Pharmacogenetics Innovations | Open Access Journals

Pharmacoeconomics: Open Access

ISSN: 2472-1042

Open Access

Pharmacogenetics Innovations

Personalized medicine is that the use of pharmacogenetics to know how a private can enjoy specific drugs. Personalized or precision medicine is emerging within the treatment of human diseases and management supported each individual’s genetic pattern and response to drugs categorized into two areas: 1) pharmacogenetics and 2) pharmacogenomics1–5. Pharmacogenetics is that the study of DNA structural variations and impact on drug metabolism, efficacy and tolerability. DNA remains stable and does not change with time or age. Pharmacogenetics is most frequently supported the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, primarily found within the liver and involves genes coding for the assembly of cytochrome P450 enzymes6–9. The response to medications depends on each individual’s ability to metabolize drugs with most drugs weakened by this enzyme system hooked in to the genetic makeup of every person. Pharmacogenomics is that the study of DNA and RNA characteristics impacting gene function but can change or be influenced by factors (e.g., environment)10–12. Hence, pharmacogenetics deals with single genes and their structure while pharmacogenomics relates to gene function influenced by the environment, both can play a task in human disease including drug metabolism. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics as important key tools in development and testing of latest drugs and their impact in treating individuals with human disease. The idea that genetic variation can be used to individualise drug therapy—the topic addressed here—is often viewed as within reach for genomic medicine. We have reviewed general mechanisms underlying variability in drug action, the role of genetic variation in mediating beneficial and adverse effects through variable drug concentrations (pharmacokinetics) and drug actions (pharmacodynamics), available data from clinical trials, and ongoing efforts to implement pharmacogenetics in clinical practice.

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