Chemical Sciences Journal

ISSN: 2150-3494

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Abi Legesse* and Addis Ababa

    This research was carried out to investigate the physicochemical parameters of livestock drinking water samples collected from Falfal, Degehabur and Bulale areas in Somali regional state of Ethiopia. The objective of this research was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of water ponds used for livestock drink. The result was recorded that, the pH, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solid and Total hardness was 7.17°C ± 0.03°C, 22.51°C ± 0.18°C, 17.50 ± 2.60 mg/L and 825.22 ± 92.18 mg/L, respectively. The mean concentration of Chloride ion, Magnesium ion and calcium ion was 422.09 ± 64.05 mg/L, 61.37 ± 6.56 mg/L, and 200.70 13.23 mg/L, respectively. The mean Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand were also recorded which was 12.67 0.54 mg/L and 7.47 0.67 mg/L, respectively.

    The obtained results were also compared to the national and international standards to determine the quality of livestock drinking water. Accordingly, the measured pH was in agreement with World health organization and Ethiopian standards agency standards, which was 6.5 to 8.5. The Temperature, Total hardness and chloride ion concentration was above the standard limit set by World health organization and Ethiopian standards agency. The concentration of Total Dissolved Solid, Mg2+ and Ca2+ was in agreement with World health organization and Ethiopian standards agency standards. The standards for Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand were not available both from World health organization and Ethiopian standards agency.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Tikhonov Russia*

      A study on electrochemical deposition in a triple-component CoNiFe system from a chloride electrolyte solution with equal concentrations of Co, Ni, and Fe was performed. The concentrations used were 0.48; 0.083; 0.00625 mol/l, and the temperature was 70°Ð¡. The relative content of the components in the film approached the composition of the electrolyte, though the concentration of each component was slightly decreased. The dependence of the composition of films on the current density is explained by concentration polarization.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Removal of Hg++ from aqueous solution using TiO2 nanoparticles

        Abdunnaser Mohamed Etorki, Ezzedein Mohamed Aboushloa*

        Nanometer-sized titanium dioxide prepared in the Lab chemically modified with 8-hydroxyquinolin and used for selective solid phase extraction processes, separation and preconcentration process of aluminum (III) from aqueous solutions prior to its determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma optical emission-Mass spectrometry(ICP-MS) and Graphite furnace atomic Absorption Spectrometry(GFAAS). The optimal conditions for the proposed solid phase extraction (SPE: 0,1g of TiO2- modified oxine, 6h shaking time,
        pH 6.5). The experimental results was fitted well to Langmuir isotherm equation to determine the maximum adsorption capacity.The static maximum adsorption capacity was 69.013mg/g. The lowest concentration of aluminum (Al+3) was (30.0μg/L) and the highest concentration was (14585μg/L). The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace of aluminum in areas near to the factories in
        east of Tripoli.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Venu Sangal *

        In this paper the influence of solvent dielectric constant on the rate of oxidation of p-methoxybenzaldehyde and pmethylbenzaldehyde with t-BuOCl has been studied in various solvent mixtures of acetic acid and water. The results indicate that in the oxidation of p-methoxybenzaldehyde with t-BuOCl the rate increases with increase in the percentage of acetic acid (from 10% to 40%), but the rate decreases with further increace in acetic acid content (50-80% HOAc). In the oxidation of p-methylbenzaldehyde with t- BuOCl the rate is maximum at 50% HOAc and decreases on either side of this percentage.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

          Synthesis of Novel Levamisole Derivatives for Their Anticancer and Antiviral Activity

          Sujith*, Chudamani B and Subhas S Karki

          DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2022.13.304

          All the compounds (CH-69 to CH-84) were evaluated for their cytostatic activity against human HeLa cervix carcinoma cells, human CEM CD4þ T-lymphocytes as well as murine L1210 cells. All assays were performed in 96 well microtiter plates. To each well were added (5-7.5) × 104 tumor cells and a given amount of the test compound. The cells were allowed to proliferate for 48 h (murine leukemia L1210 cells) or 72 h (human lymphocytic CEM and human cervix carcinoma HeLa cells) at 37°C in a humidified CO2 controlled atmosphere. At the end of the incubation period, the cells were counted in a coulter counter. The IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration) was defined as the concentration of the compound that inhibited cell proliferation by 50%. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of a new series of 2-arylimidazo[2,1-b] [1,3,4]thiadiazol-6-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one against different MDCK cell cultures, HeLa cell cultures, vero cell cultures, CRFK cell cultures is reported. Among the tested compounds, inhibitory effects of compounds (CH-69 to CH-84) on the proliferation of murine leukemia cells (L1210) and human T-lymphocyte cells (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa).

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

              Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Chromatographic Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Perindopril Erbumine and Amlodipine Besylate in Formulation

              Sachin Babar*, S. L. Padwal and P. V. Raut

              DOI: 10.37421/ 2150-3494.2022.13.5.290

              The present paper reports the simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Perindopril erbumine and Amlodipine besylate in bulk and formulated drug substance. The reverse phase liquid chromatographic analysis has been performed on a Kromasil C8 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µ particle size) column with mobile phase Buffer (6.8 g Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate) and Acetonitrile in the ratio 59:41 with adjusted pH 2.6 with orthophosphoric acid and column oven temperature 40°C. The flow rate of mobile phase was adjusted 1.0 ml/min. and the injection volume 10 µl. Detection was performed at 210 nm. The retention time of Perindopril erbumine and Amlodipine Besylate were found to be 4.483 min. and 6.767 min, the linearity was observed in the concentration range from 20% to 160% of nominal concentration of Perindopril erbumine and Amlodipine Besylate correlation coefficient was 0.999 for both drugs. The % recovery was found to be within the limits of the acceptance criteria with average recovery of 99.4% for perindopril erbumine and 99.6% for Amlodipine besylate. The % RSD below 2.0 shows high precision of proposed method.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

              Solvent-Free One-Pot Synthesis of Coumarins using Heterogeneous Recyclable Fecl3/Mcm41 Catalyst

              Deepa Dumbreabd*, Vasant R Choudharya, H Balochb, MTH Siddiquib, N Sabzoib, ML Kantamc, MK Dongred and S Umbarkard

              DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2022.13.5.290

              A highly efficient, solvent-free and versatile greener protocol was developed for the synthesis of coumarins from resorcinol an ethyl acetoacetate via Pechmann condensation using heterogeneous recyclable FeCl3/MCM41 catalyst. This method is simple, cost effective, and benefits from the elimination of waste streams generated with conventional acid catalysts. The influence of catalyst calcination temperature as well as various solvent on conversion and product selectivity has also been studied in this work. The developed FeCl3/ MCM41 catalysts showed excellent catalytic performance with 60%-75% yields for coumarins, depending on the catalyst pretreatment and reaction conditions used. Moreover, FeCl3/MCM41 catalyst treated at 400°C can be reused efficiently for five times without a significant loss of its activity, which was attributed to synergistic effects of metal-support interactions, especially unique acid-redox properties of FeCl3.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 2

                Radiation-Catalytic Processes in the Nano-SiO2/H2O System under the Influence of Gamma Radiation

                Karim Eyubov

                The amount, rate of formation and radiation-chemical yields of molecular hydrogen obtained from the process of radiolysis under the influence of gamma quanta (60Co, P=9.276 rad/s, T=300 K) in the nano-SiO2/H2O system with a mass of particle of m=0.2 g and size of silicon particle of d=20÷60 nm by changing of water mass (m=0.01÷0.8 g) were studied. It was found that the rate of formation and radiationchemical yield of molecular hydrogen determined by increasing the mass of water • decrease by 10 times for water, • increase by 8 times for nano-silicon dioxide, • for common system, increase at the values of water mass of 0.01 gm H2O 0.2 g, have the maximum at mH2O =0.2 g and decrease at 0.2 g< mH2O 0.8 g.

                  Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                  Polymer Fusions for Biomedical Requisitions

                  Ramesh Londonkar*

                  DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2022.13.311

                  Steel and iron are the most seriously utilized metals because of their reasonableness; nonetheless, they are defenseless to erosion (rust), which is a worldwide pestilence.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

                    Synthesis, Characterization and Fluorescence of Novel Bromazepam Derivatives

                    AM Elessawy*, AA El-Barbary and Eman A ElBastawissy

                    DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2023.14.329

                    New bromazepam derivatives namely; 7-bromo-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepine -2-thione and 7-bromo-1-(4,6- dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2-one have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1H-NMR, UV-visible and EI-mass). Furthermore, the fluorometric method has been developed to detect bromazepam in biological fluid. The new methods are based on measuring excitation and emission spectra of the reaction of bromazepam with cyanuric chloride in pyridine solution compared with excitation and emission spectra free bromazepam in methanolic solution.

                    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                    Determination of Levels of Aflatoxin in Maize Produced from Shebelle Zone, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia Using UHPLC

                    Kebede Mamo*, Yared Shewarega and Aklilu Melese

                    DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2023.14.330

                    Aflatoxin producing substances are extremely dangerous to humans and can result in cancer when taken in foods contaminated with aflatoxin. In this study, the levels of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) in samples of maize collected from several Shebelle Zone districts were quantified. It was examined using a fluorescence detector and UHPLC. The extraction solvents (80:20 v/v percent) were methanol and water. Standard solutions of aflatoxins between 0.5 and 7 g/kg (ppb) demonstrated strong linearity from the calibration curve with regression coefficient (R2) values of >0.9989. The spiked sample average percentage recoveries ranged from 89.78 to 97.87 percent. The average total aflatoxin values in the maize samples from K1, K2, and K3 were 0.14, 356.19, and 174.05 g/kg, respectively. Except for K1, all of the investigated maize samples had aflatoxin levels that above the upper tolerance limits established by international agencies like WHO, and the EU.

                      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

                      Metallic Nanoparticles Modification of Epinephrine Biosensor Improves its Amperometric Response

                      Miriam Barquero Quiros*

                      Effect of metallic deposited nanoparticles on screen printed carbon with tetrathiafulvalene incorporated ink, was tested by three electrochemical procedures. First one electrodeposition at constant potential and two cyclic voltammetry procedures that applied changes in step potential, scan rate and delay time. X-rays Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electronic and Atomic Force Microscopy (SEM) and (AFM) respectively were performed and metallic nanoparticles deposits were characterized through their SEM images. XRF provide metal percentage deposited by electrochemical procedures. AFM parameters let to know electrodes modi ied surface characteristics. Nanoparticles electrochemically deposited electrodes were modi ied with superoxide dismutase enzyme and tested on epinephrine biosensor amperometric calibration curves. Platinum Nanoparticles (PtNPs) modi ied electrodes nature surpasses AFM surface parameters. There is correlation between low AFM parameters and high slope epinephrine calibration curve excepting PtNPs case. Nanoparticles of platinum deposited by cyclic voltammetry procedure 1 showed higher epinephrine slope calibration curve than the others nanoparticles deposited by constant potential and cyclic voltammetry procedure. Higher linearity and stability was showed for PtNPs performed cyclic voltametry procedure; this one was selected to validation of biosensor. Developed biosensor showed reproducibility of 2.9% and detection limit of 22.8 μm. Biosensor analysis of epinephrine pharmaceutical injection was 103.1% with RSD 5.4%.

                        Research Article Pages: 1 - 9

                        LC-QTOF-MS–based Metabolite Profiling and Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of Traditional Kavuni Rice In vitro

                        Mohitha Pushparaj, Kizhaeral S. Subramanyam* and Raveendran Muthurajan

                        DOI: 10.37421/2150-3494.2023.14.374

                        Rice is a staple food for more than 50% of the global population and there is close relationship between rice eaters and the prevalence of diabetes. Among the landraces, ‘Kavuni’ is considered as a traditional brownish black variety which is extensively cultivated in the southern part of India, Tamil Nadu. The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is among the first State Agricultural University to release therapeutic rice in 2023 as Co.57. This study aimed to identify and quantify the major anti-diabetic compounds present in Kavuni rice grain extracted using various solvents. Metabolite profiling using LC-QTOF-MS analysis has revealed that 31 phytochemicals detected among them anthocyanins and flavonoids are predominant. Ethanolic extract of Kavuni rice grain had the highest concentration of anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (61.31 ± 0.04 mg/g). The highest antioxidant activities in the ethanolic extract of Kavuni rice were detected as 89.51 ± 0.1% and 82.97 ± 0.09% measured using anti-oxidant assays. Further, Kavuni rice had the highest inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) 82.30% and 70.21%, respectively. The data clearly demonstrated that land race “Kavuni” carries phytochemicals that are known to regular postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting anti-diabetic enzyme could lower the risk of developing Type-2 diabetes.

                          Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                          Unveiling Dynamics: Chemical Reactions in Action

                          Loic Rudd

                          Chemical reactions are the cornerstone of chemistry, driving everything from the combustion engines propelling us forward to the biochemical processes sustaining life. At the heart of these reactions lies a fascinating world of dynamics, where atoms and molecules interact and transform in intricate dances guided by fundamental principles of physics and chemistry. At its essence, a chemical reaction is a transformation of substances, where reactants rearrange their atomic or molecular structures to form products with different properties. This transformation occurs through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, governed by the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics. Thermodynamics dictates the feasibility of a reaction by assessing the energy changes associated with it. Reactions proceed spontaneously if they lead to a decrease in the overall energy of the system, with the liberated energy available to do work. However, thermodynamics alone cannot predict the rate at which a reaction occurs or the pathway it follows. This is where kinetics comes into play, elucidating the mechanisms and dynamics of chemical transformations.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Coloring the Past Insights from Histochemistry

                          Nicholas Tetteh

                          Histochemistry, a field that merges the study of chemistry with the exploration of historical artifacts, has become an invaluable tool for unraveling the mysteries of our past. By applying chemical techniques to analyze the composition of materials found in archaeological sites, historians and scientists can gain deeper insights into the lifestyles, technologies and environments of ancient civilizations. Histochemistry is the scientific discipline concerned with the identification and localization of chemical components within biological tissues and other samples. Originally developed for biological research, histochemistry has found wide-ranging applications in fields such as medicine, forensics and archaeology. In the context of historical research, histochemistry allows scientists to analyze the composition of artifacts, residues and remains, shedding light on various aspects of ancient societies.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Balancing Nature\'s Equation: Environmental Analytical Chemistry

                          Shuang Yang*

                          In the intricate dance of nature, every element plays a vital role. However, as human activity continues to exert unprecedented pressure on the environment, maintaining this delicate equilibrium becomes increasingly challenging. From industrial emissions to agricultural runoff, our actions have tangible impacts on air, water and soil quality, posing significant threats to ecosystems and human health alike. In the quest for sustainable development, understanding and mitigating these impacts require precise measurement and analysis—enter environmental analytical chemistry. Environmental analytical chemistry serves as a cornerstone in the scientific arsenal aimed at safeguarding our planet. By employing sophisticated techniques and methodologies, environmental chemists scrutinize pollutants, trace elements and contaminants, unraveling their sources, behaviors and effects on the environment. In this article, we delve into the pivotal role of environmental analytical chemistry in balancing nature's equation, exploring its methodologies, applications and future prospects in the pursuit of a healthier, more sustainable world.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Chemical Biology: Bridging Chemistry and Biology

                          Leah Volker*

                          Chemical biology is a dynamic interdisciplinary field that amalgamates principles of chemistry and biology to elucidate and manipulate biological systems at the molecular level. It stands at the intersection of these two disciplines, utilizing chemical tools and techniques to investigate complex biological phenomena. By leveraging the precision and versatility of chemical synthesis, chemical biologists unravel the intricacies of biological processes and develop innovative strategies for disease diagnosis, drug discovery and therapeutic interventions. At its core, chemical biology seeks to decipher the chemical language of biological systems. Central to this endeavor is the synthesis and design of chemical probes, small molecules and biomolecular agents that interact selectively with specific biological targets. These tools serve as molecular probes to interrogate the functions, interactions and dynamics of biomolecules within living systems. Through the integration of synthetic chemistry, bioinformatics and structural biology, chemical biologists engineer molecules with tailored properties to dissect intricate cellular processes.

                          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

                          Chilling Perspectives: Cryochemistry Unraveled

                          Andrea Oers

                          Cryogenics, the science of extremely low temperatures, has always captivated the human imagination with its potential to unlock new frontiers in various fields. Within this domain lies cryochemistry, a discipline that explores the fascinating behavior of chemical reactions and compounds at cryogenic temperatures. As we delve into the world of cryochemistry, we uncover a realm where molecules dance to the tune of frigidity, revealing insights that redefine our understanding of matter and its interactions. Cryochemistry, at its core, involves studying chemical reactions and properties at temperatures nearing absolute zero (-273.15°C or 0 Kelvin). These ultra-low temperatures drastically alter the behavior of molecules, leading to intriguing phenomena. One of the most fundamental effects of cryogenics is the dramatic slowdown of molecular motion. At such low temperatures, molecules lose much of their kinetic energy, causing them to move sluggishly. This sluggishness has profound implications for chemical reactions, as reaction rates plummet, enabling scientists to observe and manipulate reactions in ways impossible at higher temperatures.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                          Decoding Life\'s Molecular Machinery: Biochemical Insights

                          Allison Twells

                          Life, in all its complexity and diversity, is fundamentally governed by molecular machinery that orchestrates the intricate dance of biochemical reactions within cells. From the replication of DNA to the synthesis of proteins, these molecular processes are the cornerstone of life as we know it. At the heart of cellular function lies the central dogma of molecular biology, a concept elucidated by Francis Crick in 1958. This fundamental principle describes the flow of genetic information within a biological system, stating that DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into proteins. This process forms the foundation of all cellular activities, from gene expression to protein synthesis. One of the most fundamental processes in biology is the replication of DNA. This intricate process ensures the faithful transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next. DNA replication begins with the unwinding of the double helix structure, facilitated by enzymes known as helicases. As the DNA strands separate, specialized enzymes called DNA polymerases catalyze the synthesis of new DNA strands complementary to the template strands. This results in the formation of two identical DNA molecules, each containing one original strand and one newly synthesized strand.

                          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                          Exploring the Frontiers Chemical Sciences Today

                          Jonathan Tran

                          Chemical sciences have always been at the forefront of innovation and discovery, shaping the way we understand and interact with the world around us. Today, the field is experiencing unprecedented growth and transformation, driven by advancements in technology, interdisciplinary collaboration, and a deepening understanding of fundamental chemical processes. Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, has revolutionized materials science. Advances in nanomaterials have led to the development of stronger, lighter, and more versatile materials with applications ranging from electronics to medicine. Key areas of research include nanoelectronics, nanomedicine, and nanocomposites, each offering unique opportunities for innovation and discovery. With growing concerns over environmental sustainability, green chemistry has emerged as a critical frontier in chemical sciences.

                          Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                          Harnessing Electron Power: Electrochemistry Innovations

                          Tang Duch

                          Electrochemistry, the study of the interconversion of electrical and chemical energy, has long been at the forefront of scientific and technological advancements. From fundamental discoveries to practical applications, electrochemistry plays a pivotal role in numerous fields, including energy storage, environmental remediation, and material synthesis. In recent years, there has been a surge in electrochemistry innovations, driven by the urgent need for sustainable energy solutions and environmental protection. At its core, electrochemistry deals with the movement of electrons between electrodes and ions in solution. This fundamental process underpins various electrochemical phenomena, such as redox reactions, electrolysis, and electroplating. Key to these processes is electrochemical cells, where chemical reactions are driven by an external electric current. These cells come in various forms, including batteries, fuel cells, and electrolyzers, each serving specific purposes in energy conversion and storage.

                          Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

                          Insights into Molecular Composition: Analytical Chemistry Perspectives

                          Toktam Kamangar

                          Analytical chemistry is a multifaceted discipline that plays a pivotal role in understanding molecular composition. By employing a diverse array of techniques and methodologies, analytical chemists unravel the intricate structures and properties of molecules, offering profound insights into various fields such as pharmaceuticals, environmental science, materials science, and biochemistry. At the heart of analytical chemistry lies the quest to understand molecular composition, which encompasses the identification, quantification, and characterization of chemical species present in a sample. Molecular composition elucidates the elemental and molecular constituents, their spatial arrangement, and their interactions, thereby offering a comprehensive understanding of the sample's nature. Analytical chemists employ an extensive array of techniques to probe the molecular composition of diverse samples.

                          Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

                          Unraveling Earth\'s Chemical Tapestry Geochemistry Explorations

                          Jannes Rubletz

                          The Earth is a complex system, a dynamic interplay of various elements, compounds, and processes that sustain life as we know it. At the heart of understanding this intricate web lies geochemistry – the study of the Earth's chemical composition, structure, processes, and evolution. From the depths of the planet's core to the outer reaches of its atmosphere, geochemistry unravels the mysteries of Earth's chemical tapestry, offering insights into its past, present, and future. To understand the Earth's chemical tapestry, we must first delve into its composition. At its core, the Earth is predominantly composed of iron and nickel, forming a solid inner core and a molten outer core. Surrounding this core is the mantle, rich in silicate minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Above the mantle lies the Earth's crust, a thin layer of rock that varies in composition from oceanic crust, dominated by basalt, to continental crust, composed mainly of granite and other felsic rocks.

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