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Journal of Clinical Research

ISSN: 2795-6172

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Clinical Research and GCP Training Perspective with Newly Developed Attitude Scale for Medical Students

    Meral Demir

    Background: The authors discuss the components of clinical research and GCP training programs in successful medical education curricula and introduce a development of clinical research scale first time for evaluation in medical and clinical pharmacology clinical research practices.

    Methods: “Retrospective descriptive research” method was preferred for data collection and classification. The study group consists of third grade medical students who volunteered to be evaluated. These students were asked to fill in the form, and the pool of statements was compiled. Literature screening and expression pools selected words, were converted into sentences with attitude expression. A 5-point Likert-type scale consisting of 12 items was prepared through the questionnaire study. The scale study with 150 students was included. Sample size was calculated in order to evaluate the correlation of item total score.

    Results: The sample size was “very good” (KMO=0.864). Barlett’s test of shericity (p<0.001) was significant. Cronbach’s alpha value of the scale was 0.91. This value indicates that the scale degree is in "very good" for reliability, validity and sample size. This scale is suitable for correlation matrix factor analysis; the sample adequacy degree is "very good". The reliability coefficient of Guttman (rt=0.830) and Spearman-Brown (rsb=0.831), which represent the scale divided into two, were found.

    Conclusion: These GCP trainings can be included in the curricula and newly developed scale was able to evaluate students' attitudes towards clinical research and can be used in future education.

    Research registration: “Retrospective descriptive research”

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Buerger's Disease: Autoimmune Disease Involving Multiple Hypersensitivity Types

      Portia Ping Zheng* and Wanchao Wang

      Background: Burger’s disease is an autoimmune disease? And what is the immunological pathogenesis? It has not been deeply researched but still attracts the attention of scholars. In our early study we reported that TAO may be an autoimmune disease involving hypersensitivity Type III and Type IV.

      Methods: In this study we further explored the immune pathogenesis of TAO based on initial research.

      Results: We detected humoral immunity (Ig E) in 28 cases using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antigen-antibody complex depositing on the vessel wall in 18 cases, and anti-vessel antibodies in 28 cases using three kinds of immune-labeling techniques (immunofluorescence labeling, immunoenzymatic staining and immuno-gold-silver staining). The result shows Ig E levels were significantly high (P<0.01). As high as 86% of anti-vessel antibodies in serum were found (P<0.001), and the auto-antibodies against the vessel were combined directly with vascular collagen. Antigen-antibody complexes deposited on the vascular wall.

      Conclusions: These findings further confirm TAO is an autoimmune disease involving multiple hypersensitivity reactions. This is mainly Type III hypersensitivity and type II in addition to type IV. The elevated Ig E suggest that TAO may a type I hypersensitivity involved.

      Trial registration: Not applicable.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 11

        Global Pandemic Trends of COVID-19 in 2020

        Hai-Zhen Chen, Bo Cai, and Jian-Guo Chen*

        Purpose: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has been global threaten to public health. This paper provides perspective to the decision-making for public health control of the pandemic or the spread of epidemic. Methods: According to the WHO global reported database, we developed and used the number of cumulative cases, and the number of cumulative deaths to calculate and analyze rates of incidence, mortality, and fatality by country, with respect to the 30 highest outbreak (Top 30) countries. Results: As of December 31, 2020, of the global population of 7.585 billion, the cumulative number of reported cases was 81,475,053, and the cumulative number of deaths was 1,798,050. The incidence rate of COVID-19 was 1074.13 per 100,000 population, the mortality rate was 23.70 per 100,000, and the case fatality rate was 2.21%. Among the Top 30 countries, the five countries with the highest number of reported cumulative cases were, in rank, the United States (19,346,790 cases), India (10,266,674), Brazil (7,563,551), Russia (3,159,297) and France (2,556,708), and the five countries with the highest number of cumulative deaths were the United States (335,789 cases), Brazil (192,681), India (148,738), Mexico (123,845) and Italy (73,604). Globally, the countries with the highest incidence rate were, in rank, Andorra, Luxembourg, Montenegro, San Marino, and Czechia; the countries with the highest mortality rate were, in rank, San Marino, Belgium, Slovenia, Italy, and North Macedonia. The highest fatality rate was found in Yemen, Mexico, Montserrat, Isle of Man, and Ecuador, respectively. In China, 96,673 cases of COVID-19 and 4788 deaths were reported in 2020, ranking the 78th and the 43rd, respectively, in the world. The incidence rate and mortality rate were 6.90/105 and 0.34/105, respectively, ranking 207th and 188th in the world. The case fatality rate was 4.95%, ranking 11th in the world. Conclusion: The COVID-19 prevalence is still on the rise, and the turning points of incidence and mortality are not yet forecasted. Personal protection, anti-epidemic measures and efforts from public health personnel, medical professionals, biotechnology R and D personnel, effectiveness of the vaccination programs and the governments, are the important factors to determine the future prevalence of this coronavirus disease.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Retrospective Study on Prevalence of Burn Injury among Children at St Francis Referral Hospital Morogoro Tanzania

        Theresia A. Karuhanga, Magreth E. Macha, Baltazary Theobald Sakurani, Lilian Them, Mabusi Mgabo, Mayoka Rashidi, Fassil Tekie, Frida R Mgonja

        Introduction: Burn is an injury resulting from extreme temperature, chemicals or electricity. Fire-related burns are the most cause of death for children. Infants are at high risk consisting a global rate ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 deaths per 100 000 population. Methodology: The study involved children aged between 2 to 9 years who were admitted due to burn injuries from January 2014 to December 2018. The hospital based study was conducted and data were collected by using medical records. Results: The totals of 9125 were admitted during the period and surgical conditions accounted about 12% of total pediatric admissions. Among these 291 were enrolled with M: F 1.8:1. Scald was the common cause of burn in this population 213 (73%), children of 2yeas were the most affected group by 32.3% (94) and the mortality rate was 1.7%. Conclusion: Majority of childhood burn injuries at this hospital are scald and most affected children with two years of age which give a needs of community based education of children and infant protection from burn injury.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

          Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Unattended Home Deliveries in Sunkutu Village of Kasama DistrictZambi

          Matthews Katepa

          Background: Unattended home delivery is when the pregnant woman is unassisted or only attended by a lay person, perhaps their spouse, family, friend, or a non-professional birth attendant, sometimes also called free-births. The prevalence of home deliveries shows regional variations with South East Asia showing values reaching as high as 65%; Europe less than 2% and Africa with estimates reaching as high as 62% in some areas. In sub-Saharan Africa, statistics on deliveries that occurred at home showed prevalence rates of 19% in Namibia, 43%in Malawi, 52% in Zambia and 53% in Tanzania. At the provincial level, 68.4%of the deliveries in Northern Province occurred at home followed by Central Province and Luapula Province at 66.1 percent and 64.3 percent respectively. Home deliveries in developing countries that are largely unplanned, accidental and unhygienic have contributed to ninety-nine percent of maternal deaths occurring worldwide. Births occurring outside the health facility in Zambia are more likely to have pregnancy complications that may result in maternal and fetal deaths due to lack of skilled attendance. Socioeconomic variables and physical distance from a health facility influence the place of delivery. Sunkutu village is one of the rural areas in Kasama District with high maternal morbidity and mortality. No particular study has been done in the area on prevalence and risk factors of home deliveries hence this study. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of unattended home births in Sunkutu village of Kasama District. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was employed aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of unattended home births in Sunkutu Village of Kasama District. The target population will comprise women of child bearing age (15-49 years).

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Levels of First Aid Knowlege amongst Secondary Pupils at Three Selected Schools in Ndola, Zambia

          Bwalya Mutale

          Introduction: First Aid is immediate care given for the purpose of preserving life and minimizing the consequences of injury and illness until help, from trained medical workers is obtained. The likelihood of an injury or accident victim living or dying depends on the timeliness of the aid given. On a global scale, someone dies every 5 seconds as a result of an injury, over 15000 people’s lives are cut short every day and about 5.8 million people die in a year. Survival is greatly increased if bystanders quickly begin applying first aid. Therefore, this study aims to assess the levels of first aid knowledge in secondary pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was carried out among pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. The data collection tool that was used is a self-administered questionnaire. A two stage sampling method was used. Firstly, a non-probability sampling method was used to select schools. Thereafter, classes and their respective pupils were sampled randomly. A sample size of 376 was used. The study was carried out at Chiluba Secondary School, Lubuto Secondary School and Ndola Skill School. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20, and categorical variables were analysed using chi Square. Results: In this study, majority of the participants had poor knowledge (87.8%), followed by those with average knowledge (6.4%), then those with no knowledge (5.3%) and finally those with good knowledge (0.5%). The mean score was 3.70, the median was 4.00, the mode was 3, the standard deviation was 2.008 and the sum was 1393. It was found that there is an association between levels of first aid knowledge and exposure to first aid information from the media, receiving first aid knowledge from guardians and religion. However, there was no association between levels of first aid knowledge and age, economic status, opinion, being taught first aid at school and being a member of a first aid club. It was found that the factors that influence levels of first aid knowledge include exposure to first aid information from the media and receiving first aid information from guardians.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

          Awareness and Perception of Factors Associated With Maternal Mortality among Men/ Husbands of Women Attending Antenatal at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Copperbelt Province, Zambia

          Richwell Makoli, and Paul syapila

          Background: Most studies related to maternal mortality have focused mainly on women and direct clinical causes. However, it is important to look at the background predisposing factors in order to reduce maternal deaths. Men’s involvement in reproductive health is recommended. Their involvement in antenatal care service is identified as important in maternal health. Awareness of obstetric danger signs facilitates men in making a joint decision with their partners regarding accessing antenatal and delivery care. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and perception of factors associated with maternal mortality among men/ husbands of women attending antenatal at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Copper belt province, Zambia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2021 using a structured questionnaire to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness levels, perception, knowledge of factors associated with maternal mortality and the role of men in antenatal care. A total of 316 respondents (men/husbands of women attending antenatal care) were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Data were analysed based on descriptive statistics, chi- square and Fisher's exact test using SPSS version 21. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The results were presented using tables and charts. Results: Awareness scores show that approximately 56% of the respondents had high awareness level, while 34.4% had low awareness level and 9.6% had average level. Delay/problems of going to the hospital in case of an emergency was the most commonly identified (97.2%) maternal mortality risk factor and Lack of preparation for a pregnancy was the least identified (31.9%). Perception of maternal mortality risk factors was negative in just above half (51.9%) of the respondents. There was a statistically significant relationship between educational level; occupation with both awareness and perception scores.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

          The Prevalence of Prostate Cancer among Urology Neoplasms at Ndola Teaching Hospital

          Ali Mwanza

          Background: Cancer of the Prostate is one of the leading cause of cancer death in men and its incidence rates are expected to continue escalating. Globally it is the second most common cancer affecting older men and it presents with a need to urinate frequently, weak and dribbling of urine, painful urination, and blood is seen in urine or semen. Aim: was to determine the pattern and distribution of Urology neoplasms, particularly cancer of the prostate gland seen at Ndola Teaching Hospital. Methodology: In this study a retrospective cross section study design was used, data was collected and sampled by complete enumeration of all urology patient’s files that visited Ndola Teaching Hospital from June 2018 to August 2020. Out of a total of 404 urology patients files enrolled, 212 were diagnosed urological neoplasms. Data entry involved tabulations and use of SPSS software for analysis. All information collected was confidentially handled in accordance with the ethics. Ethical approval was obtained from Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC) and permission to conduct the study at the health institution was granted by both the Provincial Health Office and Hospital administration. Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer among urological neoplasms seeing at NTH was found to be 44.3%. It is densely distributed and more common between the ages of 70 to 79 years old. Other urological neoplasm such as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Penile Cancer, Bladder Cancer, Kidney Cancer and Testicular cancer recorded the prevalence of 42.9%, 6.1%, 6.1%, 0%, 0.5% respectively. No single case was recorded above the age 90 this could be due to patients dying before reaching the age of 90. Conclusion and recommendations: At this prevalence of 44.3%, there is need to implement screening strategies, sensitize and encourage people to always visit hospital care for regular checkups, more especially when the male gender starts to advance in age and experiencing symptoms of the impending prostate cancer. Although there is no strong evidence yet on how to fully prevent prostate cancer, it is very possible to lower the risks of developing it by stopping to take alcohol, to cease smoking, limit high fat foods, increasing the intake of vegetables and fruits and performing more exercise.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          First Aid Knowledge among Secondary Pupils at Three Selected Schools in Ndola, Zambia

          Bwalya Mutale

          Introduction: First Aid is immediate care given for the purpose of preserving life and minimizing the consequences of injury and illness until help, from trained medical workers is obtained. The likelihood of an injury or accident victim living or dying depends on the timeliness of the aid given. On a global scale, someone dies every 5 seconds as a result of an injury, over 15000 people’s lives are cut short every day and about 5.8 million people die in a year. Survival is greatly increased if bystanders quickly begin applying first aid. Therefore, this study aims to assess the levels of first aid knowledge in secondary pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was carried out among pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. The data collection tool that was used is a self-administered questionnaire. A two stage sampling method was used. Firstly, a non-probability sampling method was used to select schools. Thereafter, classes and their respective pupils were sampled randomly. A sample size of 376 was used. The study was carried out at Chiluba Secondary School, Lubuto Secondary School and Ndola Skill School. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20, and categorical variables were analysed using chi Square. Results: In this study, majority of the participants had poor knowledge (87.8%), followed by those with average knowledge (6.4%), then those with no knowledge (5.3%) and finally those with good knowledge (0.5%). The mean score was 3.70, the median was 4.00, the mode was 3, the standard deviation was 2.008 and the sum was 1393. It was found that there is an association between levels of first aid knowledge and exposure to first aid information from the media, receiving first aid knowledge from guardians and religion. However, there was no association between levels of first aid knowledge and age, sex, economic status, opinion, being taught first aid at school and being a member of a first aid club. It was found that the factors that influence levels of first aid knowledge include exposure to first aid information from the media and receiving first aid information from guardians. Conclusion: Overall, first aid knowledge amongst secondary school pupils at the three selected school in Ndola Zambia was poor. The mean score was 3.70 which is poor knowledge. It is recommended that first aid training be added to the school curriculum as this will allow a good number of students to be reached over a period of time Furthermore, awareness of first aid should be raised through the media, campaigns and brochures. Finally, it is recommended that like studies be conducted in the future.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

          Assessment of Knowledge Attitude and Practice about Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among Women of Ndola, District Zambia

          Chishimba Sharon

          Introduction: Zambia currently has an estimated number of 1.2 million people living with the HIV virus and approximately 800, 000 of these are on life saving Antiretroviral therapy. According to UNAIDS, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zambia is much higher in women as compared to men standing at 11.2% for women and 7.3% for men aged 20-24. This implies that as more women become infected, mother to child transmission continues to be a challenge. The general objectives where to access knowledge, attitude and practice about mother to child transmission of HIV among mothers of Ndola district, Zambia. Method: This was an institutional-based cross sectional study conducted in Ndola from the 15th of December 2020 to 10th of February 2021.The study enrolled women attending antenatal clinic at new masala clinic. Data was collected through structured questionnaire, data was entered into SPSS version 26 and was then analyzed. Frequencies, percentages, chi square -association as well as linear regression were manipulated Results: A total of 384 women were enrolled in the study, 44.3% were in the age group of 16-24. 24% had attained tertiary level of education. All of the participants (100%) had received information about HIV/AIDS but there was a substantial amount of knowledge about MTCT of HIV/AIDS. Only 60.2% knew that once positive a pregnant woman could transmit the HIV infection to unborn baby, very few (24.2%) knew that it can be transmitted via labor as well as delivery. In this study 58.6% showed good knowledge, 78.1% showed good attitude and only 58.6% had good practice towards mother to child transmission of HIV. The pearson value was, P= 0.000 meaning that there was an association between the amount of knowledge a mother had and level of practice towards mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Overall, all the respondents knew what mother to child transmission of HIV was but there was a considerable lack of knowledge, attitude and practice towards mother to child transmission as evidenced by the results. Hence, this warrants scaling up ANC services, PMTCT measures as well as health education towards mother to child transmission of HIV and most importantly improving all sectors of life in women lives.

          Research Pages: 1 - 7

          Application of a bio-extract mixture of Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium Guajava plant leaves on textile fabric

          Subrata Das

          Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium guajava plant leaves are having phytochemical compounds those inhibit the growth of microorganism. Wound healing property was developed on organic cotton fabric using an equal ratio of Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium guajava extract by following pad-dry-cure method. The antibacterial activity of the herbal extract and treated cotton fabric was evaluated using the agar well diffusion and parallel streak method. High zone of inhibition attained against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus indicates antibacterial potency of the extract. The thickness, stiffness, air permeability, vertical wicking length and water vapour permeability properties were marginally affected after treatment. The wound healing analysis of the treated fabrics was carried out using in vitro wound healing scratch assay.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

          The Prevalence and Causes of Non-Steroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs and Paracetamol Abuse among the Local People of Ndola City

          Kelwin Kaliba

          Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a drugs that are used to treat inflammatory processes and also used to relieve pain in inflammatory areas of the body by inhibiting two enzymes that are involve in inflammation. This group of drugs includes aspirin, Indometacin, Brustan, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Sulindac, Naproxen, Piroxcam, and Paracetamol. Though Paracetamol is included in here, it does not basically work in the same way as other NSAIDS and does not prevent inflammation but it relieve pain and is also commonly abused. These drugs are used to treat wide variety of pain such as headache, backache, dysmenorrhea, muscular pains etc. people overuse them and this cause many effects in the body of humans. The study focused on the prevalence, the most affected group of people that abuse the NSAIDs and Paracetamol the signs and symptoms associated with the abuse of NSAIDs. The study was a cross sectional study which focused on residents Ndola district of Copperbelt province of Zambia. Objectives: The objectives of this research were to determine the causes, associated risk factors and prevalence of NSAIDs abuse cases among the residents of Ndola city. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional study that targeted Ndola city residents both males and females aged 18 years and above. The sample size was 385 but only 371 questionnaires were filled give a response rate of 96%the study was conducted from June 2020 to January 2021. The data was analyzed using SPSS software considering the frequencies and the chi-square method. Results: Out of 371 respondents 198 were females which make 53.4% and 173 were male which make up to 46.6%. The mean age was young adults making up to 63.3%, above 45 years old was 14.6%, 18.6% were middle age. 52.8% were tertiary education. 32.6% were of secondary education the remaining percentage was primary education and illiterate which. 89.1% used pain killers. Brufen, diclofenac and paracetamol were the most commonly used drugs. 9.23% of the population was found to abuse drugs No associated risk factor pain killer use was found however female sex showed to use pain killers more than males. Those above the age of 45years used pain killers than younger age. Conclusion: We have shown that on average about 9.23% of the population abuse pain killers however no factor was identified to contribute the abuse of these drugs further studies on this topic will help to establish the factors responsible for abuse of these pain killer drugs. Recommendations: Based on my finding from this research I recommend that the Zambia medicines regulatory committee should step up there inspections of shops and drug stores possibly to limit the sale of pain killers to pharmacies that have a qualified pharmacists who can guide the people who buy pain killers on the dosage and duration of taking pain killers, the ZAMRA also should start conducting health education to educate the people about the side effects of using and abusing pain killers.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Challenges Faced By Cerebral Palsy Children at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Zambia

            Queen Mvula

            Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder caused by a non-progressive injury to the immature brain. It is one of the most common causes of physical disability in children with a prevalence of 2 to 2.5 per live births worldwide and 2 to 10 per 1000 live births in developing areas. The physical functionality of the affected children depends on the type and severity of the CP. There are different types of CP which includes spastic, dyskinesia, hypotonia and mixed type which affect developmental millstones differently. Children who are severely affected face more challenges than those who are moderately or mildly affected. The objectives of this study include; to identify challenges faced by cerebral palsy children, the mostly affected age group, the mostly affected gender, the most common delayed developmental milestone, the common types of cerebral palsy and the social economic status of CP children. A descriptive cross section study was used and data was collected from 7th September 2020 to 26th October 2020 at Kitwe District at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, physiotherapy where participants were consecutively selected. In addition, an interview questionnaire was used to collect data on the challenges faced by the cerebral palsy children. The study had 21 participants, out of which 14(66.7%) children were males and 11(52.4%) were in the age range of 4-6 years. The difference between the employed and unemployed in the ability to buy assistive devices was not significant. Only 3(14.3%) of the children were able to stand and walk out of which only 1 (4.8%) was able to run. In addition, 11(52.4%) had spastic cerebral palsy and 11(52.4%) of CP children had dental problems. The study showed that currently, male CP children at Kitwe teaching Hospital in the department of therapy are the majority. Low social economic status of parents guardians had a negative impact on the rehabilitation of CP children. The most common type of CP was spastic and most delayed millstone was running. The majority of the children had dental problems. There is need for more studies on CP in Zambia especially on the prevalence, and types of CP. In addition, more input of finances is needed for rehabilitation and social services such as education

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

            The Prevalence and Reporting of Medical Errors among Medical Personnel at Kitwe Teaching Hospital

            Christopher Mbewe

            A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient or failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or an unintended act, either omission or commission. Medical errors are a global issue that demands much attention, especially medication errors in all the health sectors. According to the report by National academy of Science, more people die from medical errors than road motor vehicle accidents worldwide. Medical errors are among the main causal of death and other complications in hospital setting. Additionally, Medical errors happen almost on daily basis in Zambian hospitals and clinics, yet the subject has been given a snub by medical personnel and policymakers. Therefore, this study focused on the prevalence of medical errors and common medical errors in our setting (KTH) and the reporting system of these errors. The study confirmed that medical errors still happen in our various local health facilities and at Kitwe Teaching Hospital it was found had a prevalence of 25%. The most common medical errors are: delay in treatment (20%), cross contamination (40%), poor medication (10%) and misdiagnosis (10%). These medical errors some are fatal that their result into serious outcomes and/or complications such as colostomies, amputation, death and instant death.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

            Assessment of Environmental and Health Impacts of Management in Urban Kitwe

            Kelvis Mukuka

            Thousands of tons of waste are generated daily in Africa. Most of it ends up in open dumps and wetlands, containing surface and ground water posing major health and environmental hazards. Generation rates for waste ranges approximately from 0.5 kilograms per day per person to 0.8 kilograms per day per person. Kitwe being the second largest city in Zambia generates large amounts of waste, this poses challenges in the management of the generated waste. The greatest challenge is with the management of solid waste. The methods of management of these refuse is usually not improved thereby exposing the environment to negative impacts that may in turn affect health.

            Research Article Pages: 2 - 4

            The Prevalence Rate and Age-Range of Prostate Cancer at Ndola Teaching Hospital for the Past Five Years

            Kingstone Zuze

            With 1.1 million known cases, prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men. It is second only to lung cancer which affects over 1.2 million men worldwide. African men suffer disproportionately from Prostate cancer compared to many parts of the world. Evidence shows that mortality rates from Prostate cancer are generally higher in predominantly Black African populations compared to other races. A cross sectional study design was conducted on 77 records for patients who were subjected to prostate tissue biopsy which was collected routinely at Ndola Teaching Hospital from 2017-2019. Analysis of data was done using SPSS V 26.0. The study revealed the decrease in the incidence rate and prevalence rate of prostate cancer, no association between age of patient and prostate cancer diagnosis and majority of patients are from within, Ndola with a minute number coming from outside Ndola. Gleason score is the grading system used at NTH and the majority of malignancies were graded. The practice of prostate cancer screening was associated with age and family history of cancer.

            Commentry Pages: 1 - 1

            Perceptions, Attitudes Beliefs among Male Grade 12 Pupils at Chifubu Secondary School in Ndola towards Male Circumcision

            Frank Kausu

            Male circumcision is one of the oldest and most common surgical procedures worldwide, and is undertaken for many reasons: religious, cultural, social and medical. It is practiced culturally in Zambia by a few societies; particularly those from Northwestern Province and parts of Western province the Luvale, Lunda, Mbunda, Luchazi etc. The practice is also conducted by Muslim societies throughout the country. In these societies, the practice has been seen as a traditional rite of passage of boys to manhood for centuries. Scientists have indicated that Male Circumcision has the ability to reduce the risk of getting the HIV virus through the exposed hardened glands during the act of sex by 60%. Other benefits of Male Circumcision include the sexual female partner being safe from the risk of getting cervical cancer throughout hygienically glands that can‘t hold the HPV that leads to cancer. To evaluate the current status of perceptions, attitudes and beliefs among male grade 12 pupils at chifubu secondary school in Ndola towards male circumcision and bring forth recommendations based on the findings of the study.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Acceptability, Awareness and Use of Fansidar by Pregnant Women at Masala and Peter Singongo Clinics in Ndola District

            Shadrick Venda

            Background: Malaria infection in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal anemia, placental parasitaemia, low birth weight, and increased perinatal mortality to mention a few. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) at every scheduled Antenatal Care (ANC) visit in the second and third trimester alongside Long Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LLIN) and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy. However, the purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and use of fansidar among pregnant women at Masala and Peter Singongo clinics in Ndola. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional and the study population were the pregnant women attending ANC at Masala and Peter Singongo clinics. The data was collected via the use of self-administered questionnaires to pregnant women attending ANC in order to assess whether pregnant women accepted fansidar and used it as a malaria prophylaxis during their pregnancy. An informed consent was sought before obtaining data from the participants. The targeted sample size was 300 but due to limited numbers of pregnant women attending ANC, only 148 participants were captured during the study. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS V26. Tabulations for statistical analysis were done and percentages were calculated. Results: A total number of 148 participants were recruited in the study of which the majority were aged 21 to 30 (49.9%), Christianity by religion (94.6%), married (64.9%), independent yet not working (57.4%), gravida 1 para 0 (27.7%) and up to secondary level of education (45.9%). However, 89.9% were aware of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and 83.1% used it. 83.1% as well accepted IPTp-SP yet 83.8% received health education during ANC. 83.8% and 40.5% confirmed having been helped by health education during ANC and their education qualification respectively regarding the acceptability and use of IPTp-SP. 93.9% applauded the attitude of healthcare providers and confirmed that their attitude did not hinder but rather encouraged them to accept and use IPTp-SP. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the majority of the participants were aware of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). It also revealed that majority of them accepted and used IPTp-SP though the results were still below the ministry of health standard whose target was to have 90% of pregnant mothers receive all the three doses of fansidar in pregnancy. There is need to emphasize and intensify health education at every scheduled antenatal care. There is need to put up other platforms such the radio, TV and social media by Ministry of Health in order to sensitize women on the importance of IPTp-SP. Education of pregnant women as well as an escort of pregnant mothers to the antenatal care by their spouses/fiancés/relative need to be emphasized.

            Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

            Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of Hormonal Contraceptives Side Effects among Female Students at Copperbelt University

            Banda Christopher

            In developing countries such as Zambia, Contraceptives methods are a priority form of solution to the family planning problems such as unintended pregnancies. However, the hormonal contraceptives are associated with a variety of risks; among them are cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, pulmonary embolism and strokes. Hence, there is need to raise awareness and knowledge on the risks or side effects accompanying the use of contraceptives. To assess knowledge and awareness on hormonal contraceptives side effects among female students at the Copper belt University.

            Research Article Pages: 2 - 6

            Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hepatitis B Prevention Among Medical Students at Copperbelt University, Ndola Zambia

            Chris Halwiindi

            Introduction: Hepatitis B viral infection is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause acute and chronic disease with systemic manifestation. The infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and premature death and contributes substantially to the escalating costs of health care globally and locally. The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding viral hepatitis B infection prevention among medical students at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Ndola, Zambia. Methodology: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted among medical students studying bachelor of medicine and surgery and bachelor of dental surgery at the Copperbelt University School of medicine and Ndola Teaching Hospital. The total number of patients that met the inclusion criteria and thus enrolled in the study was 162. Ethical approval was obtained from Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC) and permission to conduct the study among the clinical students was granted by the copperbelt university school of medicine. Data was collected from clinical students with a use of a questionnaire and it was entered and analyzed with the use of SPSS 23. Results: The assessment, the majority of students demonstrated that they had good knowledge (91.4%), attitude (75.9%) and practice (90.7%) towards HBV prevention. Furthermore, the findings showed that there was correlation between the level of practice and knowledge, year of study and attitude toward HBV infection prevention with the P-values of 0.018, 0.028 and 0.003 respectively. Conclusion: The levels of knowledge attitude and practice among participants were high. With this outcome, we recommend that the current system of training among clinical students with regard to HBV infection prevention should continue with more emphasis on developing the right attitude.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Adherence to Recommended Diet Among Diabetic Type 2 Patient at Matero Level One Lusaka Zambia

            Patricia Mampa

            Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of chronic hyperglycaemia due to relative insulin deficiency, resistance or both. It is a challenging disease to manage successfully, its treatment aims on achieving adequate control of glucose levels in the blood and to properly manage it, there is need for patients to adhere to the recommended diet. Failure in the management of the disease results in many complications which are the cause of mortality worldwide. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of adhering to recommended diet among diabetic patients at Matero level one hospital Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: Analytical cross sectional study was conducted at Matero level one Hospital, Lusaka Province which included all type two diabetic patients who visited the hospital and those who were admitted to the ward who met the inclusion criteria. The total number of patients who were enrolled in the study was 59. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS 23. Results: The prevalence of adherence to recommended diet among diabetic patients at Matero level one hospital was found to be 49.2%. findings of this study shows that among the factors associated with non-adherence to recommended diet among DM 2 patients, financial constraints was the most common factor affecting 52 (88.1%) patients with the lowest being inappropriate dietary habits which had 4(6.8%). Other factors include granting self-permission 34 (57.6%) patients, lack of partner, family and friends support 32(54.2%), visiting other people’s homes and trips with 31 (52.5%) patients, eating out affected 21 (35.6%) patients and poor self-control 9 (15.3%). Conclusion: The prevalence of adherence to recommended diet was found to be low (49.2%) and so this calls for appropriate measures to be put in place such as detailed written instructions on proper diet and involvement of partners, family members and friends of the diabetic patient in the management of type 2 diabetes.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

            Takotsubo Syndrome during the COVID Era: More Stressful Events or an Unclear Bond?

            Lucia Barbieri, Domitilla Gentile, Gabriele Tumminello, Barbara Conconi, and Stefano Carugo

            ‘Takotsubo syndrome’ is a cardiomyopathy characterized by a temporary wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle which shares common features with acute coronary syndrome. During the COVID-19 pandemic acute coronary syndrome can be one of the initial presentations of COVID-19 infection, ranging from a ST elevation myocardial infarction to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We elaborate a review of the existing literature until the April 27, 2021, in order to analyze and explore the connections between Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy and the COVID-19 pandemic. We selected twenty-seven case reports/case series and three studies. The analyzed cases include 53 patients, 19 male (36%). Shared clinical features are hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The majority were COVID-19 positive, 23 requiring mechanical ventilation. A recovered cardiac function has been described in 20 patients. In COVID-19 patients, therapy involves the use of hydroxychloroquine in 15 subjects and chloroquine in one of them. Coronary angiography was not ever performed, according to clinical instability and less-probably different diagnosis. The most type of Takotsubo syndrome was the typical one, even if inverted, biventricular and atypical were reported. The overall analysis shows a higher prevalence of male patients compared to the known literature and higher rates of clinical features such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. An increased psychological distress, the cytokine storm, augmented adrenergic responses and microvascular dysfunction heave been hypothesized playing a role. Our study explores what the existing literature offers and clarify the importance of an accurate and immediate recognition of Takotsubo syndrome during a stressful period like the COVID pandemic.

            Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

            Electronegative LDL: Could it be a Potential Biomarker for Organ Interactions?

            Huseyin Vural

            Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and obesity are linked by bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. Moreover, there is a potential link between reduced lung function due to sharing common or similar inflammatory processes and the risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we hypothesize that decreased lung function could be a contributory factor to the development of NAFLD. Electronegative LDL (L5), a promising clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease, has an important role in (cardiovascular disease) CVD risk assessment.

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

            Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Health among Schoolchildren Aged 12 to 18 Years in Ndola, Zambia

            Peace Uwizeye

            Oral diseases are considered a major public health problem as a consequence of the high prevalence and incidence observed in all regions of the world, and dental caries is reported to be the most common childhood disease and NCD worldwide. Awareness and knowledge are one of the major tools for improving health and must therefore be assessed. The objectives of this study were to determine awareness and knowledge of oral health and the dental caries experience among school children aged 12 to 18 in Ndola. Simple random sampling from four schools chosen by convenient sampling was used to select the study participants. A total of 384 participants were issued consent forms. The study was conducted at Kansenshi High School, Dominican Convent Secondary School, Masala Secondary School and Kaniki Basic School in Ndola, Zambia. It was a school-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in September 2021. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, and an oral examination using the DMFT index was carried out. Data was entered and analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics software. Majority of the participants exhibited good awareness and knowledge towards oral health, and had healthy teeth. However, there was no significant association between level of knowledge and awareness and dental caries experience.

            Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 3

            Review of the Causative Factors and Comorbidities on Chronic Kidney Disease at Ndola Teaching Hospital from 2016 to 2020

            Emmanuel Mwango

            The kidney is an organ whose role in the human body is to eliminate toxic substances among other functions. These toxins if accumulated can cause harm to human health by disturbing metabolic processes as one of the harmful effects. Kidney or renal failure refers to the loss of kidney tissue function. The cause of such a condition is varied and the prevalence differs from place to place. This research particularly centers on the associated causative factors and comorbidities in renal failure at NTH for 2016 and 2020. It seeks to establish the magnitude of renal failure as a health challenge, its causes, comorbidities and whether and they influence patient outcome. The data will be collected from the hospital records at NTH. There is likely to be a rise in number of patients with increase in age. In addition, a similar rise is likely to be observed among the hypertensive and the HIV infected patients. The causes are expected to range from congenital abnormality to neurotoxicity. The information to be obtained will be analyzed and the conclusion drawn from the analysis will be used in the formulation of measures on how best kidney failure can be prevented or will be used as basic information in future research as efforts being made to combat renal failure.

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