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Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 3 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Acute Pesticide Poisoning Case Registration in Uganda‚????s Health Care Facilities

    Sekabojja D*, Atuhaire A, Nabankema V, Sekimpi D, Bainomugisa C and Jørs E

    DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.10001

    Background: Over the years, synthetic pesticides use in Uganda has been on the rise mainly in combating pests, disease pathogens, and disease vectors, both in agriculture and public health. Although there is an increased import and use, the limited user knowledge has resulted into exposure to the toxic products causing both intentional and non-intentional poisonings. This study evaluates a simple tool to register acute pesticide poisoning cases in selected community health facilities.

    Method: In 2013, a total of 66 health care workers from 66 health facilities serving a population of 367,169 and 2.007 million in Pallisa and Wakiso districts respectively were trained on diagnosis, treatment, registration and reporting of acute pesticide poisoning. In addition over 250 members of Village Health Teams were trained to sensitise and refer any victims of pesticide poisoning to nearby health care facilities. Thereafter 1300 copies of case registration forms were distributed to trained health care workers in the 66 health facilities to capture attributes to pesticide poisonings including; patient demographic information, name of poisoning agent, type of poisoning exposure, observed signs and symptoms by patient, first aid/treatment administered, outcome of poisoning or referral to a higher facility. Partnering health facilities were visited on a monthly basis to collect filled forms and discuss any upcoming challenges. Also a feedback meeting with the health facility in charge were organised on a quarterly basis to rectify the data collection challenges. Collected data was entered, cleaned and analysed using Stata/SE14.0 Statistical package and graphs constructed with MS. Excel 13. A total of 393 acute pesticide poisoning cases were registered in 43/66 health facilities in a period of 5 years (2013-2017), with an annual average of 78.6 cases and 65.2% reporting. The mean age was 20.6 years (SD ± 17.4 years). Male cases were significantly older than females (p<0.05), with a mean age of 22 years and 17 years respectively and formed the majority of the cases 215/393 (55.2%). By Age group, children <12 years formed the majority of cases, 146/393 (37.2%), followed by >30 years, 127/393 (32.3%). A majority of 215/393 (54.7%) cases were non-intentional poisoning of which 37/215 (17.2%) were occupational poisoning cases and 178/215 (82.8%) accidental poisoning cases, while 82/393 (20.9%) were intentional poisonings and the rest 96/393 (24.4%) listed among others. The health workers faced a challenge of inability to obtain names of pesticides that caused majority 301/393 (76.6%). However, known registered poisonings 58/393 (14.8%) by chemical group included; majority being Organophosphates 29/58 (50.0%), followed by Rodenticides (Coumarin & metal phosphide) 11/58 (19.0%), Pyrethroids 7/58 (12.1%), Phosphonates 5/58 (8.6%), Acaricides 3/58 (5.2%), Carbamates 1/58 (1.7%), Thiocarbamate 1/58 (1.7%) and phenoxy acids 1/58 (1.7%).

    Conclusion: Acute Pesticides Poisoning (APP) is an on-going health challenge that has not been prioritised yet by the country’s health sector. Organophosphate poisoning is the major cause of the poisonings. A majority of the poisonings were accidental poisonings seen in young age groups, followed by self-harm and occupational poisonings. This pilot serves as a guide for the country to build a robust pesticide poisoning surveillance system and pesticide access control mechanisms from end user to treatment facilities.

    Volume 10, Issue 4 (2020)

      Research Pages: 1 - 5

      Chemical Composition and Heavy Metals Analysis of Raw Cow‚????s Milk

      Endale Tesfaye Damtew and Aregay Berhe Gebre

      DOI: volume 10, Issue 4

      The study was primarily aimed at determining physicochemical quality, minerals and nutrient composition of cow’s milk samples collected from different areas of Nuer Zone and Gambella town, Ethiopia. A total of 6 cow’s milk samples from farmers and vendors (dairy cooperative milk collection centers and small shops) were collected. All samples were collected using proportional random sampling method. The presence and concentration of various minerals (such as Na, Ca, Mg, P and N2 ) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) were determined. Different physicochemical parameters of milk samples such as pH, titratable acidity and density were examined. The proximate chemical compositions of milk samples such as moisture, protein, fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), lactose, total solid and ash contents also were determined. The mean values of pH, moisture, titratable acidity, protein, fat, solids-not-fat, ash, total solid, density and lactose contents of milk samples collected from farmers are 5.22, 86.99%, 1.01%, 3.46%, 4.80%, 6.23%, 0.04%, 11.04%, 1.01 g/cm3 and 4.43%, respectively. On the other hand, the respective mean values of physicochemical parameters of vendors’ milk samples are 5.09, 88.85%, 2.10%, 3.76%, 4.88%, 7.07%, 0.591%, 11.91%, 1.02 g/cm3 and 4.70%. The results of the study showed that mineral compositions of all collected milk samples are adequate. The contents of heavy metals are below maximum permissible limit as compared with standard levels. However, Most of the milk samples have poor physiochemical quality; they have high titratable acidity values and low pH values which are beyond the permissible ranges. This indicated that milk samples, in particular, samples from vendors are not followed good milk handling practices, and they need improvement. The obtained proximate analysis results revealed that all the collected milk samples fulfilled the WHO and other national and international standards except lactose and protein contents.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Note on Impact of COVID-19 on Air Quality

      Navneet Kumar

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.616

      Across the nation lockdown because of the pandemic has
      prompted an extreme decrease of NO2 discharges and diminished air
      contamination levels. It's significant this is kept up considerably after the
      lockdown lifts. In the midst of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic,
      an uncommon positive has been the noteworthy worldwide decline in
      air contamination levels. Basically, specialists have estimated nitrogen
      dioxide (NO2), one of the six significant air poisons (notwithstanding
      particulate issue, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ground-level ozone,
      and lead). NO2 has, as most different gases, normal and human
      sources.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Highlights on Environmental Pollution

      Archita Solanki

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.617

      Journal of Environmental and analytical Toxicology commemorates its
      decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing
      peer-reviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements
      in the field of oral health. Ever since its inception in the year 2010, in addition to
      regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this trans disciplinary journal is also
      releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus
      comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in
      environmental related problems to explore advanced research areas within
      this field. The journal focuses on application oriented research on harmful
      effects of various chemical, biological, and physical agents on individual living
      organisms. The Journal, Environmental & Analytical Toxicology is of highest
      standards in terms of quality. In this issue some of the recent and impactful
      research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed.

      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Assessment of Phytoremediation Potential of Indigenous Flora around the Steel Industries in Nigeria Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited, Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria

      Adejoh Petergerard Akumabi, Henery O Sawyerr, Adeolu A.T and Opasola O.A

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.525

      In recent years, with the development of the global industrialization, the content of heavy metals in the soil caused by industrial activities has
      gradually increased, resulting in environmental deterioration. There is a need to provide viable option that is economical, environmental friendly and
      sustainable for clean-up of environmental contamination such as phytoremediation. Series of studies conducted in the past on heavy metals content
      in soil around Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited (ASCL) without considering the remediation technologies of such contents. This study primarily
      assessed the phytoremedial potential of indigenous flora around Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria. To achieve this,
      top and sub soil samples along with control were collected around the vicinity of ASCL for heavy metals analysis. Four different indigenous plants
      (Imperata cylindrica (Spear grass or cotton wool grass), Sida acuta (Wire weed), Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) and Chromoleana odarata (Siam
      weed) grown within the vicinity of the ASCL were randomly collected for heavy metals analysis. The samples were digested and analyzed using
      Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) (Perkin Elmer® Analyst 100 model). The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 20 for descriptive
      and inferential statistics. The metal transfer factors were also determined. The results obtained revealed that the potential of remediating Lead
      by C. odarata was high compared to other plant species which uptake 10.33 mg/kg, 20.11 mg/kg, and 25.32 mg/kg in the leaves, stem and
      root respectively. The bioaccumulation level of Lead in C. odarata and H. annus were recorded to be 0.91 mg/kg and 0.71 mg/kg respectively
      which indicated highest bioaccumulation factor. Unlike the bioaccumulation factors, the translocation factors were high in all the heavy metals
      investigated. The study revealed that C. odarata, I. cylindrica and S. acuta are good accumulators of heavy metals and they should therefore be
      encouraged to be cultivated. The plant species may be regarded as hyperaccumulators, which is characterized by their ability to accumulate high
      quantities of metals in their tissues.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      The Coronavirus COVID-19 Pandemic: The Real Danger is ???Agenda ID-2020??? & The COVID-19 Pandemic from a Global Environmental Health

      Peter Koenig

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.615

      Overarching all is this super hype is profit driven, the quest for instant profit, instant benefits from the suffering of the people. This panic making is a hundred-fold of what it’s worth. What these kingpins of the underworld, who pretend to run the upper world, perhaps miscalculated, is that in today’s globalized and vastly outsourced world the west depends massively on China’s supply chain, for consumer goods, and for intermediary merchandise – and, foremost for medication and medical equipment. At least 80% of medication or ingredients for medication, as well as for medical equipment come from China. The western China dependence for antibiotics is even higher, some 90%. The potential impacts on health are devastating. During the height of the COVID-19 epidemic China’s production apparatus for everything was almost shut-down. For deliveries that were still made, merchandise vessels were regularly and categorically turned back from many harbors all around the world. So, the west has tricked itself into a shortage-of-everything mode by waging a de facto “economic war” on China.

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