Brief Report - (2021) Volume 7, Issue 6
Date of Submission: 05-Nov-2021
Citation: Smith, Olivia. “A Report on Dental Implantology and Dental Biomaterials.” Oral Heath Case Rep 7(2021): 40.
Copyright: © 2021 Smith O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Interfacial adhesion of materials to underlying dental hard tissues adequate to endure external occlusal stresses is required for successful dental restorative and prosthetic treatment results. Interfacial adhesion is often produced using resin-based adhesives and priming chemicals, but the integrity of natural interphases of hard tissues is typically obtained with a mineralized constitution. The calcium phosphate minerals of carbonated hydroxyl apatite are found in dental hard tissues such as dentin, enamel, and cement, and the contact between the tissues is generally hardened by collagen fibrils. Dental materials scientists have been trying for a long time to bio mineralize dentin beneath restorations in order to biometrically fortify undamaged dentin. In the field of implantology, biomaterials scientists have coined the term "bioactive" to describe materials that are linked together by a biomineralized interface.
There appears to be a misunderstanding among dental scientists, doctors, and businesspeople about how much biomineralization can be produced with dental materials and which materials are suitably labelled "bioactive" or "biomineralizing." All materials employed in dental reconstructions are biomaterials in general, even if they only have a reconstructive function. Specialist adhesives can be used to fix them to the dental tissues. This distinguishes dental materials from a wide range of other biomaterials that come into active or passive contact with live cells, with attachment either through cell activity or a specific chemical reaction or event between the material and the tissue. Depending on the context, the phrase "bioactivity" has a variety of meanings. Bioactive materials, in the broadest sense, are materials that can have a biological impact or are biologically active, and create a link between tissues and the substance.
The word "bioactivity" is also used in the field of tissue engineering to describe the cellular effects caused by the release of biologically active chemicals and ions from the biomaterial, such as bioactive glasses used in both soft and hard tissue engineering applications. Thus, bioactivity in medicine refers to any interactions between materials and live cells and tissues, including the effects of medications. Bioactivity of a material in biomaterial science, including bio ceramics and bioactive glasses, typically means that the material may generate hydroxyl apatite mineral on its surface in vitro and in vivo. Mineralization is a qualitative attribute of a material, or a material combination, in which the surface chemistry, surface structure, and properties of the surrounding liquid microenvironment allow it to happen. It makes no difference whether the mineralizing ions are released by the biomaterial or are already present in the aqueous milieu.
Is it thus the substance that releases ions for biomineralization that is bioactive, or the substrate on which the biomineralization occurs? In fact, the formation of calculus on the surface of enamel and dentin is an example of biomineralization: saliva and gingival crevicular fluid are saturated with ions that cause biomineralization, and dentin and enamel perfectly fulfill the requirement of a natural bioactive substrate, despite the fact that tissue substrates are not generally considered bioactive. Remineralization of early caries lesions is another example of this type of bioactivity. Biomineralization of the restorative material is undesired in the majority of dental restorations. Although the dentine or enamel beneath the repair may benefit from interfacial biomineralization, restorative materials should have no or limited propensity for biomineralization, which can lead to calculus development.
This is a key distinction between dental materials and other surgical materials, particularly bone-replacing implants that rely on the biomineralized layer for bone integration. Bioactive glasses, a kind of silicate glass, have been utilized effectively as implant materials, but they may also be employed in restorative and endodontic materials. Bioactive glasses, on the other hand, should convert to hydroxyl apatite in a regulated and timed way. As a result, the bioactivity of dental materials is determined by their ability to promote precise and purposeful mineral attachment to the dentin substrate. Resin composites, glass polyalkenoate cements, and ceramics with amorphous and crystalline phases are the most often utilized dental materials for tooth rebuilding. Glass polyalkenoate cements and calcium silicates used in endodontics are examples of materials that can leach ions and may play a role in biomineralization.
Dissolution of calcium aluminofluoro silicate glass particles from glass ionomer cements enhances contact with dentin's hydroxyl apatite, making the process bioactive. Dental resin composites are composed out of a thermoset (photocured) resin matrix filled with glass, ceramic particle, or fibre fillers that aren't meant to leak ions. The fillers' purpose is to improve the material's physical characteristics while also changing its look. In general, thermoset resin composites are not designed to release significant amounts of calcium, phosphorus, or fluoride, which might be important for dentin and enamel biomineralization. As a result, there is no scientific support for the overuse of phrases like "bioactive" and "biomineralizing" in commercial advertising.
Scientific advancements are anticipated to be seen in the formulation of resin composites and adhesive systems that use bioactive glasses that may rapidly release particular ions to increase the lifespan of dental restorations and treatment outcomes, as well as the healing of dental hard tissues. Antimicrobial agents and cell activity-promoting chemicals for osteogenesis and neovascularization in implant applications are among the other substances being studied. However, it is currently recommended that the terms "bioactive" and "biomineralization" in relation to dental materials be limited to scientifically proven materials and material combinations that release significant quantities of ions for specific biomineralization in the material's clinical environment.