclusion: Contrary to the local believes of absence of HIV in the Baka population, HIV is shown to exist. Baka people’s knowledge about HIV/AIDS is limited. Educating on HIV prevention will be important to control the spread in the Baka community.

    Extended Abstract Pages: 1 - 3

    Dental Education 2020: Acceleration of Orthodontic Tooth Movement-Rabab Alsabbagh-Hama University

    Rabab Alsabbagh

    Abstract

     

    Introduction: The duration of orthodontic treatment is one of the issues patients complain about most, especially adult patients which maybe the reason beyond many refusals of undergoing orthodontic treatment [1]. To shorten orthodontic tooth movement times, various attempts have

     

    been made local or systemic administration of medicines, [2-5] mechanical or physical stimulation, [6,7] and oral surgery, including gingival fiberotomy, [8] alveolar surgery, [9] and distraction osteogenesis [1]. In 1959, Köle described a surgical procedure involved a radicular corticotomy and supraapical osteotomy. This was accomplished by creating blocks of bone with vertical buccal and lingual corticotomies and a

     

    supraapical horizontal osteotomy connecting cut to enable rapid movement of the dentoalveolar process [10,11]. Suya believed that a corticotomy was able to make tooth movement faster because of the simultaneous movement of the tooth and the surrounding bone block [12]. Wilcko et al. in a series of case reports [10,13] mentioned that rapid orthodontics with corticotomies could increase tooth movement by increasing bone turnover, decreasing bone density [14,15] and decreasing hyalinization of the periodontal ligament [1]. Frost found a direct correlation between the severity of bone corticotomy and/or osteotomy and the magnitude of the healing response, leading to accelerated bone turnover at the surgical

     

     

     

     

     

    site. This was called “Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon” (RAP). RAP was explained as a temporary stage of localized soft and hardtissue remodeling that resulted in rebuilding of the injured sites to a normal state through recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts via local

     

    intercellular mediator mechanisms involving precursors [16]. Bogoch found a five-fold increase in bone turnover in a long bone adjacent to a corticotomy surgery site. In alveolar bone adjacent to corticotomy, there is a marked increase in regional bone turnover due to activation of new remodeling. Calcium is released from alveolar bone creating a reversible demineralized condition (alveolar osteopenia) resulting in a decrease in bone mass (mineral content or density) but no change in bone volume [17]. According to Hajji, the active orthodontic treatment times in patients with corticotomies were 3 to 4 times shorter compared to those of patients without corticotomies [18]. According to Al Naoum et al. Tooth

    movement velocities following corticotomies were 2-4 times faster on the experimental side than on the control side particularly during the early stage after corticotomy [19]. Nowzari et al. stated in their case report, using a modified surgical approach and limiting the corticotomy to the buccal and labial aspects, that the PAOO was an effective treatment approach in adults in decreasing treatment duration and in reducing the risk of root

    resorption. Final lateral cephalometric analysis showed proclination of the upper and the lower anterior teeth [20]. Aljhani and Zawawi [21] applied the combined non-extraction orthodontic treatment with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient, 25 years old, with severely crowded dental arches to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Buccal and lingual corticotomies with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxilla and the mandible were performed. The total treatment time was 8 months with no adverse effects observed at the end of active treatment. The addition of the decortication          procedure           to           the conventional orthodontic therapy decreased the duration of treatment significantly. Compared with traditional orthodontic treatment, the PAOO procedure that combines the advantages of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics and periodontal alveolar augmentation offers the advantage of achieving the desired results in a significantly reduced treatment duration.

    Note: This work is partly presented at 25th International Conference on Dental Education during July 20-21, 2020 held at Florence, Italy

    16th World Congress on Healthcare & Technologies (2020)

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Managing the intersection of global healthcare innovation in Value-based healthcare systems

      Singithi Chandrasiri

      Innovative transformation is currently creating monumental impacts across the world. Whether it be the exponential development of artificial intelligence and robotic surgical platforms or the adoption of value based health care systems, global health systems are facing the challenges of leading innovation for delivering better healthcare.  In spite of health care reform efforts around the world, unwarranted variation, frequent errors, and unsustainable costs continue to persist.

      To solve our global healthcare crisis, we must begin to reorient health care around value for patients, we must nurture and equip our clinical leaders with new and specific skills to lead this transformation and we must begin to move away from the zero-sum competition nature that our health system is structured around. We must incorporate healthcare innovations as part of an overarching outcome based value generating assessment in the management of health services.

      This presentation will explore Michael Porter’s teachings of generating positive-sum competition to achieve value based healthcare, present strategies for financial incentivising of health providers, funders and regulators and will discuss the intersection of value in medical robotics and artificial intelligence. Adopting a global perspective, this presentation will further explore the key leadership personas and leadership styles essential in the monumental shift from volume to value based healthcare systems in leading the future of robotics and artificial intelligence.

      This session will be relevant for all healthcare stakeholders -providers, funders, employers, clinicians and administrators, in looking at how we can adapt and embrace the monumental transformation towards value based healthcare that is facing our industry today

    Relevant Topics

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