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Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 3 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Acute Pesticide Poisoning Case Registration in UgandaÔ????s Health Care Facilities

    Sekabojja D*, Atuhaire A, Nabankema V, Sekimpi D, Bainomugisa C and Jørs E

    DOI: 10.4172/2161-0525.10001

    Background: Over the years, synthetic pesticides use in Uganda has been on the rise mainly in combating pests, disease pathogens, and disease vectors, both in agriculture and public health. Although there is an increased import and use, the limited user knowledge has resulted into exposure to the toxic products causing both intentional and non-intentional poisonings. This study evaluates a simple tool to register acute pesticide poisoning cases in selected community health facilities.

    Method: In 2013, a total of 66 health care workers from 66 health facilities serving a population of 367,169 and 2.007 million in Pallisa and Wakiso districts respectively were trained on diagnosis, treatment, registration and reporting of acute pesticide poisoning. In addition over 250 members of Village Health Teams were trained to sensitise and refer any victims of pesticide poisoning to nearby health care facilities. Thereafter 1300 copies of case registration forms were distributed to trained health care workers in the 66 health facilities to capture attributes to pesticide poisonings including; patient demographic information, name of poisoning agent, type of poisoning exposure, observed signs and symptoms by patient, first aid/treatment administered, outcome of poisoning or referral to a higher facility. Partnering health facilities were visited on a monthly basis to collect filled forms and discuss any upcoming challenges. Also a feedback meeting with the health facility in charge were organised on a quarterly basis to rectify the data collection challenges. Collected data was entered, cleaned and analysed using Stata/SE14.0 Statistical package and graphs constructed with MS. Excel 13. A total of 393 acute pesticide poisoning cases were registered in 43/66 health facilities in a period of 5 years (2013-2017), with an annual average of 78.6 cases and 65.2% reporting. The mean age was 20.6 years (SD ± 17.4 years). Male cases were significantly older than females (p<0.05), with a mean age of 22 years and 17 years respectively and formed the majority of the cases 215/393 (55.2%). By Age group, children <12 years formed the majority of cases, 146/393 (37.2%), followed by >30 years, 127/393 (32.3%). A majority of 215/393 (54.7%) cases were non-intentional poisoning of which 37/215 (17.2%) were occupational poisoning cases and 178/215 (82.8%) accidental poisoning cases, while 82/393 (20.9%) were intentional poisonings and the rest 96/393 (24.4%) listed among others. The health workers faced a challenge of inability to obtain names of pesticides that caused majority 301/393 (76.6%). However, known registered poisonings 58/393 (14.8%) by chemical group included; majority being Organophosphates 29/58 (50.0%), followed by Rodenticides (Coumarin & metal phosphide) 11/58 (19.0%), Pyrethroids 7/58 (12.1%), Phosphonates 5/58 (8.6%), Acaricides 3/58 (5.2%), Carbamates 1/58 (1.7%), Thiocarbamate 1/58 (1.7%) and phenoxy acids 1/58 (1.7%).

    Conclusion: Acute Pesticides Poisoning (APP) is an on-going health challenge that has not been prioritised yet by the country’s health sector. Organophosphate poisoning is the major cause of the poisonings. A majority of the poisonings were accidental poisonings seen in young age groups, followed by self-harm and occupational poisonings. This pilot serves as a guide for the country to build a robust pesticide poisoning surveillance system and pesticide access control mechanisms from end user to treatment facilities.

    Volume 10, Issue 4 (2020)

      Research Pages: 1 - 5

      Chemical Composition and Heavy Metals Analysis of Raw CowÔ????s Milk

      Endale Tesfaye Damtew and Aregay Berhe Gebre

      DOI: volume 10, Issue 4

      The study was primarily aimed at determining physicochemical quality, minerals and nutrient composition of cow’s milk samples collected from different areas of Nuer Zone and Gambella town, Ethiopia. A total of 6 cow’s milk samples from farmers and vendors (dairy cooperative milk collection centers and small shops) were collected. All samples were collected using proportional random sampling method. The presence and concentration of various minerals (such as Na, Ca, Mg, P and N2 ) and heavy metals (Cd, Cr and Pb) were determined. Different physicochemical parameters of milk samples such as pH, titratable acidity and density were examined. The proximate chemical compositions of milk samples such as moisture, protein, fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), lactose, total solid and ash contents also were determined. The mean values of pH, moisture, titratable acidity, protein, fat, solids-not-fat, ash, total solid, density and lactose contents of milk samples collected from farmers are 5.22, 86.99%, 1.01%, 3.46%, 4.80%, 6.23%, 0.04%, 11.04%, 1.01 g/cm3 and 4.43%, respectively. On the other hand, the respective mean values of physicochemical parameters of vendors’ milk samples are 5.09, 88.85%, 2.10%, 3.76%, 4.88%, 7.07%, 0.591%, 11.91%, 1.02 g/cm3 and 4.70%. The results of the study showed that mineral compositions of all collected milk samples are adequate. The contents of heavy metals are below maximum permissible limit as compared with standard levels. However, Most of the milk samples have poor physiochemical quality; they have high titratable acidity values and low pH values which are beyond the permissible ranges. This indicated that milk samples, in particular, samples from vendors are not followed good milk handling practices, and they need improvement. The obtained proximate analysis results revealed that all the collected milk samples fulfilled the WHO and other national and international standards except lactose and protein contents.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Note on Impact of COVID-19 on Air Quality

      Navneet Kumar

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.616

      Across the nation lockdown because of the pandemic has
      prompted an extreme decrease of NO2 discharges and diminished air
      contamination levels. It's significant this is kept up considerably after the
      lockdown lifts. In the midst of the overwhelming COVID-19 pandemic,
      an uncommon positive has been the noteworthy worldwide decline in
      air contamination levels. Basically, specialists have estimated nitrogen
      dioxide (NO2), one of the six significant air poisons (notwithstanding
      particulate issue, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ground-level ozone,
      and lead). NO2 has, as most different gases, normal and human
      sources.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Highlights on Environmental Pollution

      Archita Solanki

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.617

      Journal of Environmental and analytical Toxicology commemorates its
      decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing
      peer-reviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements
      in the field of oral health. Ever since its inception in the year 2010, in addition to
      regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this trans disciplinary journal is also
      releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus
      comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in
      environmental related problems to explore advanced research areas within
      this field. The journal focuses on application oriented research on harmful
      effects of various chemical, biological, and physical agents on individual living
      organisms. The Journal, Environmental & Analytical Toxicology is of highest
      standards in terms of quality. In this issue some of the recent and impactful
      research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed.

      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Assessment of Phytoremediation Potential of Indigenous Flora around the Steel Industries in Nigeria Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited, Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria

      Adejoh Petergerard Akumabi, Henery O Sawyerr, Adeolu A.T and Opasola O.A

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.525

      In recent years, with the development of the global industrialization, the content of heavy metals in the soil caused by industrial activities has
      gradually increased, resulting in environmental deterioration. There is a need to provide viable option that is economical, environmental friendly and
      sustainable for clean-up of environmental contamination such as phytoremediation. Series of studies conducted in the past on heavy metals content
      in soil around Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited (ASCL) without considering the remediation technologies of such contents. This study primarily
      assessed the phytoremedial potential of indigenous flora around Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited Ajaokuta, Kogi State, Nigeria. To achieve this,
      top and sub soil samples along with control were collected around the vicinity of ASCL for heavy metals analysis. Four different indigenous plants
      (Imperata cylindrica (Spear grass or cotton wool grass), Sida acuta (Wire weed), Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) and Chromoleana odarata (Siam
      weed) grown within the vicinity of the ASCL were randomly collected for heavy metals analysis. The samples were digested and analyzed using
      Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) (Perkin Elmer® Analyst 100 model). The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 20 for descriptive
      and inferential statistics. The metal transfer factors were also determined. The results obtained revealed that the potential of remediating Lead
      by C. odarata was high compared to other plant species which uptake 10.33 mg/kg, 20.11 mg/kg, and 25.32 mg/kg in the leaves, stem and
      root respectively. The bioaccumulation level of Lead in C. odarata and H. annus were recorded to be 0.91 mg/kg and 0.71 mg/kg respectively
      which indicated highest bioaccumulation factor. Unlike the bioaccumulation factors, the translocation factors were high in all the heavy metals
      investigated. The study revealed that C. odarata, I. cylindrica and S. acuta are good accumulators of heavy metals and they should therefore be
      encouraged to be cultivated. The plant species may be regarded as hyperaccumulators, which is characterized by their ability to accumulate high
      quantities of metals in their tissues.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

      The Coronavirus COVID-19 Pandemic: The Real Danger is ???Agenda ID-2020??? & The COVID-19 Pandemic from a Global Environmental Health

      Peter Koenig

      DOI: DOI: 10.24105/2161-0525.10.615

      Overarching all is this super hype is profit driven, the quest for instant profit, instant benefits from the suffering of the people. This panic making is a hundred-fold of what it’s worth. What these kingpins of the underworld, who pretend to run the upper world, perhaps miscalculated, is that in today’s globalized and vastly outsourced world the west depends massively on China’s supply chain, for consumer goods, and for intermediary merchandise – and, foremost for medication and medical equipment. At least 80% of medication or ingredients for medication, as well as for medical equipment come from China. The western China dependence for antibiotics is even higher, some 90%. The potential impacts on health are devastating. During the height of the COVID-19 epidemic China’s production apparatus for everything was almost shut-down. For deliveries that were still made, merchandise vessels were regularly and categorically turned back from many harbors all around the world. So, the west has tricked itself into a shortage-of-everything mode by waging a de facto “economic war” on China.

      Volume 10, Issue 5 (2020)

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial Note to the Special Issue ???COVID-19-Positive for Climate!So, Why Not We????

        Rojalin Jha

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.10.618

        SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be mostly communicated legitimately from individual to-individual through close contact, or through respiratory beads delivered when a tainted individual hacks or wheezes. Individuals might be contaminated by contacting uncovered surfaces; however this isn't believed to be a significant transmission course. While temperature and stickiness may impact how long the infection makes due outside of the human body, this impact is probably going to be little contrasted with the level of contact between individuals. Physical separating and washing hands are in this way basic to breaking the chain of transmission, and are simply the best method to ensure, in all areas and all periods of the year.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial Highlights on Biotransformation of Toxicants

        Vishal Sharma

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/jeat.2020.10.5.e525

        Biotransformation is the procedure by which a substance changes starting with one synthetic then onto the next (changed) by a concoction response inside the body. Digestion or metabolic changes are terms much of the time utilized for the biotransformation procedure. Be that as it may, digestion is here and there not explicit for the change procedure but rather may incorporate different periods of toxicokinetics. Biotransformation is imperative to endurance since it changes ingested supplements (food, oxygen, and so forth.) into substances required for typical body capacities. For certain pharmaceuticals, it is a metabolite that is helpful and not the ingested sedate

        Editorials Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial Highlights on ???Impact of Corona-Virus in Ozone Layer Healing???

        Tarun mittal

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/jeat.2020.10.5.614

        Ozone layer is a slender cover like layer that spreads over the environment of the earth. The ozone layer ensures the outside of the earth and its wonders from stray beams from the sun. It permits just the necessary dosages of the sun oriented vitality to arrive at the world's surface. Man has made a decent attempt to convey defensive measures towards controlling the ozone layer from depletion, but this is so difficult to be accomplished with the quick development of industries. Most plants discharge untreated effluents to the air which might be held in the climate or respond with different molecules to make an extraordinary impact the ozone layer with time. Vitality from the sun arrives at the earth as infra-red, visible and ultra-violet (U.V.) light

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial Highlights on Sewage and Wastewater Pollution

        Arshit Gujral

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/jeat.2020.10.5.613

        Utilized water is wastewater. It originates from our sinks, showers, and latrines (think sewage) and from business, modern, and horticultural exercises (think metals, solvents, and poisonous ooze). The term likewise incorporates stormwater overflow, which happens when precipitation conveys street salts, oil, oil, synthetic concoctions, and flotsam and jetsam from impermeable surfaces into our streams. In excess of 80 percent of the world's wastewater streams once again into the earth without being dealt with or reused, as indicated by the United Nations; in some least-created nations, the figure tops 95 percent. In the United States, wastewater treatment offices process around 34 billion gallons of wastewater for every day

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        A Brief Note on Analytical Toxicology Innovations

        Alisa Parvez

        DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.10.619

        Scientific toxicology is that the utilization of the entire scope of subjective and quantitative concoction, immunochemical, and physical procedures used in test arrangement, partition, examines adjustment, location and recognizable proof, and evaluation for the motivations behind toxicological examination and testing. Scientific toxicology is that the recognition, recognizable proof, and estimation of unfamiliar mixes (xenobiotics) in organic and different examples. Investigative techniques are accessible for an extremely wide determination of intensifies: these could likewise be synthetic substances, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, medications of misuse and regular poisons. Systematic toxicology includes the apparatus of the devices of scientific science to the subjective or potentially quantitative estimation of synthetics. Logical toxicology can help inside the conclusion, the board, forecast, and avoidance of harming. Moreover investigative toxicology research centers could likewise be included during a scope of different exercises like the evaluation of presentation following synthetic occurrences, restorative medication observing, criminological examinations, and checking for medications of misuse.

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