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Pharmacology Articles Open Access

Pharmacology branch of medicine that deals with the interaction of drugs with the systems and processes of living animals, especially, the mechanisms of drug action also as the therapeutic and other uses of the drug.

Clinical pharmacology dates back to the center Ages, and William Withering (1741-1799) was one among the first founders of this field of study. However, it was not until halfway through the 19th century that it progressed further as a scientific discipline. This was largely due to the advancements in biomedical science at that time.

Throughout the 19th and 20th century, the sector of pharmacology as a biology continued to develop and its discoveries began to be applied during a therapeutic setting.

This has helped to bring about great advances in the field of medicine over the past century. Pharmacology also can specialise in specific systems comprising the body. Divisions associated with bodily systems study the consequences of medicine in several systems of the body. These include neuropharmacology, within the central and peripheral nervous systems; immunopharmacology within the system. Other divisions include cardiovascular, renal and endocrine pharmacology. Psychopharmacology, is that the study of the consequences of medicine on the psyche, mind and behavior,[citation needed] like the behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs.[citation needed] It incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, and is curious about the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of psychoactive drugs.[citation needed] The related field of neuropsychopharmacology focuses on the effects of drugs at the overlap between the nervous system and the psyche.


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