Journal of Clinical Research

ISSN: 2795-6172

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

    HIV and Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

    Richard Khondowe*

    DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.178

    Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic is one of the major factors affecting women’s health, with 20 million women living with HIV and more than two million pregnancies in HIV-positive women each year. Several studies conducted in SSA have reported that HIV-infected women are at increased risk of maternal adverse pregnancy outcomes such as stillbirth, LBW and preterm new-born. In addition, children born to HIVinfected mothers are at increased risk of mortality regardless of their HIV infectious status. Understanding pregnancy related risks HIV infected women may face is critical to providing appropriate counselling and management of fertility intentions, decisions and unintended pregnancy.

    Objectives: To determine the maternal and neonatal outcomes (morbidity and mortality) in pregnant HIV infected women at Masala, Lubuto and Mapalo Clinics of Ndola, Zambia.

    Methodology: This is a cross sectional and descriptive study. Data was collected from relevant medical records of HIV-positive pregnant women who delivered using a data abstraction sheet and selected by convenience sampling. The data collected was entered and analysed using IBM SPSS v26.

    Results: A total of 360 participants were recruited in the study, 36.7% were aged 25-29 years (majority), 43% attained secondary school as highest level of education, 78.1% were married and 78.2% were self-employed (traders). 91.6% were diagnosed with HIV infection prior to pregnancy, 98.3% and 96.1% received ARV and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis respectively. 60% delivered preterm 96.1% had no maternal morbidities/complications and 0% maternal death, 2.8% had epiostomy and 0.61% postpartum haemorrhage. 55% of neonates were females 82.2% had normal birth weight, 41.9% were premature and 2.2% had asphyxia, 12.8% had LBW and 1.1% stillbirths. Statistical significance was established between gestational age at delivery to birth weight and neonatal morbidities (P=0.001).

    Conclusion: Majority of the maternal and neonatal outcomes were normal with only preterm delivery 60% and prematurity 41.9% the noted significant figures. According to the study, there is an association between gestational age at delivery and birth weight as well as neonatal morbidities in HIV positive pregnant women.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 14

    Birth Weight and Associated Maternal Nutritional Factors among Mothers of Chifubu, Ndola, Zambia

    Kisa Martha Nakana*

    DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.177

    Introduction: For a long time, birth weight has been considered an indicator of the health of the baby in the first few months of life. This is because babies who are of low birth weight are at increased risk of mortality and neonatal morbidity. Approximately 25% of children born in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are of low birth weight. With maternal nutrition having the potential to influence birth outcomes in developing countries, studies have examined the effect of diet and nutrition on low birth weight. Despite improvements in newborn and child health indicators, low birth weight remains a major public health problem in many African countries and Zambia is no exception.

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of low birth weight and its relation to maternal nutrition among mothers in Chifubu; a peri-urban area in Ndola, Zambia.

    Methodology: This cross-section analytical study measured diet and nutritional intake during pregnancy of mothers aged 15-45 years who attended under five clinics at Chipokotamayamba clinic by use of questionnaires and interviews. The univariate analysis and other descriptive statistics and associations were established using the chi-square with statistical significance set at 0.05.

    Results: The prevalence of birth weight was 5.3%. None of the nutritional and diet factors was found to have an association with birth weight. However, maternal age at delivery, education level pre-pregnancy BMI and gestation period had a significant relationship with birth weight.

    Conclusion: Low birth weight prevalence decreases with an increase in maternal age while the lower the educational level attained, the lower the prevalence of birth weight. A normal value of pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight and an increase in gestational period reduces the prevalence of low birth weight.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Functional Outcome of Distal Third Tibia Fractures Managed by Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis

    Rushikesh Abhyankar*

    DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.179

    The aim of this Study was to assess the “functional outcome of distal third tibia fractures managed by minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis”. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was used to calculate the functional outcome. During above mentioned period total 15 patients were treated for distal tibial fracture using MIPO (Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis) technique.

    At the end of six months, AOFAS scores were measured with 3 patients having excellent score, 9 patients having a good score and 3 patients having a fair score. Concerning the complications of surgery, no complication was encountered in 13 of the cases, 1 case encountered a superficial infection and 1 case had a wound dehiscence which were managed accordingly.

    Distal tibial fractures typically result from high-velocity trauma and are accompanied by severe soft tissue injury. Consequently, it raises the question of whether to give soft tissue or articular congruity and anatomic reduction priority. The functional outcome of MIPO technique for distal third tibial fractures was evaluated with this study. In our study we have found there is less of soft tissue damage and better bone healing with using MIPO technique.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

        The Knowledge, Attitude and Beliefs about Pre Eclampsia and Eclampsia among Pregnant Women at Selected Antenatal Clinics in Kitwe

        Taonga Chanda*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.194

        Introduction: Pregnancy is considered a life-changing moment for almost every woman in her child bearing age. Nevertheless, it becomes challenging whenever complications commence be it physically, mentally or emotionally as they might pose a threat to the lives of both the mother and fetus. Hypertensive disorders are leading causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early detection and treatment is one of the ways that can help combat this fatal condition and in order to achieve this, the community must have adequate knowledge and skills concerning the condition and should also be provided with emergency care.

        Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge levels of women as well as attitudes towards preeclampsia and eclampsia.

        Method: This was a cross-sectional study on pregnant women of Kitwe. The target population was identified using a purposive sampling technique with a sample size of 143. Data was collected from the women themselves using structured questionnaires through face to face interviews. The questionnaires were made in such a way that even those who only understood the local language were able to benefit from the survey. Data analysis was done using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26.

        Results: During the study, 128 patients agreed to answer the questionnaire out of the calculated sample size of 143 giving a response rate of 89.5%. The study revealed that 77.3% of the participants have heard of the terms PE/E but only 5.5% knew what either term meant. In this study, 64 (50.0%) of the participants were moderately knowledgeable, 54 (42.2%) were poorly knowledgeable and only 10 (7.8%) had good knowledge regarding PE. With regards to attitude towards preeclampsia, 32 (25.0%) of the participants had good attitude while 31 (24.2%) had poor attitude towards pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Most participants agreed that PE/E is a danger to their health (66%) and that regular ANC follow up (77%) can reduce the risk of having it.

        Conclusion: This study reveals that participants do suffer from PE and have heard of the term from different sources like the community, friends and neighbors, their doctors etc. but only a small proportion know and understand what the term means and were able to describe it.

        There is very poor knowledge regarding it and negative attitude by most pregnant women. Therefore, it is important that these women be made aware of the dangers of PE, as well as symptoms and how to prevent it.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 12

        Prevalence and factors associated with obstetrics fistula among women admitted at Kitwe Teaching Hospital for obstetrics related conditions between 2021-2022

        Munsaka Lewis*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.195

        An estimated 3,000 women in Zambia suffered from obstetric fistula. Suggestions are that more women could be suffering from the same condition but do not report it due to fear of stigmatization. Incidences of obstetric fistula in Zambia may indicate that most pregnant women do not access the much-needed maternal health services, especially at the time of delivery. Therefore, determining the prevalence and understanding the factors that lead to obstetric fistula is vital for developing primary preventive interventions. This study determined the prevalence and factors associated with obstetric fistula among women admitted at Kitwe Teaching Hospital for obstetric related conditions between 2021-2022.

        Methodology: This study was a cross-section and used data from Kitwe Teaching Hospital patient records from 2021-2022 on women who gave birth at the hospital and those who gave birth from other hospitals and clinics and later developed obstetric complications that were referred to be managed at Kitwe teaching hospital. Physical interviews on the challenges women face by living with obstetrics fistula was done on the patients available at the institution during the data collection period. The study consisted of 950 women admitted at this hospital for obstetric related conditions. In compiling and analyzing the data collected, SPSS v 26.0 was used. Results were summarized in frequency distribution and cross tabulation tables and pie charts.

        Results: A total of 30 women out of 950 women admitted for obstetric related conditions had obstetric fistula representing a prevalence of 3.15%. The identified risk factors were young age at getting married and first pregnancy (50% below 18 years), low socio-economic status, and long distance to the health facilities and home deliveries, low level of education and short physical stature. Half of the women (50%) had not attended antenatal care and had only primary level of education. The study also identified discrimination, stigma and limitation of participation on social and religious life as challenges fistula women face due to living with this condition. Other challenges included psychological, sexual and economic problems.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 13

        Factors Associated With Student Performance At The Copperbelt University School of Medicine

        Molly Temwa Mzumara*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.196

        Introduction: Higher education is seen as an important aspect for an individual, as it is imperative for getting good jobs, success and opportunities for better living. Academic performance of any student is a result of interactions of various factors, which could have an effect on a student’s academic performance either positively or negatively. This research is a correlational study taking the quantitative approach that examines the association of various factors at play that would have an effect on student’s academic performance.

        Aim: The aim of the study was to find associations between the factors being studied which are stress, quality of sleep, time management, lifestyle and their effect on an individual’s academic performance.

        Methodology: The study was carried out at the Copperbelt university school of medicine, amongst those that have completed at least an academic year. A self-administered questionnaire was given to a total of 270 participants. The data was coded and analyzed with SPSS software.

        Results: Out of 270 questionnaires given, a total of 262 were collected giving a response rate of 96.3%. 44.3% where in their 2nd year and 55.7% in 3rd year. Dominant programme of study was MBChB 67.6% and BDS 32.4%. Academic performance was measured using cGPA which was categorized as excellent with a frequency of 27.5%, average 53.8% and poor 18.7% according to GPA calculated. The study revealed significant associations between levels of stress and academic performance, time management as well as quality of sleep as the p-value<0.001. Lifestyle which was subdivided into exercise, healthy diet and substance use had p-values of 0.006, 0.003 and 0.002 respectively, all indicating a significant association with academic performance as p-values were less than 0.05.

        Conclusion: The study has given an insight on factors that affect student performance as all the factors investigated in this paper being stress, time management, quality of sleep and lifestyle were associated with student performance. It is recommended that time management and stress management as well as copping programs for university students be implemented, awareness of proper sleep hygiene be done amongst medical students and have authorities establish clubs, promote sports by having them frequently and during such, talks on healthy diets can be done as all this could contribute to success in academic achievement.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

        The prevalence of stillbirth and it's associated risk factors at Kitwe Teaching hospital on the copperbelt province of Zambia

        Chikwalila Chipo*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.197

        Introduction: Stillbirth is a profound experience affecting millions of families worldwide every year. It is the most frequently reported adverse pregnancy outcome worldwide, which imposes significant psychological and economic consequences to mothers and affected families. The World Health Organization reports that there are nearly 2 million stillbirths every year. A lot of resources are dedicated to this area of research. Researchers worldwide are working hard to untangle the mystery surrounding the high prevalence of stillbirths. Majority of the causes and risk factors remain unknown, although some of them are preventable, the rate of stillbirths is very alarming. There is limited evidence on the pooled prevalence and associated factors of stillbirth in Zambia hence the need for this study.

        Objective: To determine the prevalence of stillbirth and its associated risk factors at Kitwe teaching hospital in 2021.

        Study design: Retrospective study.

        Study area: Kitwe teaching hospital.

        Method: This was a cross sectional retrospective study that included the use of a data extraction form to obtain secondary data from birth registry and maternal hospital records. The study took duration of 12 weeks. Data was entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Records of women of reproductive ages between 15 years and 50 years old who had stillbirths from January 2021 to December 2021 and delivered at KTH were randomly selected.

        Results: Out of 384 total births, 17 stillbirths (4.4%) were observed. The SBR was calculated to be 44.16/1000 births. Out of the total number of stillbirths, 14 (82%) were macerated and 3 (18%) were fresh. Stillbirths were more common unregiste red women compared to registered women, that is 11 (65% and 6 (35%) respectively. A majority of the stillbirths, that is 9 (53% were found in women from the rural population. caesarean sections were 4 (24%) and vaginal deliveries 13 (76%) among stillbirths in this study. The majority of stillbirths 7 (41%) were seen in women above the age of 35. The prevalence of low birth weight (<2500 g) including 2500-4000 and >4000 was 8 (47%), 5 (29%) and 4 (24%) respectively. The proportion of preterm stillbirths was 7 (41%) and it was highest among stillbirths in the study population. The proportion of preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, abruption and congenital malformations with stillbirth was estimated to be 7 (41%), 5 (29%), 4 (24%) and 4 (24%) and they were statistically significant (P<0.05). Though FGR, fetal distress and DM in pregnancy are potential risk factors for stillbirth, they were not significantly associated with stillbirth in this study.

        Conclusion: Stillbirth remains a major public health problem in the country. The prevalence of stillbirth at KTH was found to be high compared to national and regional figures. These findings highlight the weak healthcare system of the country. There’s need to regularize uniform protocols for intranatal care in both urban and rural settings for a better neonatal outcome.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 15

        The prevalence of selected risky health behaviours and their determinates among Lusaka residents

        Brian John Banda*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.199

        Risky health behaviour can be described as action or deliberate inaction by an individual that affect his or her own health or the health of others. The prevalence of risky health behaviours remains high in Lusaka, Zambia and globally. These behaviours are most likely to cause unwanted health related states. The selected risky health behaviours in this study include: Risky sexual behaviour that lead to unintended pregnancies or STIs, harmful alcohol and other drugs usage, behaviours that lead to violence and unintended injuries, unhealthy dietary behaviours and physical inactivity. In this study, the prevalence of risky heath behaviours and their determinants will be determined.

        Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Lusaka province, Zambia to collect data from a sample of 422 Lusaka residents using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. Cross tabs using a Chi-square and expressed with p-value for statistical significances was done to determine the association.

        Results: The prevalence of risky dietary behaviours, physical inactivity, harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, risky sexual behaviour, and behaviour leading to unintentional injuries and violence were 100%, 56.5%, 40.2%, 78.7%, and 77.1%, respectively. Gender was found to be the only significant determinant of harmful use of alcohol and other drugs and behaviour leading to unintentional injuries and violence. No significant associations were found between the other risky behaviours and age, income, or education level.

        Conclusion: The study highlights the high prevalence of risky health behaviours in Lusaka province, Zambia, and the need for targeted interventions and policies to reduce the risk of these behaviours. The findings also suggest that gender based cultural norms and expectations may play a role in shaping harmful use of alcohol and other drugs and behaviour leading to unintentional injuries and violence.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 14

        Knowledge, attitude and practice of caregivers of children with sickle Cell Disease towards Sickle Cell Disease at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Kitwe Zambia.

        Veronica Taonga Musonda*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.200

        Introduction: Sickle cell disease is a genetic autosomal recessive disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality and affects millions of people globally. The WHO has advocated for SCD awareness, however, studies on the impact of these awareness programmes through knowledge, attitudes and practices assessment among caregivers has rarely been studied. Zambia lacks resources to support the increasing incidences of the disease, hence the need to find innovative ways to prevent complications of SCD, one of them being educating care givers on home based prevention of sickle cell crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of caregivers of children with SCD towards SCD at Kitwe teaching hospital in Kitwe, Zambia.

        Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted on caregivers of children with SCD at Kitwe teaching hospital in Kitwe with a targeted sample size of 227 participants. Non probability sampling techniques was employed while self-administered questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 22.0.

        Results: A total of 192 (84.58%) respondents were included in the final analysis. Majority (65.6%) of the participants had good knowledge, 83.3% had a positive attitude towards prevention of sickle cell crises while 84.4% engaged in good practices to reduce frequency of SCC. Factors that influenced the level of knowledge included age, level of education, monthly income and social cultural practices as these were statistically significant (p<0.05).

        Conclusion: The study reviewed that respondents had good knowledge about SCD and prevention of SCC. Majority had positive attitudes and good practices towards prevention of SCC. However, some caregivers are still lacking in knowledge, attitudes and practice towards SCD.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 13

        Determination of the level of adherence to diet recommendations among diabetic patients

        Natasha Nkandu*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.201

        Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that is characterized by prolonged hyperglycemia. It has become a serious public health problem that threatens the quality of life of an individual with diabetes mellitus and effective therapy relies massively on the compliance of the patient to the therapeutic plan. Statistics from international diabetes federation state that, about 463 million people are living with diabetes globally and about 2.2 million deaths are attributable to high blood glucose and associated complications. Adherence to diet recommendations among diabetic patients is very important for effective therapy as poor or inadequate adherence to diet among patients can be consequential as it leads to the exacerbation of the disease resulting in the development of avoidable complications. This study is aimed at determining the level of adherence to diet recommendations among diabetic patients and to find out if there are specific diet guidelines that have been outlined for them.

        Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was used. It targeted type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients of Kitwe teaching hospital and they were assessed by use of a standard questionnaire and a sample size of 217 participants was used. The criteria for selection were based on having been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus more than a year ago and above.

        Results: Of a total population of 217 who met the inclusion criteria of which 35 (16.1%) were type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and 182 (83.9%) were type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The study revealed that males were more adherent with satisfactory adherence of 27.19% and good adherence of 1.38% than the females with satisfactory of 25.35% and good adherence of 0.92%but despite the males recording a higher level of adherence than the females, it was not statistically significant. The study revealed that there was low consumption of fruits (1.8%) and foods rich in fiber (8.8%). According to the survey of the participants, inability to afford the cost of a healthy diet a busy schedule, availability of the healthy foods, old age and disease acceptance were the most cited reasons for poor dietary adherence. Findings indicate that involvement of health professionals in nutritional education was good with 94.47% and 5.53% not being able to state what has been recommended. Age, the type of diabetes, job occupation, duration of diabetes mellitus, knowledge on diet and diet recommended were statistically significant factors associated with adherence.

        Conclusion: These results indicate that adherence to diet recommendation is satisfactory but not good even in copperbelt, Zambia. This calls for sensitization programs on the diet recommended for diabetes and its importance in the management of the disease. With hopes that it results into a more proactive approach toward diet recommended and an intentionality to adhere to it.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 13

        The Prevalance of adverse drug reactions and associated factors to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive patients at Ndola Teaching hospital,Zambia

        Kingswell Mavuka*, Chikafuna Banda and Scott Matafwali

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.198

        Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy has led to a rapid decrease in HIV related morbidity and mortality. However, most of the existing antiretroviral regimens have been established to cause adverse drug reactions, this problem is especially common in poor countries in which only cheap, and toxic drugs are available. Tenofovir Alafenamide+lamivudine+Dolutegravirs (TAFED) recently introduced in Zambia has little information concerning its associated adverse drug reactions. Hence, there is a need to assess the prevalence of adverse drug reactions due to this antiretroviral regimen. Generally, this study will assess the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and associated factors to antiretroviral therapy at Ndola teaching Hospital, Zambia. Inferences made from this study can be used to come up with better antiretroviral therapy with little or no adverse drug reactions in the future.

        Methods: This was a hospital based retrospective cohort study and the target population was identified using a systematic random sampling technique in which the 13th record was obtained. The data was collected from the files of HIV-positive patients to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions and associated factors to ART from January 2019 to January 2022. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 26.

        Results: A total of 356 files were reviewed and the prevalence of adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy between January 2019 and January 2022 was approximately 62.1%. The common ADRS were general symptoms (43.4%), hypersensitivity reactions (27.6%), Peripheral neuropathy (11.8%), insomnia (8.1%), nephrotoxicity (5.9%), and anemia (3.2%). Among ART regimens only TLD (p-value <0.05) and TAFED (p-value<0.05) were associated with ADRS. Additionally, the time frame was also significantly associated with ADRS while age group and gender were not.

        Conclusion: The prevalence of ADRS was calculated to be 62.1% and only ART regimens and time frames were significantly associated with ADRS. It was deduced that TAFED can cause adverse drug reactions; the common ones being general symptoms, hypersensitivity reactions, and respectively. Furthermore, those on TAFED had an approximately 2.6-fold increase in developing ADRS, while those on TLD had a 3.0-fold increase in developing ADRS.

        Review Article Pages: 1 - 16

        Experiences of Pregnant Women Regarding the Utilization of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Buchi Township of Kitwe

        Mwangala Mazuba*

        DOI: 10.37421/2795-6172.2023.7.193

        Introduction: Malaria is a known major deadly global public health problem that causes morbidity and mortality in many countries, mostly in the African region. Evidence in Zambia shows it is amongst the top ten killer diseases, having a morbidity and mortality rate of 60/100 and 0.01/1000 respectively in pregnant women as recorded in 2013. The usage of IPTp is one of the recommended interventions by WHO to mitigate its impact in stable transmission zones such as Sub-Saharan African regions and also to ensure the best outcome for both the mother and her unborn child. Despite the availability of IPTp services offered in the health facilities, the uptake of IPTp is still very low.

        Aim: This study aims to traverse the experiences of pregnant women regarding the utilization of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in the Buchi township of Kitwe.

        Methodology: The study will utilize an explorative qualitative design in which convenient sampling will be used to select participants to participate in the study. Data collection will be done through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews data collection will continue until the saturation point thematic content analysis will then be used to analyse the qualitative data.

        Possible outcomes: This study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the utilization of IPTp Buchi area of Kitwe, improve the knowledge of IPTp treatment in women and with the health institutions, help them see where they are lacking in the sector of IPTp-SP thus help change or amplify their policies in regards to the above and also establish guidelines if none on the adoption of IPTp services and thereby increasing the health status of pregnant women and their unborn babies leading to reduced maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

          Prevalence of Preterm Births, Associated Risk Factors and Preterm Outcomes at Mumbwa District Hospital

          Chendaeka Mukandabantu

          Background: Preterm births significantly contribute to mortality and the effect of preterm birth amongst some survivors may continue throughout life. These effects exert a heavy burden on families, society and the health system. According to the World Health Organization, the number of preterm born babies (<37 weeks) in Zambia for the year 2015 was 79,800 and the number of deaths in children below the age of 5 (0-59 months) due to direct preterm birth complications was 4,220. Aim: The development of innovative solutions for prevention of preterm births rely on a better understanding of the factors leading to preterm birth and it’s adverse outcomes. This research therefore aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of preterm births at Mumbwa district hospital. The research findings will help assess and improve infrastructure for adequate care required for preterm babies thereby reducing neonatal mortality. This will in turn lead to improved medical care for pregnant women with risk factors that could cause premature births, thereby reducing neonatal mortality, chronic diseases as well as long term health expenditures. Methodology: A hospital based retrospective study was conducted at the maternity ward Mumbwa district hospital a level III hospital, from June to August 2020, this included all births at the hospital from 1st January 2018 to 31st December 2019. Data was collected using a data extraction sheet formulated to encompass maternal factors, obstetrics related factors, relevant medical history, mode of delivery and short term birth outcomes including measurements of birth weight, sex and condition at time of discharge, from labor ward registers. Data were entered into excel and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics like frequencies, means and cross tabulations were performed. Association between risk factors and preterm birth was evaluated using bivariate analysis. Results: In 2018 a total number of 2460 deliveries were conducted at Mumbwa district hospital. 126 (5.1%) of these deliveries were premature, 606 (25%) babies had low birth weight (<2500 g) and 28 (1.1%) neonatal deaths. In 2019 a total number of 1960 deliveries were conducted at Mumbwa district hospital. 135 (7%) of these deliveries were premature, 311 (15.9%) babies had low birth weight (<2500 g) and 12 (0.6%) neonatal deaths. The statistics show a reduction in total deliveries from 2460 to 1960 in 2018 and 2019 respectively, with a 1.9% increase in preterm births. There was a reduction in low birth weight (<2500) and a reduction in fetal deaths. According to the statistics 8 (6.3%) had history of previous cesarean section, 3 (2.4%) had bad obstetric history, 38 women had preterm births due to maternal, fatal and placental causes in 2018. According to the statistics 3 (2.2%) had history of previous cesarean section, 37 (4.57%) had bad obstetric history, 42 women had preterm births due to maternal, fatal and placental causes in 2019. The risk factors of preterm delivery at Mumbwa district hospital include maternal age (p=0.028), parity (p=0.039), previous obstetric history of cesarean section (0.012), bad obstetric history (0.027) and antepartum hemorrhage (0.001, 0.031). Furthermore, 87 (69%) and 107 (79.7%) preterm births were idiopathic in 2018 and 2019 respectively (p=0.001). In addition, preterm births are significantly associated with low birth weight (p<0.000). Conclusion and recommendations: Research results show an increase in preterm births indicating that it is among the major health concerns in Mumbwa district. Enhanced sensitization of women on early signs of preterm labour and encouraging them to seek medical attention promptly is cardinal. To efficiently implement programs aimed at reducing preterm births it is essential to incorporate data to action

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

            Buerger's Disease: Autoimmune Disease Involving Multiple Hypersensitivity Types

            Portia Ping Zheng* and Wanchao Wang

            Background: Burger’s disease is an autoimmune disease? And what is the immunological pathogenesis? It has not been deeply researched but still attracts the attention of scholars. In our early study we reported that TAO may be an autoimmune disease involving hypersensitivity Type III and Type IV.

            Methods: In this study we further explored the immune pathogenesis of TAO based on initial research.

            Results: We detected humoral immunity (Ig E) in 28 cases using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Antigen-antibody complex depositing on the vessel wall in 18 cases, and anti-vessel antibodies in 28 cases using three kinds of immune-labeling techniques (immunofluorescence labeling, immunoenzymatic staining and immuno-gold-silver staining). The result shows Ig E levels were significantly high (P<0.01). As high as 86% of anti-vessel antibodies in serum were found (P<0.001), and the auto-antibodies against the vessel were combined directly with vascular collagen. Antigen-antibody complexes deposited on the vascular wall.

            Conclusions: These findings further confirm TAO is an autoimmune disease involving multiple hypersensitivity reactions. This is mainly Type III hypersensitivity and type II in addition to type IV. The elevated Ig E suggest that TAO may a type I hypersensitivity involved.

            Trial registration: Not applicable.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

              Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Unattended Home Deliveries in Sunkutu Village of Kasama DistrictZambi

              Matthews Katepa

              Background: Unattended home delivery is when the pregnant woman is unassisted or only attended by a lay person, perhaps their spouse, family, friend, or a non-professional birth attendant, sometimes also called free-births. The prevalence of home deliveries shows regional variations with South East Asia showing values reaching as high as 65%; Europe less than 2% and Africa with estimates reaching as high as 62% in some areas. In sub-Saharan Africa, statistics on deliveries that occurred at home showed prevalence rates of 19% in Namibia, 43%in Malawi, 52% in Zambia and 53% in Tanzania. At the provincial level, 68.4%of the deliveries in Northern Province occurred at home followed by Central Province and Luapula Province at 66.1 percent and 64.3 percent respectively. Home deliveries in developing countries that are largely unplanned, accidental and unhygienic have contributed to ninety-nine percent of maternal deaths occurring worldwide. Births occurring outside the health facility in Zambia are more likely to have pregnancy complications that may result in maternal and fetal deaths due to lack of skilled attendance. Socioeconomic variables and physical distance from a health facility influence the place of delivery. Sunkutu village is one of the rural areas in Kasama District with high maternal morbidity and mortality. No particular study has been done in the area on prevalence and risk factors of home deliveries hence this study. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of unattended home births in Sunkutu village of Kasama District. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was employed aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of unattended home births in Sunkutu Village of Kasama District. The target population will comprise women of child bearing age (15-49 years).

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

              Levels of First Aid Knowlege amongst Secondary Pupils at Three Selected Schools in Ndola, Zambia

              Bwalya Mutale

              Introduction: First Aid is immediate care given for the purpose of preserving life and minimizing the consequences of injury and illness until help, from trained medical workers is obtained. The likelihood of an injury or accident victim living or dying depends on the timeliness of the aid given. On a global scale, someone dies every 5 seconds as a result of an injury, over 15000 people’s lives are cut short every day and about 5.8 million people die in a year. Survival is greatly increased if bystanders quickly begin applying first aid. Therefore, this study aims to assess the levels of first aid knowledge in secondary pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was carried out among pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. The data collection tool that was used is a self-administered questionnaire. A two stage sampling method was used. Firstly, a non-probability sampling method was used to select schools. Thereafter, classes and their respective pupils were sampled randomly. A sample size of 376 was used. The study was carried out at Chiluba Secondary School, Lubuto Secondary School and Ndola Skill School. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20, and categorical variables were analysed using chi Square. Results: In this study, majority of the participants had poor knowledge (87.8%), followed by those with average knowledge (6.4%), then those with no knowledge (5.3%) and finally those with good knowledge (0.5%). The mean score was 3.70, the median was 4.00, the mode was 3, the standard deviation was 2.008 and the sum was 1393. It was found that there is an association between levels of first aid knowledge and exposure to first aid information from the media, receiving first aid knowledge from guardians and religion. However, there was no association between levels of first aid knowledge and age, economic status, opinion, being taught first aid at school and being a member of a first aid club. It was found that the factors that influence levels of first aid knowledge include exposure to first aid information from the media and receiving first aid information from guardians.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

              Awareness and Perception of Factors Associated With Maternal Mortality among Men/ Husbands of Women Attending Antenatal at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Copperbelt Province, Zambia

              Richwell Makoli, and Paul syapila

              Background: Most studies related to maternal mortality have focused mainly on women and direct clinical causes. However, it is important to look at the background predisposing factors in order to reduce maternal deaths. Men’s involvement in reproductive health is recommended. Their involvement in antenatal care service is identified as important in maternal health. Awareness of obstetric danger signs facilitates men in making a joint decision with their partners regarding accessing antenatal and delivery care. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and perception of factors associated with maternal mortality among men/ husbands of women attending antenatal at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Copper belt province, Zambia. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2021 using a structured questionnaire to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, awareness levels, perception, knowledge of factors associated with maternal mortality and the role of men in antenatal care. A total of 316 respondents (men/husbands of women attending antenatal care) were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Data were analysed based on descriptive statistics, chi- square and Fisher's exact test using SPSS version 21. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. The results were presented using tables and charts. Results: Awareness scores show that approximately 56% of the respondents had high awareness level, while 34.4% had low awareness level and 9.6% had average level. Delay/problems of going to the hospital in case of an emergency was the most commonly identified (97.2%) maternal mortality risk factor and Lack of preparation for a pregnancy was the least identified (31.9%). Perception of maternal mortality risk factors was negative in just above half (51.9%) of the respondents. There was a statistically significant relationship between educational level; occupation with both awareness and perception scores.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

              The Prevalence of Prostate Cancer among Urology Neoplasms at Ndola Teaching Hospital

              Ali Mwanza

              Background: Cancer of the Prostate is one of the leading cause of cancer death in men and its incidence rates are expected to continue escalating. Globally it is the second most common cancer affecting older men and it presents with a need to urinate frequently, weak and dribbling of urine, painful urination, and blood is seen in urine or semen. Aim: was to determine the pattern and distribution of Urology neoplasms, particularly cancer of the prostate gland seen at Ndola Teaching Hospital. Methodology: In this study a retrospective cross section study design was used, data was collected and sampled by complete enumeration of all urology patient’s files that visited Ndola Teaching Hospital from June 2018 to August 2020. Out of a total of 404 urology patients files enrolled, 212 were diagnosed urological neoplasms. Data entry involved tabulations and use of SPSS software for analysis. All information collected was confidentially handled in accordance with the ethics. Ethical approval was obtained from Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC) and permission to conduct the study at the health institution was granted by both the Provincial Health Office and Hospital administration. Results: The prevalence of prostate cancer among urological neoplasms seeing at NTH was found to be 44.3%. It is densely distributed and more common between the ages of 70 to 79 years old. Other urological neoplasm such as Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, Penile Cancer, Bladder Cancer, Kidney Cancer and Testicular cancer recorded the prevalence of 42.9%, 6.1%, 6.1%, 0%, 0.5% respectively. No single case was recorded above the age 90 this could be due to patients dying before reaching the age of 90. Conclusion and recommendations: At this prevalence of 44.3%, there is need to implement screening strategies, sensitize and encourage people to always visit hospital care for regular checkups, more especially when the male gender starts to advance in age and experiencing symptoms of the impending prostate cancer. Although there is no strong evidence yet on how to fully prevent prostate cancer, it is very possible to lower the risks of developing it by stopping to take alcohol, to cease smoking, limit high fat foods, increasing the intake of vegetables and fruits and performing more exercise.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              First Aid Knowledge among Secondary Pupils at Three Selected Schools in Ndola, Zambia

              Bwalya Mutale

              Introduction: First Aid is immediate care given for the purpose of preserving life and minimizing the consequences of injury and illness until help, from trained medical workers is obtained. The likelihood of an injury or accident victim living or dying depends on the timeliness of the aid given. On a global scale, someone dies every 5 seconds as a result of an injury, over 15000 people’s lives are cut short every day and about 5.8 million people die in a year. Survival is greatly increased if bystanders quickly begin applying first aid. Therefore, this study aims to assess the levels of first aid knowledge in secondary pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was carried out among pupils at three selected schools in Ndola, Zambia. The data collection tool that was used is a self-administered questionnaire. A two stage sampling method was used. Firstly, a non-probability sampling method was used to select schools. Thereafter, classes and their respective pupils were sampled randomly. A sample size of 376 was used. The study was carried out at Chiluba Secondary School, Lubuto Secondary School and Ndola Skill School. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20, and categorical variables were analysed using chi Square. Results: In this study, majority of the participants had poor knowledge (87.8%), followed by those with average knowledge (6.4%), then those with no knowledge (5.3%) and finally those with good knowledge (0.5%). The mean score was 3.70, the median was 4.00, the mode was 3, the standard deviation was 2.008 and the sum was 1393. It was found that there is an association between levels of first aid knowledge and exposure to first aid information from the media, receiving first aid knowledge from guardians and religion. However, there was no association between levels of first aid knowledge and age, sex, economic status, opinion, being taught first aid at school and being a member of a first aid club. It was found that the factors that influence levels of first aid knowledge include exposure to first aid information from the media and receiving first aid information from guardians. Conclusion: Overall, first aid knowledge amongst secondary school pupils at the three selected school in Ndola Zambia was poor. The mean score was 3.70 which is poor knowledge. It is recommended that first aid training be added to the school curriculum as this will allow a good number of students to be reached over a period of time Furthermore, awareness of first aid should be raised through the media, campaigns and brochures. Finally, it is recommended that like studies be conducted in the future.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 10

              Assessment of Knowledge Attitude and Practice about Mother to Child Transmission of HIV among Women of Ndola, District Zambia

              Chishimba Sharon

              Introduction: Zambia currently has an estimated number of 1.2 million people living with the HIV virus and approximately 800, 000 of these are on life saving Antiretroviral therapy. According to UNAIDS, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Zambia is much higher in women as compared to men standing at 11.2% for women and 7.3% for men aged 20-24. This implies that as more women become infected, mother to child transmission continues to be a challenge. The general objectives where to access knowledge, attitude and practice about mother to child transmission of HIV among mothers of Ndola district, Zambia. Method: This was an institutional-based cross sectional study conducted in Ndola from the 15th of December 2020 to 10th of February 2021.The study enrolled women attending antenatal clinic at new masala clinic. Data was collected through structured questionnaire, data was entered into SPSS version 26 and was then analyzed. Frequencies, percentages, chi square -association as well as linear regression were manipulated Results: A total of 384 women were enrolled in the study, 44.3% were in the age group of 16-24. 24% had attained tertiary level of education. All of the participants (100%) had received information about HIV/AIDS but there was a substantial amount of knowledge about MTCT of HIV/AIDS. Only 60.2% knew that once positive a pregnant woman could transmit the HIV infection to unborn baby, very few (24.2%) knew that it can be transmitted via labor as well as delivery. In this study 58.6% showed good knowledge, 78.1% showed good attitude and only 58.6% had good practice towards mother to child transmission of HIV. The pearson value was, P= 0.000 meaning that there was an association between the amount of knowledge a mother had and level of practice towards mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Overall, all the respondents knew what mother to child transmission of HIV was but there was a considerable lack of knowledge, attitude and practice towards mother to child transmission as evidenced by the results. Hence, this warrants scaling up ANC services, PMTCT measures as well as health education towards mother to child transmission of HIV and most importantly improving all sectors of life in women lives.

              Research Pages: 1 - 7

              Application of a bio-extract mixture of Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium Guajava plant leaves on textile fabric

              Subrata Das

              Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium guajava plant leaves are having phytochemical compounds those inhibit the growth of microorganism. Wound healing property was developed on organic cotton fabric using an equal ratio of Rosmarinus officinalis and Psidium guajava extract by following pad-dry-cure method. The antibacterial activity of the herbal extract and treated cotton fabric was evaluated using the agar well diffusion and parallel streak method. High zone of inhibition attained against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus indicates antibacterial potency of the extract. The thickness, stiffness, air permeability, vertical wicking length and water vapour permeability properties were marginally affected after treatment. The wound healing analysis of the treated fabrics was carried out using in vitro wound healing scratch assay.

              Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

              The Prevalence and Causes of Non-Steroidal AntiInflammatory Drugs and Paracetamol Abuse among the Local People of Ndola City

              Kelwin Kaliba

              Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a drugs that are used to treat inflammatory processes and also used to relieve pain in inflammatory areas of the body by inhibiting two enzymes that are involve in inflammation. This group of drugs includes aspirin, Indometacin, Brustan, Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Sulindac, Naproxen, Piroxcam, and Paracetamol. Though Paracetamol is included in here, it does not basically work in the same way as other NSAIDS and does not prevent inflammation but it relieve pain and is also commonly abused. These drugs are used to treat wide variety of pain such as headache, backache, dysmenorrhea, muscular pains etc. people overuse them and this cause many effects in the body of humans. The study focused on the prevalence, the most affected group of people that abuse the NSAIDs and Paracetamol the signs and symptoms associated with the abuse of NSAIDs. The study was a cross sectional study which focused on residents Ndola district of Copperbelt province of Zambia. Objectives: The objectives of this research were to determine the causes, associated risk factors and prevalence of NSAIDs abuse cases among the residents of Ndola city. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional study that targeted Ndola city residents both males and females aged 18 years and above. The sample size was 385 but only 371 questionnaires were filled give a response rate of 96%the study was conducted from June 2020 to January 2021. The data was analyzed using SPSS software considering the frequencies and the chi-square method. Results: Out of 371 respondents 198 were females which make 53.4% and 173 were male which make up to 46.6%. The mean age was young adults making up to 63.3%, above 45 years old was 14.6%, 18.6% were middle age. 52.8% were tertiary education. 32.6% were of secondary education the remaining percentage was primary education and illiterate which. 89.1% used pain killers. Brufen, diclofenac and paracetamol were the most commonly used drugs. 9.23% of the population was found to abuse drugs No associated risk factor pain killer use was found however female sex showed to use pain killers more than males. Those above the age of 45years used pain killers than younger age. Conclusion: We have shown that on average about 9.23% of the population abuse pain killers however no factor was identified to contribute the abuse of these drugs further studies on this topic will help to establish the factors responsible for abuse of these pain killer drugs. Recommendations: Based on my finding from this research I recommend that the Zambia medicines regulatory committee should step up there inspections of shops and drug stores possibly to limit the sale of pain killers to pharmacies that have a qualified pharmacists who can guide the people who buy pain killers on the dosage and duration of taking pain killers, the ZAMRA also should start conducting health education to educate the people about the side effects of using and abusing pain killers.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                Challenges Faced By Cerebral Palsy Children at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Zambia

                Queen Mvula

                Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurological disorder caused by a non-progressive injury to the immature brain. It is one of the most common causes of physical disability in children with a prevalence of 2 to 2.5 per live births worldwide and 2 to 10 per 1000 live births in developing areas. The physical functionality of the affected children depends on the type and severity of the CP. There are different types of CP which includes spastic, dyskinesia, hypotonia and mixed type which affect developmental millstones differently. Children who are severely affected face more challenges than those who are moderately or mildly affected. The objectives of this study include; to identify challenges faced by cerebral palsy children, the mostly affected age group, the mostly affected gender, the most common delayed developmental milestone, the common types of cerebral palsy and the social economic status of CP children. A descriptive cross section study was used and data was collected from 7th September 2020 to 26th October 2020 at Kitwe District at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, physiotherapy where participants were consecutively selected. In addition, an interview questionnaire was used to collect data on the challenges faced by the cerebral palsy children. The study had 21 participants, out of which 14(66.7%) children were males and 11(52.4%) were in the age range of 4-6 years. The difference between the employed and unemployed in the ability to buy assistive devices was not significant. Only 3(14.3%) of the children were able to stand and walk out of which only 1 (4.8%) was able to run. In addition, 11(52.4%) had spastic cerebral palsy and 11(52.4%) of CP children had dental problems. The study showed that currently, male CP children at Kitwe teaching Hospital in the department of therapy are the majority. Low social economic status of parents guardians had a negative impact on the rehabilitation of CP children. The most common type of CP was spastic and most delayed millstone was running. The majority of the children had dental problems. There is need for more studies on CP in Zambia especially on the prevalence, and types of CP. In addition, more input of finances is needed for rehabilitation and social services such as education

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

                The Prevalence and Reporting of Medical Errors among Medical Personnel at Kitwe Teaching Hospital

                Christopher Mbewe

                A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient or failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or an unintended act, either omission or commission. Medical errors are a global issue that demands much attention, especially medication errors in all the health sectors. According to the report by National academy of Science, more people die from medical errors than road motor vehicle accidents worldwide. Medical errors are among the main causal of death and other complications in hospital setting. Additionally, Medical errors happen almost on daily basis in Zambian hospitals and clinics, yet the subject has been given a snub by medical personnel and policymakers. Therefore, this study focused on the prevalence of medical errors and common medical errors in our setting (KTH) and the reporting system of these errors. The study confirmed that medical errors still happen in our various local health facilities and at Kitwe Teaching Hospital it was found had a prevalence of 25%. The most common medical errors are: delay in treatment (20%), cross contamination (40%), poor medication (10%) and misdiagnosis (10%). These medical errors some are fatal that their result into serious outcomes and/or complications such as colostomies, amputation, death and instant death.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

                Assessment of Environmental and Health Impacts of Management in Urban Kitwe

                Kelvis Mukuka

                Thousands of tons of waste are generated daily in Africa. Most of it ends up in open dumps and wetlands, containing surface and ground water posing major health and environmental hazards. Generation rates for waste ranges approximately from 0.5 kilograms per day per person to 0.8 kilograms per day per person. Kitwe being the second largest city in Zambia generates large amounts of waste, this poses challenges in the management of the generated waste. The greatest challenge is with the management of solid waste. The methods of management of these refuse is usually not improved thereby exposing the environment to negative impacts that may in turn affect health.

                Research Article Pages: 2 - 4

                The Prevalence Rate and Age-Range of Prostate Cancer at Ndola Teaching Hospital for the Past Five Years

                Kingstone Zuze

                With 1.1 million known cases, prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer among men. It is second only to lung cancer which affects over 1.2 million men worldwide. African men suffer disproportionately from Prostate cancer compared to many parts of the world. Evidence shows that mortality rates from Prostate cancer are generally higher in predominantly Black African populations compared to other races. A cross sectional study design was conducted on 77 records for patients who were subjected to prostate tissue biopsy which was collected routinely at Ndola Teaching Hospital from 2017-2019. Analysis of data was done using SPSS V 26.0. The study revealed the decrease in the incidence rate and prevalence rate of prostate cancer, no association between age of patient and prostate cancer diagnosis and majority of patients are from within, Ndola with a minute number coming from outside Ndola. Gleason score is the grading system used at NTH and the majority of malignancies were graded. The practice of prostate cancer screening was associated with age and family history of cancer.

                Commentry Pages: 1 - 1

                Perceptions, Attitudes Beliefs among Male Grade 12 Pupils at Chifubu Secondary School in Ndola towards Male Circumcision

                Frank Kausu

                Male circumcision is one of the oldest and most common surgical procedures worldwide, and is undertaken for many reasons: religious, cultural, social and medical. It is practiced culturally in Zambia by a few societies; particularly those from Northwestern Province and parts of Western province the Luvale, Lunda, Mbunda, Luchazi etc. The practice is also conducted by Muslim societies throughout the country. In these societies, the practice has been seen as a traditional rite of passage of boys to manhood for centuries. Scientists have indicated that Male Circumcision has the ability to reduce the risk of getting the HIV virus through the exposed hardened glands during the act of sex by 60%. Other benefits of Male Circumcision include the sexual female partner being safe from the risk of getting cervical cancer throughout hygienically glands that can‘t hold the HPV that leads to cancer. To evaluate the current status of perceptions, attitudes and beliefs among male grade 12 pupils at chifubu secondary school in Ndola towards male circumcision and bring forth recommendations based on the findings of the study.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                Acceptability, Awareness and Use of Fansidar by Pregnant Women at Masala and Peter Singongo Clinics in Ndola District

                Shadrick Venda

                Background: Malaria infection in pregnancy is associated with severe maternal anemia, placental parasitaemia, low birth weight, and increased perinatal mortality to mention a few. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) at every scheduled Antenatal Care (ANC) visit in the second and third trimester alongside Long Lasting Insecticide-treated Nets (LLIN) and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy. However, the purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and use of fansidar among pregnant women at Masala and Peter Singongo clinics in Ndola. Methodology: The study was a cross sectional and the study population were the pregnant women attending ANC at Masala and Peter Singongo clinics. The data was collected via the use of self-administered questionnaires to pregnant women attending ANC in order to assess whether pregnant women accepted fansidar and used it as a malaria prophylaxis during their pregnancy. An informed consent was sought before obtaining data from the participants. The targeted sample size was 300 but due to limited numbers of pregnant women attending ANC, only 148 participants were captured during the study. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS V26. Tabulations for statistical analysis were done and percentages were calculated. Results: A total number of 148 participants were recruited in the study of which the majority were aged 21 to 30 (49.9%), Christianity by religion (94.6%), married (64.9%), independent yet not working (57.4%), gravida 1 para 0 (27.7%) and up to secondary level of education (45.9%). However, 89.9% were aware of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) and 83.1% used it. 83.1% as well accepted IPTp-SP yet 83.8% received health education during ANC. 83.8% and 40.5% confirmed having been helped by health education during ANC and their education qualification respectively regarding the acceptability and use of IPTp-SP. 93.9% applauded the attitude of healthcare providers and confirmed that their attitude did not hinder but rather encouraged them to accept and use IPTp-SP. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the majority of the participants were aware of Intermittent Presumptive Treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). It also revealed that majority of them accepted and used IPTp-SP though the results were still below the ministry of health standard whose target was to have 90% of pregnant mothers receive all the three doses of fansidar in pregnancy. There is need to emphasize and intensify health education at every scheduled antenatal care. There is need to put up other platforms such the radio, TV and social media by Ministry of Health in order to sensitize women on the importance of IPTp-SP. Education of pregnant women as well as an escort of pregnant mothers to the antenatal care by their spouses/fiancés/relative need to be emphasized.

                Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

                Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of Hormonal Contraceptives Side Effects among Female Students at Copperbelt University

                Banda Christopher

                In developing countries such as Zambia, Contraceptives methods are a priority form of solution to the family planning problems such as unintended pregnancies. However, the hormonal contraceptives are associated with a variety of risks; among them are cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, pulmonary embolism and strokes. Hence, there is need to raise awareness and knowledge on the risks or side effects accompanying the use of contraceptives. To assess knowledge and awareness on hormonal contraceptives side effects among female students at the Copper belt University.

                Research Article Pages: 2 - 6

                Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Hepatitis B Prevention Among Medical Students at Copperbelt University, Ndola Zambia

                Chris Halwiindi

                Introduction: Hepatitis B viral infection is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause acute and chronic disease with systemic manifestation. The infection is one of the major causes of morbidity and premature death and contributes substantially to the escalating costs of health care globally and locally. The main objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding viral hepatitis B infection prevention among medical students at Ndola Teaching Hospital in Ndola, Zambia. Methodology: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted among medical students studying bachelor of medicine and surgery and bachelor of dental surgery at the Copperbelt University School of medicine and Ndola Teaching Hospital. The total number of patients that met the inclusion criteria and thus enrolled in the study was 162. Ethical approval was obtained from Tropical Disease Research Centre (TDRC) and permission to conduct the study among the clinical students was granted by the copperbelt university school of medicine. Data was collected from clinical students with a use of a questionnaire and it was entered and analyzed with the use of SPSS 23. Results: The assessment, the majority of students demonstrated that they had good knowledge (91.4%), attitude (75.9%) and practice (90.7%) towards HBV prevention. Furthermore, the findings showed that there was correlation between the level of practice and knowledge, year of study and attitude toward HBV infection prevention with the P-values of 0.018, 0.028 and 0.003 respectively. Conclusion: The levels of knowledge attitude and practice among participants were high. With this outcome, we recommend that the current system of training among clinical students with regard to HBV infection prevention should continue with more emphasis on developing the right attitude.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                Adherence to Recommended Diet Among Diabetic Type 2 Patient at Matero Level One Lusaka Zambia

                Patricia Mampa

                Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of chronic hyperglycaemia due to relative insulin deficiency, resistance or both. It is a challenging disease to manage successfully, its treatment aims on achieving adequate control of glucose levels in the blood and to properly manage it, there is need for patients to adhere to the recommended diet. Failure in the management of the disease results in many complications which are the cause of mortality worldwide. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of adhering to recommended diet among diabetic patients at Matero level one hospital Lusaka, Zambia. Methodology: Analytical cross sectional study was conducted at Matero level one Hospital, Lusaka Province which included all type two diabetic patients who visited the hospital and those who were admitted to the ward who met the inclusion criteria. The total number of patients who were enrolled in the study was 59. Data was collected with the use of a questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS 23. Results: The prevalence of adherence to recommended diet among diabetic patients at Matero level one hospital was found to be 49.2%. findings of this study shows that among the factors associated with non-adherence to recommended diet among DM 2 patients, financial constraints was the most common factor affecting 52 (88.1%) patients with the lowest being inappropriate dietary habits which had 4(6.8%). Other factors include granting self-permission 34 (57.6%) patients, lack of partner, family and friends support 32(54.2%), visiting other people’s homes and trips with 31 (52.5%) patients, eating out affected 21 (35.6%) patients and poor self-control 9 (15.3%). Conclusion: The prevalence of adherence to recommended diet was found to be low (49.2%) and so this calls for appropriate measures to be put in place such as detailed written instructions on proper diet and involvement of partners, family members and friends of the diabetic patient in the management of type 2 diabetes.

                Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

                Takotsubo Syndrome during the COVID Era: More Stressful Events or an Unclear Bond?

                Lucia Barbieri, Domitilla Gentile, Gabriele Tumminello, Barbara Conconi, and Stefano Carugo

                ‘Takotsubo syndrome’ is a cardiomyopathy characterized by a temporary wall motion abnormality of the left ventricle which shares common features with acute coronary syndrome. During the COVID-19 pandemic acute coronary syndrome can be one of the initial presentations of COVID-19 infection, ranging from a ST elevation myocardial infarction to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. We elaborate a review of the existing literature until the April 27, 2021, in order to analyze and explore the connections between Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy and the COVID-19 pandemic. We selected twenty-seven case reports/case series and three studies. The analyzed cases include 53 patients, 19 male (36%). Shared clinical features are hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. The majority were COVID-19 positive, 23 requiring mechanical ventilation. A recovered cardiac function has been described in 20 patients. In COVID-19 patients, therapy involves the use of hydroxychloroquine in 15 subjects and chloroquine in one of them. Coronary angiography was not ever performed, according to clinical instability and less-probably different diagnosis. The most type of Takotsubo syndrome was the typical one, even if inverted, biventricular and atypical were reported. The overall analysis shows a higher prevalence of male patients compared to the known literature and higher rates of clinical features such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. An increased psychological distress, the cytokine storm, augmented adrenergic responses and microvascular dysfunction heave been hypothesized playing a role. Our study explores what the existing literature offers and clarify the importance of an accurate and immediate recognition of Takotsubo syndrome during a stressful period like the COVID pandemic.

                Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

                Electronegative LDL: Could it be a Potential Biomarker for Organ Interactions?

                Huseyin Vural

                Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and obesity are linked by bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. Moreover, there is a potential link between reduced lung function due to sharing common or similar inflammatory processes and the risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we hypothesize that decreased lung function could be a contributory factor to the development of NAFLD. Electronegative LDL (L5), a promising clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease, has an important role in (cardiovascular disease) CVD risk assessment.

                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 4

                Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Health among Schoolchildren Aged 12 to 18 Years in Ndola, Zambia

                Peace Uwizeye

                Oral diseases are considered a major public health problem as a consequence of the high prevalence and incidence observed in all regions of the world, and dental caries is reported to be the most common childhood disease and NCD worldwide. Awareness and knowledge are one of the major tools for improving health and must therefore be assessed. The objectives of this study were to determine awareness and knowledge of oral health and the dental caries experience among school children aged 12 to 18 in Ndola. Simple random sampling from four schools chosen by convenient sampling was used to select the study participants. A total of 384 participants were issued consent forms. The study was conducted at Kansenshi High School, Dominican Convent Secondary School, Masala Secondary School and Kaniki Basic School in Ndola, Zambia. It was a school-based, descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in September 2021. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire, and an oral examination using the DMFT index was carried out. Data was entered and analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistics software. Majority of the participants exhibited good awareness and knowledge towards oral health, and had healthy teeth. However, there was no significant association between level of knowledge and awareness and dental caries experience.

                Full Length Research Paper Pages: 1 - 3

                Review of the Causative Factors and Comorbidities on Chronic Kidney Disease at Ndola Teaching Hospital from 2016 to 2020

                Emmanuel Mwango

                The kidney is an organ whose role in the human body is to eliminate toxic substances among other functions. These toxins if accumulated can cause harm to human health by disturbing metabolic processes as one of the harmful effects. Kidney or renal failure refers to the loss of kidney tissue function. The cause of such a condition is varied and the prevalence differs from place to place. This research particularly centers on the associated causative factors and comorbidities in renal failure at NTH for 2016 and 2020. It seeks to establish the magnitude of renal failure as a health challenge, its causes, comorbidities and whether and they influence patient outcome. The data will be collected from the hospital records at NTH. There is likely to be a rise in number of patients with increase in age. In addition, a similar rise is likely to be observed among the hypertensive and the HIV infected patients. The causes are expected to range from congenital abnormality to neurotoxicity. The information to be obtained will be analyzed and the conclusion drawn from the analysis will be used in the formulation of measures on how best kidney failure can be prevented or will be used as basic information in future research as efforts being made to combat renal failure.

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