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Cancer Science & Therapy

ISSN: 1948-5956

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 13, Issue 2 (2021)

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

    Non- Seminoma Testicular Tumors Clinical Stage I: Management Strategies

    Rajendra Nerli

    Clinical stage I is the most frequent clinical presentation of non-seminoma testicular cancer. Despite a survival rate of close to 100%, the management of patients with this disease stage is controversial. The recurrence rate is 15% to 50% for those with stage I non-seminoma. A highly sensitive and specific biomarker that can predict or confirm relapse of disease, and help to drive a definitive risk-adapted management is still not available. Lymph vascular invasion (LVI) in the orchiectomy specimen has been used as a risk factor in patients with stage I non-seminoma, however, the discriminative power of LVI is modest at best. Presently there is no definitive biomarker that can predict a recurrence following a radical orchiectomy. In situations such as this, active surveillance of these patients helps avoid overtreatment in 50% to 85% of patients, with no risk of long-term side effects in non-relapsing patients and a preserved overall survival of almost 100% after specific treatment for recurrent disease. Although active surveillance has been accepted as the preferred option for stage I low-risk non-seminoma, its role in high-risk stage I non-seminoma remains controversial.
    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 5

    Use of Enzalutamide in Carcinoma Prostate

    Rajendra Nerli

    Patients with metastatic prostate cancer are initially treated with androgen deprivation therapy as androgen receptor (AR) signalling is a key pathway in prostate cancer. Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a stage when patients stop responding to androgen deprivation therapy but are still dependent on AR signalling. Enzalutamide, an orally available AR inhibitor, was initially used in the treatment of patients with metastatic CRPC who had previously received docetaxel. The indications have subsequently been extended to include all patients with metastatic CRPC, and most recently to include patients with non-metastatic CRPC. On December 16, 2019, the Food and Drug Administration approved enzalutamide for patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC). The most common adverse reactions that have been reported in enzalutamide-treated patients include hot flushes, asthenia/fatigue, hypertension, fractures, and musculoskeletal pain. The recommended dose is 160 mg (four 40 mg capsules) administered orally once daily, with or without food.
    Case Report Pages: 1 - 5

    RENAL CELL CARCINOMA AND GENOMICS

    Rajendra Nerli

    A renal mass/Renal cell carcinoma has a range of histologies and tumour phenotypes that it presents with a particular challenge to treat them. A renal mass can range from benign (oncocytoma) to a clinically indolent malignancy (papillary type I, chromophobe) to aggressive disease [papillary type II or high-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC)]. Even among various subtypes, kidney cancers are genetically diverse with variable prognoses and treatment response rates. The key to proper management depends on the identification of these subtypes. Currently, a wide array of diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers are available to help guide the individualized care of kidney cancer patients. This paper discusses the various serum, urine, and imaging biomarkers that are available in practice
    Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

    Integration of Chemotherapy with Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Aishwarya Raj

    Carcinoma of Uterine cervix is the second most common cancer affecting females in India. Concurrent chemoradiation has remained the sole definitive treatment available in the locally advanced stages. Our study was planned to take the advantage of radiosensitisation accruing due to chemotherapy at the time of brachytherapy when approximately forty percent of total tumour dose is applied.Study design was prospective, randomized and comparative.100 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of cervix (FIGO stage IIB to IVA) were included from 2017 to 2019 and divided into two arms of 50 patients each as per computer generated random number list .All were given concurrent chemoradiation followed by 3 insertions of brachytherapy as per the Manchester System, each application was 7Gy by HDR. Patients in Arm A (Study Arm) received cisplatin 40mg/m2 along with EBRT and brachytherapy and Arm B (Control Arm) received cisplatin 40mg/m2 along with EBRT only.
    Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

    Penile Metastasis from Cancer of Prostate: A Case Report

    Rajendra Nerli

    Metastatic spread from the prostate to the penis is known to occur, though rare. A needle biopsy remains the most reliable diagnostic modality that allows for histological and immunological confirmation of metastatic spread, and evaluation of the extent of invasion. The mode of metastasis seems to be either by direct invasion, implantation, haematogenous or lymphatic spread. Treatment mainly remains palliative and improving quality of life in view of the poor prognosis and a 6-month mortality of 80%. We report a patient with castrate resistant prostate cancer who presented with obstructive voiding symptoms and reddish lesions on the glans. Biopsy proved it to be a metastasis from the prostate cancer.

    Volume 13, Issue 3 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Bone Marrow Can Give Rise to Hematopoietic Lineage Cells

      Sizwe Singwane

      Bone marrow is a semi-strong tissue found inside the light or chancellors parts of bones. In birds and well evolved creatures, bone marrow is the essential site of fresh blood cell creation or haematopoiesis. It is made out of hematopoietic cells, marrow fat tissue, and steady stromal cells. In grown-up people, bone marrow is fundamentally situated in the ribs, vertebrae, sternum, and bones of the pelvis. Bone marrow includes roughly % of complete weight in sound grown-up people, to such an extent that a man gauging kg ( lbs) will have around . kg ( lbs) of bone marrow.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma and Liposarcoma Treatment

      Cheng Zin

      A sarcoma is a threatening tumor, a sort of disease that emerges from changed cells of mesenchyme (connective tissue) origin. Connective tissue is an expansive term that incorporates bone, ligament, fat, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues, and sarcomas can emerge in any of these kinds of tissues. Sub-sequently, there are numerous subtypes of sarcoma, which are arranged dependent on the particular tissue and kind of cell from which the tumor originates. Sarcomas are essential connective tissue tumors, implying that they emerge in connective tissues. This is as opposed to optional (or "metastatic") connective tissue tumors, which happen when a malignant growth from somewhere else in the body (like the lungs, bosom tissue or prostate) spreads to the connective tissue. Causes and danger factors.

      Perspective Pages: 1 - 1

      Carcinomas can be Authoritatively Analysed Through Biopsy

      Shirley Kolata

      Carcinomas are normally organized with Roman numerals. In many arrangements, Stage I and Stage II carcinomas are affirmed when the tumour has been discovered to be little or potentially to have spread to nearby constructions as it were. Stage III carcinomas regularly have been found to have spread to provincial lymph hubs, tissues, or potentially organ structures, while Stage IV tumours have effectively metastasized through the blood too far off destinations, tissues, or organs. Carcinoma is a threat that creates from epithelial cells. In particular, a carcinoma is a malignancy that starts in a tissue that lines the inward or external surfaces of the body, and that emerges from cells beginning in the endodermal, mesodermal or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis.

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Clinical Order Explicitly gave to Pharmacotherapy for Malignancy

      Qingbing Zhao

      Chemotherapy (frequently shortened to chemo and now and then CTX or CTx) is a sort of malignant growth therapy that utilizes at least one enemy of disease drugs (chemotherapeutic specialists) as a component of a normalized chemotherapy routine. Chemotherapy might be given with a corrective plan (which quite often includes mixes of medications), or it might intend to drag out life or to decrease manifestations (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is one of the significant classifications of the clinical order explicitly gave to pharmacotherapy for malignancy, which is called clinical oncology.

      Research Pages: 1 - 3

      Prior Telephone Confirmation to Reduce Absenteeism in Oncological Surgeries: A Phone Call That Saves Lives

      Irami Araújo-Filho*, Danielly Acioli Galvão de Souza, Joseli Soares Brazorotto and Erika Maria Araújo Barbosa de Sena

      n assessing the quality of health services, the use of quality and resolution indicators used in the operating room stands out. The cancellation fee for operating procedures is one of the most important. Cancellations interfere with the outcome of care and increase hospital costs. In the case of cancer patients, the consequences are severe, since early surgical intervention directly influences prognosis, reducing morbidity, and mortality. Considering that surgical suspensions should be prevented, pre-anesthetic consultation and telephone confirmation days before the procedure configure strategies that can be adopted to minimize the problem. A descriptive observational study with a quantitative approach was conducted on the impact of previous telephone confirmation on the reduction of cancellation of oncologic surgeries due to absenteeism. The research was carried out at Professor Alberto Antunes University Hospital, Federal University of Alagoas (HUPAA/UFAL), city of Maceió, State of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of 205 patients with scheduled cancer surgery from January to June 2019, after approval by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The effectiveness of previous telephone confirmation was verified, with a 50% reduction in cancellation of elective oncologic surgeries due to absenteeism. The implementation of a call center to confirm the presence of the user consisted of an impact strategy in reducing the cancellation of previously scheduled cancer surgeries.

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