Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 3 (2021)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Can Plant Product be Substitute for Artificial Oral Contraceptive Pills?

    Kadam Asha* and Gaykar Balasaheb

    Contraceptive methods mean birth control and fertility control methods or devices which used to prevent pregnancy. There are many categories of birth control methods but some having negative influence or risks and some safest and healthiest options. In the present study, we surveyed 269 women from Ahmednagar region and we found that among the 269 women, 179 women were used artificial contraceptives and rest of the women were not used any type of contraceptives. According to the feedback of these women only some having satisfaction and remaining most of women are not satisfactory with these contraceptives, because of high risk of cervical cancer, blood clots, cycle irregularities, irregular bleeding, loss of sexual function, vaginal infection etc. Hence according to survey, we analyse that many women turn to birth control pills because they are not aware that there are safer options available.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Comparative Effect of Petroleum Products and Biomass Fuel Exposure on Serum Lipid profile and Atherogenic Indices of male Albino wistar Rats

    Ude Tochukwu*, Meludu Samuel Chukwuemeka, Dioka Chudi Emmanuel, Chikezie Onyebuchi Desmond, Awalu Chimezie Joseph and bekailo Sylvester Nnaemeka

    The effects of petroleum products and biomass fuel on serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices were investigated in male wistar rats. Fifty adult male wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups of ten animals each. Rats in group A served as control (exposed to fresh air). Group B, C, D and E were exposed to inhalation of kerosene, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas and biomass smoke (wood smoke) respectively. All the exposures were done using whole body exposure chambers 70cm x 60cm x 60cm measurement for six weeks. Five millilitres of fasting blood sample were collected at the end of six weeks and used for analysis of lipid profile using mindray BS 120. Atherogenic indices were calculated using the appropriate formula. Values were analysed statistically using SPSS version 23.0. The result shows significant increase in the serum total, LDL, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of test groups relative to control (p<0.05), while inducing a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol though the effect appear to be more pronounced with kerosene exposure. The exposure also led to significant increase in CRR, AC and AIP (p<0.05). These results suggest that petroleum products and biomass fuel exposure could potentiate the risk of atherosclerosis through elicitation of dyslipidaemia.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Hydrochar for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: An Overview on its Advantages and Applications

    Ahmed Hesham, Yasser Awad, Hossam Jahin, Sabry El-Korashy, Shaimaa Maher, Haitham Kalil and Gasser Khairy

    Water pollution is one of the environmental challenges facing the world society. Consequently, the pollutants both domestic and industrial wastewater are identified as an environmental threat. Hydrochar (HC) appears as a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to this environmental threat. HC is the solid produced from the wet pyrolysis process for biomass that is rich in carbon in a sub-critical liquid phase, called the Hydro-Thermal Carbonization Process (HTC). This review aims to address the possibility of using HC as the most effective solution to the industrial wastewater. HTC has proven a greater yield than dry pyrolysis (30%-60% wt). To date, HC is listed as a promising lower-cost alternate adsorbent for removing wastewater pollutants. In Egypt for example, only few studies have been published investigating the properties of HC and its environmental applications. In this review, we will shed light on the preparation, characterization, and previous studies on the development and recent applications of HC. In addition, we will discuss the challenges to produce HC at a commercial scale. To the best of our knowledge, there is only few research studies addressing the HC production in the Middle East countries. Therefore, the door is still opened for more research on developing production techniques on HC from different biomass, and implementation in various environmental applications

    Review Pages: 1 - 4

    Ozone Layer Depletion and its Consequences on Humans: a Review

    Sulaiman Bin Abdullah

    Ozone (O3) is a stratospheric layer that assumes significant job in offering help to people for their endurance. It is a basic factor for some worldwide, natural and ecological wonders. The ultra-violet (UV) beams discharged from sun are caught by ozone and in this manner give a stable ontological structure in the biosphere. Different anthropogenic exercises, for example, emanations of CFCs, HCFCs and other organoincandescent lamp lead to the exhaustion of ozone. Ozone exhaustion is enabling the UV radiation to earth surface. The introduction to these radiations is seriously influencing all living things on earth, particularly the people. Perpetual or transitory visual deficiency, skin malignancy and insusceptibility concealment are the principle impacts of these radiations revealed by different scientists on people. The possibilities of ozone recuperation are as yet unfamiliar. The present circumstance of ozone portrayal requests dire healing measures to secure lives on this planet. Chlorofluorocarbons, halons and methyl bromide are largely critical ozone exhausting substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol. Satellite perception frameworks help to foresee future changes to the ozone layer. In view of understandings under the Montreal Protocol, the ozone layer is relied upon to recoup toward the center of the twenty first century. Research should be done to evaluate that how different alternatives of cooling agents (chlorofluorocarbons) tend to decrease the emission of chlorine.

    Volume 11, Issue 4 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Selling Points of Sewage Sludge as an Enhancing Agent of Bioremediation of Diesel Oil-Polluted Soil

      Kingsley Tochukwu Ughamba, Nnabueze Darlington Nnaji, Kenneth Ejike Ogbonna and Chukwudi Anyanwu

      Bioremediation employing the action of microbes alone has been shown to be inadequate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sewage sludge (SS) in enhancing bioremediation of diesel oil-polluted soil. Diesel oil was introduced into the soil at the concentration of 10 % (v/w) and mixed with 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w) of sewage sludge. The remediation of the oil was determined gravimetrically and spectrophotometrically using n-hexane as extractant. Effectiveness of the remediation strategy was assessed by the seed germination toxicity test At the end of forty-two days, 32.22 % oil loss was recorded in the unamended polluted soil while 58.33% oil loss was recorded in the soil amended with sewage sludge. Hydrocarbon- utilizing bacteria (HUB) counts were significantly high (P≤0.05) in the sewage sludge-amended options, ranging from 5.3 ±0.9 x 106 to 12.3±0.75 × 106CFU/g soil, as compared to the unamended control soil which gave 1.0 × 106- 3.8 × 106CFU/g of soil. The hydrocarbon- utilizing bacteria isolated from both the control and amended soils were identified tentatively as Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas putida, Micrococcus varians, Corynebacterium spp and Staphylococcus spp based on their cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The fungal counts in the SS-amendment options were also higher than was recorded in the control option ranging from 3.8 x 105 ± 0.2 to 11.6 x 105 ±0.25. Aerobic fungi isolated were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Cladosporium sp and Penicillium sp. The highest oil loss and germination indices were recorded in SS-amended options. There was a significant difference (P≤0.05) in oil loss and germination index between the unamended control soil and polluted soil amended with 15% SS.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Permethrin and Cypermethrin Residues on Beans and Cucumber Plants Grown Under Greenhouse Conditions

      George Antonious

      A simple, accurate, and cost-effective procedure for separation and quantification of two pyrethroid insecticides residues on bean and cucumber plants was achieved using a Gas Chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and GC equipped with a Mass Selective Detector (MSD). Following spraying fruits and leaves were collected to determine insecticides dissipation constants and half-lives (T1/2 values). Residues of the two pyrethroids revealed the presence of permethrin isomers at retention times of 26 and 26.6 min that correspond to the cis and trans-isomers, respectively. The GC also revealed the presence of four cypermethrin isomers at retention times of 30.3, 30.9, 31.3, and 31.5 min. The average initial deposits of permethrin were 2.7 and 0.2 on cucumber leaves and fruits surfaces, respectively. Whereas cypermethrin initial deposits were 5.1 and 2 μg g-1 on cucumber leaves and fruits, respectively indicating greater deposits on leaves than fruits. T1/2 values of permethrin and cypermethrin residues on beans pods (7.2 and 9.5 d, respectively) and cucumber fruits (13 and 3.3 d, respectively) indicated that a waiting period of 10 and 15 d are required for consumption of cucumber fruits and bean pods sprayed with cypermethrin at the recommended spraying dosage to drop the residues to the Maximum Residue Limits

      Awards 2020 Pages: 1 - 1

      Environmental on Recycling and Waste Management

      Olivier Manzi

      Following the success of this Recycling conference, the 7th edition, with pride and pleasure, we announce the next edition, the 8th International Conference on Recycling and Waste ManagementRecycling 2020 scheduled to be held in Barcelona, Spain on April 29-30, 2020.

      Awards 2020 Pages: 1 - 1

      Earth Science and Environmental Science, San Francisco, USA, September 28-29, 2021

      Amelia Jones

      We are pleased to announce the World Congress on Earth Science and Environmental Science scheduled to be held in San Francisco, USA on September 28- 29, 2021

      Awards 2020 Pages: 1 - 1

      International Conference on Eutrophication and Water Pollution

      Olivier Manzi

      Our International Conference on Eutrophication and Water Pollution going to held on Aug 31, 2020 - Sep 01, 2020 at Philadelphia, USA announces awards for the following dignitaries as per the mentioned divisions

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