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Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 3 (2021)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Can Plant Product be Substitute for Artificial Oral Contraceptive Pills?

    Kadam Asha* and Gaykar Balasaheb

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.625

    Contraceptive methods mean birth control and fertility control methods or devices which used to prevent pregnancy. There are many categories of birth control methods but some having negative influence or risks and some safest and healthiest options. In the present study, we surveyed 269 women from Ahmednagar region and we found that among the 269 women, 179 women were used artificial contraceptives and rest of the women were not used any type of contraceptives. According to the feedback of these women only some having satisfaction and remaining most of women are not satisfactory with these contraceptives, because of high risk of cervical cancer, blood clots, cycle irregularities, irregular bleeding, loss of sexual function, vaginal infection etc. Hence according to survey, we analyse that many women turn to birth control pills because they are not aware that there are safer options available.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Comparative Effect of Petroleum Products and Biomass Fuel Exposure on Serum Lipid profile and Atherogenic Indices of male Albino wistar Rats

    Ude Tochukwu*, Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka, Dioka Chudi Emmanuel, Chikezie Onyebuchi Desmond, Awalu Chimezie Joseph and Ibekailo Sylvester Nnaemeka

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.628

    The effects of petroleum products and biomass fuel on serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices were investigated in male wistar rats. Fifty adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups of ten animals each. Rats in group A served as control (exposed to fresh air). Group B, C, D and E were exposed to inhalation of kerosene, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas and biomass smoke (wood smoke) respectively. All the exposures were done using whole body exposure chambers 70cm x 60cm x 60cm measurement for six weeks. Five millilitres of fasting blood sample were collected at the end of six weeks and used for analysis of lipid profile using mindray BS 120. Atherogenic indices were calculated using the appropriate formula. Values were analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0. The result shows significant increase in the serum total, LDL, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of test groups relative to control (p<0.05), while inducing a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol though the effect appear to be more pronounced with kerosene exposure. The exposure also led to significant increase in CRR, AC and AIP (p<0.05). These results suggest that petroleum products and biomass fuel exposure could potentiate the risk of atherosclerosis through elicitation of dyslipidaemia.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Hydrochar for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: An Overview on its Advantages and Applications

    Ahmed Hesham, Yasser Awad, Hossam Jahin, Sabry El-Korashy, Shaimaa Maher, Haitham Kalil* and Gasser Khairy*

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.626

    Water pollution is one of the environmental challenges facing the world society. Consequently, the pollutants both domestic and industrial wastewater are identified as an environmental threat. Hydrochar (HC) appears as a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to this environmental threat. HC is the solid produced from the wet pyrolysis process for biomass that is rich in carbon in a sub-critical liquid phase, called the Hydro-Thermal Carbonization Process (HTC). This review aims to address the possibility of using HC as the most effective solution to the industrial wastewater. HTC has proven a greater yield than dry pyrolysis (30%-60% wt). To date, HC is listed as a promising lower-cost alternate adsorbent for removing wastewater pollutants. In Egypt for example, only few studies have been published investigating the properties of HC and its environmental applications. In this review, we will shed light on the preparation, characterization, and previous studies on the development and recent applications of HC. In addition, we will discuss the challenges to produce HC at a commercial scale. To the best of our knowledge, there is only few research studies addressing the HC production in the Middle East countries. Therefore, the door is still opened for more research on developing production techniques on HC from different biomass, and implementation in various environmental applications

    Review Pages: 1 - 4

    Ozone Layer Depletion and its Consequences on Humans: a Review

    Sulaiman Bin Abdullah*

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.627

    Ozone (O3) is a stratospheric layer that assumes significant job in offering help to people for their endurance. It is a basic factor for some worldwide, natural and ecological wonders. The ultra-violet (UV) beams discharged from sun are caught by ozone and in this manner give a stable ontological structure in the biosphere. Different anthropogenic exercises, for example, emanations of CFCs, HCFCs and other organoincandescent lamp lead to the exhaustion of ozone. Ozone exhaustion is enabling the UV radiation to earth surface. The introduction to these radiations is seriously influencing all living things on earth, particularly the people. Perpetual or transitory visual deficiency, skin malignancy and insusceptibility concealment are the principle impacts of these radiations revealed by different scientists on people. The possibilities of ozone recuperation are as yet unfamiliar. The present circumstance of ozone portrayal requests dire healing measures to secure lives on this planet. Chlorofluorocarbons, halons and methyl bromide are largely critical ozone exhausting substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol. Satellite perception frameworks help to foresee future changes to the ozone layer. In view of understandings under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone layer is relied upon to recoup toward the center of the twenty first century. Research should be done to evaluate that how different alternatives of cooling agents (chlorofluorocarbons) tend to decrease the emission of chlorine.

    Volume 11, Issue 4 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Selling Points of Sewage Sludge as an Enhancing Agent of Bioremediation of Diesel Oil-Polluted Soil

      Kingsley Tochukwu Ughamba*, Nnabueze Darlington Nnaji, Kenneth Ejike Ogbonna and Chukwudi Anyanwu

      DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.629

      Bioremediation employing the action of microbes alone has been shown to be inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sewage sludge (SS) in enhancing bioremediation of diesel oil-polluted soil. Diesel oil was introduced into the soil at the concentration of 10 % (v/w) and mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) of sewage sludge. The remediation of the oil was determined gravimetrically and spectrophotometrically using n-hexane as extractant. Effectiveness of the remediation strategy was assessed by the seed germination toxicity test At the end of forty-two days, 32.22 % oil loss was recorded in the unamended polluted soil while 58.33% oil loss was recorded in the soil amended with sewage sludge. Hydrocarbon- utilizing bacteria (HUB) counts were significantly high (P≤0.05) in the sewage sludge-amended options, ranging from 5.3 ±0.9 x 106 to 12.3±0.75 × 106CFU/g soil, as compared to the unamended control soil which gave 1.0 × 106- 3.8 × 106CFU/g of soil. The hydrocarbon- utilizing bacteria isolated from both the control and amended soils were identified tentatively as Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus varians, Corynebacterium spp and Staphylococcus spp based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The fungal counts in the SS-amendment options were also higher than was recorded in the control option ranging from 3.8 x 105 ± 0.2 to 11.6 x 105 ±0.25. Aerobic fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Cladosporium sp and Penicillium sp. The highest oil loss and germination indices were recorded in SS-amended options. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in oil loss and germination index between the unamended control soil and polluted soil amended with 15% SS.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Permethrin and Cypermethrin Residues on Beans and Cucumber Plants Grown Under Greenhouse Conditions

      George Antonious*

      DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.21.11.630

      A simple, accurate, and cost-effective procedure for separation and quantification of two pyrethroid insecticides residues on bean and cucumber plants was achieved using a Gas Chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and GC equipped with a Mass Selective Detector (MSD). Following spraying fruits and leaves were collected to determine insecticides dissipation constants and half-lives (T1/2 values). Residues of the two pyrethroids revealed the presence of permethrin isomers at retention times of 26 and 26.6 min that correspond to the cis and trans-isomers, respectively. The GC also revealed the presence of four cypermethrin isomers at retention times of 30.3, 30.9, 31.3, and 31.5 min. The average initial deposits of permethrin were 2.7 and 0.2 on cucumber leaves and fruits surfaces, respectively. Whereas cypermethrin initial deposits were 5.1 and 2 μg g-1 on cucumber leaves and fruits, respectively indicating greater deposits on leaves than fruits. T1/2 values of permethrin and cypermethrin residues on beans pods (7.2 and 9.5 d, respectively) and cucumber fruits (13 and 3.3 d, respectively) indicated that a waiting period of 10 and 15 d are required for consumption of cucumber fruits and bean pods sprayed with cypermethrin at the recommended spraying dosage to drop the residues to the Maximum Residue Limits.

      Volume 11, Issue 5 (2021)

        Awards 2021 Pages: 1 - 1

        Young Scientist Awards Water Pollution-2021

        Hadi Nural*

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        Awards 2021 Pages: 1 - 1

        Young Scientist Awards Oil and Gas 2021

        Leonardo Fran*

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        Volume 11, Issue 6 (2021)

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

          Lead and Zinc Concentrations in the Gill, Liver and Parasito-Fauna of Sarotherodon melanotheron iIn Makoko Lagoon, Lagos State, Nigeria

          Oluwatomilayo A Tola*, Abiodun Olakiigbe and Joseph K Saliu

          Morphometric and meristic features, metal accumulation and chemical composition of Sarotherodon melanotheron and its intestinal parasites were investigated in August, 2013. The Standard length of Sarotherodon melanotheron range between 13.10-21.50 cm with Mean ± SD of 16.15 ± 1.97, (p<0.001) and Head length range from 1.50-2.70 with Mean ± SD of 2.15 ± 0.28, (p<0.001). Heavy metal concentrations were determined in water, sediment, intestinal parasites, gills and liver of Sarotherodon melanotheron were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry to determine concentration of Pb and Zn. Metals in the water, sediment and parasites were above WHO level. The concentration of Lead and Zinc were higher in the sediment (Pb-18.82 and Zn-21.52) than the water (Pb-2.66 and Zn-15.41). The liver accumulated highest concentration of Lead and Zinc than the gill and parasite. The trend of lead accumulation was; gill (0.86)<parasite (0.98)<liver (3.54). This accumulation followed similar trend in zinc sampled, the mean concentrations for zinc; parasites; (Zn) (mg/l); 3.39, p<0.01, gill; (Zn)(mg/l); 0.72, p<0.01, liver; (Zn) (mg/l); 11.04, p<0.01. Fish parasites, particularly intestinal acanthocephalans and cestodes, accumulated heavy metals at concentrations significantly higher than those in fish tissues or the environment; hence, they could be used as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. It is important to continue monitoring heavy metals concentration in waters, sediments and fish of Makoko lagoon so as to assess trends in heavy metal behavior in the area.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Estimation of Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Heavy Metals in Harvested Plantains from Bodo, Rivers State

          Ugoh Ikenna, Nwuche K, Onu C Oparaji Emeka H* and Monanu M

          A Plantain harvested from Bodo community, Gokana L.G.A Rivers state were analyzed for heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations. Physicochemical properties of the agricultural soil used for the plantain cultivation showed the following: pH (5.7) while the control experiment was seen at 7.4. Soil conductivity of 721 and 398 were obtained for both the test and control experiments, respectively. Soil mineral contents: Potassium (6.88 mg/g), phosphorus (2.63 mg/g), Magnesium (12.42 mg/g), chloride ions (1021.21 mg/g). Heavy metal analysis of the soil showed a greater proportion of copper and iron in while Hg, As and Cd were below detectable limit in both tested samples. Pb was found relatively in lower concentrations of 24.12 mg/g in the test sample, 6.23 mg/g in the control experiment. Total Oxidizable Carbon Content (TOC) and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) content of the soil were observed at 104.12 and 2567 mg/g respectively in the tested sample. The control experiment showed TOC and TPH concentrations of 42.85 and 1094 mg/g. Heavy metal analysis of harvested plantain from Bodoh community showed the presence of the following: Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe) and Copper (Cu) in the following order: Cu>Fe>Pb in the test sample while in the control experiment, iron (Fe) was seen greater than copper (Cu). Heavy metals of mercury, cadmium and arsenic were below detectable limit at in both the harvested plantain from Bodo community and those of the control experiment, respectively. Bioaccumulation factor of all the heavy metals identified were <1. PAHs of Acenaphthalene, Acenaphthene, chrysene, pyrene and fluranthene were not detected in the control experiment while only chrysene was not detected in the test samples. Naphthalene,methyl naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, benzo (k) fluranthene and flourene were relatively high in concentration than pyrene and flouranthene in the test samples. Naphthalene, methylnaphthalene, flourene and benzo(k) flouranthene were only recorded in the control experiment. Acenaphthalene (0.034 mg/g) was seen as the highest PAHs in bioaccumulation in the test sample while flourene (0.005 mg/g) recorded the highest in the control experiment.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

          Assessment of Adulteration of Gasoline (MSP) and Diesel (AGO), in Selected Fuel Stations in Kisii County

          Obed Mainya Nyabaro*, John Lusweti Kituyi and Evans K. Okemwa*

          The major transport fuels in Kenya are gasoline and diesel. A complaint on adulteration of these fuels at the point of sale or during transportation is a common occurrence in the country. The present studies on analysis of petroleum adulteration does not give a scope of what is happening at the newly and upcoming petrol stations outside the capital of city. Purposeful sampling was carried out on investigating gasoline and diesel adulteration sold at selected fuel stations in in a case study of Kisii County, and whether these products are within the standards set by Kenya bureau of Standards (KEBs). Samples of gasoline and diesel were collected from selected five fuel stations and two laboratory testing methods of ASTM D86 (Distillation) and ASTM D1298 (Density determination) were conducted at Vivo Energy Company laboratory in Nairobi. Currently, the number of fuel stations selling Gasoline and diesel is enormous in Kisii region. They involve four major oil companies namely, Shell, Total, Kenol/Kobil, Oil Libya, and now KNOCK which dominate the market as well as locally owned ones. Therefore, the sampling method that was employed to select randomly five specific filling stations comprising of one major and four Minor companies representing the population with parameters of interest, for analysis in this study.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

          Geochemistry and Acute Toxicity in Rat of Calabash Clay Consumed in Douala (Cameroon)

          Hermine Danielle Fouda Menye Ebana*, Augustine Kuinze Nkojap, Yacouba Mapoure, Sebastien Owona, Alain Bertrand Dongmo and Samuel Honore Mandengue

          Background: Calabash chalk geophagia commonly consumed in Sub-Saharan countries such as Cameroon may be a source of potential harmful elements such as lead and mercury. We sought to determine its geochemical composition on representative sample collected in the central market of Douala and evaluate their acute toxicity profile using rat.

          Methods: The geochemical analysis of three prototypes of Calabash chalk samples collected in the Douala central market, their main place of supply in the town, has been performed using the X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) for major and trace elements respectively. Acute toxicity was assessed according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines test No 423.

          Results: The geochemistry displays the Al2O3 as their main major component with iron, titanium, cerium and zinc as metal and metalloid trace elements. No acute toxicity was found in rat after administration of 5000 mg/kg body weight.

          Conclusion: Calabash chalk belong to the kaolinite family which had showed evidence for digestive pharmacologic propriety. Their acute consumption may be less toxic while toxicity profile of chronic consumption should be investigated.

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