Cancer Science & Therapy

ISSN: 1948-5956

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 9 (2020)

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 0

    Editorial Note for Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy

    Shravan K. Putta

    The Journals aims to flourish and to maintain the standards in research and cancer diagnosis, provide platform and opportunity to present research outcome and thus help in promoting Cancer and Oncology research and probably it is much in deed for students, teachers and health care professionals to enhance the patient care.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    A Review on Merkel Cell Polyomavirus - A Subclinical Infection or a Sinisterical Carcinogen?

    Sasi S. Senga and Jemma Arakelyan

    Viral infections can be attributed to a significant percentage of the global cancer burden. In this review, we will delve into the principles of the
    molecular mechanism underpinning Merkel cell polyomavirus associated oncogenesis. Merkel cell polyomavirus leads to highly aggressive and
    relatively rare skin cancer known as Merkel cell carcinoma. This virus was first detected in 2008 when it was secluded from tumors of patients with
    Merkel cell carcinoma. The presence of Merkel cell polyoma virus in tumors was confirmed by Southern blot analysis and sequencing. Of the 10
    tumors tested, 8 were positive for virus, confirming a strong association, which led to the WHO IARC classification as a Group 2A, “carcinogenic
    to humans”. There is little evidence which shows the association of Merkel cell polyomavirus and lung cancer. The plethora of diagnostic and
    predictive biomarkers that are evolving alongside therapeutic and preventive strategies for Merkel cell polyomavirus associated cancers and the
    evidence of its role in tumourigenesis.

    Commentary Pages: 1 - 3

    Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) - Risk Factors and Comorbidities

    Govinda Yadav

    An electronic cigarette (or e-cig) is a battery-fuelled vaporizer that mirrors tobacco smoking. It works by heating up a nicotine fluid, called "juice." It
    is sold as a more beneficial interchange than conventional cigarettes. Nicotine juice (or e-juice) comes in different flavors and nicotine levels. e-fluid
    is made out of five fixings: vegetable glycerin (a material utilized in a wide range of food and individual consideration items, similar to toothpaste)
    and propylene glycol (a dissolvable most regularly utilized in mist machines.) propylene glycol is the fixing that produces thicker billows of fume.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    MicroRNA Expression in Advanced Breast Cancer

    Shravan K. Putta

    Breast cancer growth is the most widely recognized disease
    influencing females around the world, with in excess of 2
    million new cases analyzed in 2018. In the Middle East and
    North Africa (MENA) locale, bosom disease comprises 31.1%
    of the all out malignant growth rate in females, with a death
    pace of 20.9%. In Algeria, the quantity of cases analyzed in
    2018 arrived at 11847, comprising 24% of the instances of
    malignant growth occurrence among Algerian females in 2018,
    which is a rate a lot higher than the remainder of the MENA
    locale. The middle time of determination was seen as 48, and
    66% of the analyzed Algerian females were underneath the
    age of 50. This age is over 10 years sooner than that of
    Western Europe and the United States of America.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

    Alternative Methods in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Shravan K. Putta

    Malignancy is one of the primary driver of death around
    the world, and in the previous decade, many exploration
    examines have concentrated on finding new treatments to
    lessen the symptoms brought about by customary treatments.
    Advancement, microenvironment alteration and required for
    metastatic movement, have been generally examined as
    effective medication conveyance vehicles. Regular cell
    reinforcements and numerous phytochemicals have been as of
    late presented as hostile to malignancy adjuvant treatments
    because of their enemy of proliferative and favorable to
    apoptotic properties. Directed treatment is another part of
    malignant growth treatment targeting focusing on a particular
    site, for example, tumor vasculature or intracellular organelles,
    leaving the environmental factors unaffected. This
    tremendously builds the explicitness of the treatment, lessening
    its downsides.

    Volume 12, Issue 7 (2020)

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

      The Role of PARP Inhibitors in the Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

      Karima Oualla, Lamiae Nouiakh, Otmane Zouiten, Mohamed Ismaili, lamiae Amaadour, Zineb Benbrahim, Samia Arifi and Nawfel Mellas

      Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is a particular subtype of breast cancer accounting for 15% to 20% of all breast cancer. It is defined on
      immunohistochemistry (IHC) by negative estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) and negative human epidermal growth factor
      receptor 2 (HER2) and characterized by aggressive nature, distinct metastatic patterns, lack of targeted therapies and poor outcomes. Cytotoxic
      chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment for long decades and the development of new treatments for selected patients was complicated
      because of the heterogeneity of TNBC. The good understanding of molecular and genomic mechanisms of TNBC has allowed the development
      of new targeted therapies more efficient. Although the heterogeneity of genetic alterations in TNBCs based on the ethnicity and the age, BRCA
      mutations are found in around 20% to 25% of patients and especially in those of the basal-like immune-phenotype. Thus, targeting the defects
      in the DNA repair pathway becomes a promising field of research for this selected category of TNBC patients. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase
      (PARP) inhibitors exploit this DNA defects through synthetic lethality and therefore represent a promising treatment especially in BRCA1/ BRCA2
      mutation carriers. These findings have finally allowed bringing personalized treatment to this orphan disease. In this work we tried to explain the
      rationale and mechanisms of targeting the immune system in TNBC, to report the results from recent clinical trials that put immunotherapy as a
      new standard of care in TNBC.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

      Changing Paediatric Cancer Practice in COVID-19 Times

      Rajendra B. Nerli, Abhilasha Sampagar, Manas Sharma, Shridhar C. Ghagane, Sushant Deole, Pulkit Gupta, Shashank D. Patil and Murigendra B. Hiremath

      Introduction: Experts dealing with the treatment of cancer in children believe that the COVID-19 pandemic could pose a serious global challenge
      to the delivery of affordable and equitable treatment to children with cancer. In this paper we report our experience in the management of children
      with cancer in these COVID-19 times.
      Patients and Methods: Out-patient case records, in-patient case records, imaging pictures of all children with cancer attending our hospital were
      retrieved and analyzed.
      Results: Our study period extended from Dec 2019 until the end of April 2020. During this period, it was observed that the number of children
      attending the outpatient department, undergoing day-care procedures including chemotherapy, as well as children undergoing surgery progressively
      declined due to COVID-19 associated lockdown. Efforts were made to help the children and their families to gain easy access to treatment.
      Conclusion: COVID-19 has disrupted the world and has caused widespread anxiety among families of children with cancer. The medical fraternity
      with active help from all agencies should work out measures to reduce these difficulties faced by children and their families to provide the means
      to ensure the continuity of curative treatments and palliative care as effectively as possible.

      Volume 12, Issue 10 (2020)

        Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial for Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy

        Shravan K. Putta

        The Journals aims to flourish and to maintain the standards in research
        and cancer diagnosis provide platform and opportunity to present recent
        discoveries and developments in the field of cancer research thus help in
        promoting Cancer, Oncology research and so it is much useful for students,
        Researchers and health care professionals to enhance the patient care.

        Case Report Pages: 1 - 3

        Parotid Melanoma of Unknown Primary Site: A Case Report

        Lamyae Nouiakh, Karima Oualla, Soumia Berrad, Hayat Erraichi, Lamiae Amaadour, Zineb Benbrahim, Samia Arifi, Meryem Boubou and Nawfel Mellas

        Background: Parotid melanoma is a very rare disease. Primitive intra-parotid localization is unusual. We report the case of a patient with a parotid localization melanoma without a known primary. Case presentation: A 57-year-old woman who consulted for a progressively increasing left lateral cervical mass. A mass biopsy was performed. The histological and immunohistochemical analysis was in favor of melanoma. A complementary assessment in search of the primitive was without anomaly. The tumor is found to be unresectable after discussion of the case at a multidisciplinary consultation meeting. The therapeutic decision was to do palliative chemotherapy such as Carboplatine AUC2-Paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 J1J8J1=J21 given the deteriorated general condition of the patient. The median of overall survival was 10 weeks. Conclusion: Through this work, we have reported a rare and very aggressive case of intraparotid melanoma of unknown primary

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

        The Role of Mutations on NAGA Gene in Schindler Syndrome

        Shahin Asadi and Mohaddeseh Mohsenifar

        Schindler syndrome is an inherited genetic disorder that mainly causes neurological problems. Schindler's syndrome is caused by a mutation in the NAGA gene, which is located in the long arm of chromosome 22 as 22q13.2. Amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling can be used to screen for the disease before birth. After birth, urine tests, along with blood tests and skin biopsies can be used to diagnose Schindler disease. Genetic testing is also always an option, since different forms of Schindler disease have been mapped to the same gene on chromosome 22; though different changes (mutations) of this gene are responsible for the infantile- and adult-onset forms of the disease. The Genetic testing Registry can be used to acquire information about the genetic tests for this condition.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        MTHFR Gene Variants Increase Risk Factor in Wilms??? Tumor: Prediction of 3D Structure and Functions during Drug-Protein Interaction

        Ajit K. Saxena, Vijayendra Kumar, Meenakshi Tiwari, Ramanuj Kumar, Aniket Kumar, Chandan K. Singh

        Wilms’ tumor (WT) is an embryonic tumor of kidney that belongs to paediatric age group. The etiopathology is highly complex due to interaction between genetic and epigenetic factors. The genetic heterogenecity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism increase “risk factor” of the disease. The present study has been designed to identify new gene variants single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MTHFR using Sanger’s sequencing and decode the nucleotide sequences into corresponding amino acids to understand the translational events. Further, allele refractive mutation system with polymerase chain reaction (ARMS- PCR) was also used to confirm mutations (frequency) in the cases of WT and compare with age matched controls. Present findings reveals that genetic heterozygosity was observed in 20% cases of WT by substitution of nucleotide cytosine in to thymidine (C→T) followed by change of amino acid alanine is replaced by valine due to missence mutation. DNA sequencing data varies in different cases of WT that includes first case shows four new SNPs 1) nucleotide cytosine is substitute by thymidine (C→T) followed by change in amino acid alanine is replaced by valine, 2) thymidine change into adenine (T→A) results in isoleucine→asparagine, 3) cytosine is substitute by adenine (C→A) results in isoleucine→asparagine, and 4) thymidine is substitute by cytosine (T→C), where phenylalanine→serine. Similarly, Second and third case of WT again showing the missence mutation, where the nucleotide cytosine is substitute by thymidine (C→T) followed by alanine→valine and thymidine into adenine (T→A) followed by change in isoleucine→asparagine, respectively. Based on bioinformatics analysis, the 3D structure predicted that the mutation in MTHFR gene modulate the functional activity of ligand binding sites either with protein or methotrexate. Collective findings of PCR and DNA sequencing suggests that these new gene variants which has not been reported earlier might have interfere in folate-metabolism during DNA methylation and increase genetic susceptibility and “risk factor” in WT cases.

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Assessment of the Quality of Life of Patients Treated for Cervical Cancer

        Mossé B. Wilfried

        1.1 Objective: The present study aims to analyze the quality of life of survivors of cervical cancer according to the menopausal status and the treatment modalities at the Institute National Oncology of Rabat.

        1.2 Methods: Patients were interviewed with the specific questionnaire to patient with cervical cancer developed by the Organization of the European Commission for research and cancer treatment-Group Quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ)-CX24andtranslated into Moroccan dialect.

        1.3 Results: One hundred thirty-nine patients survivors cancer of the cervix and regularly followed participated in the study. Quality of life was significantly altered in postmenopausal patients in areas such as physical functioning (p=0.016), diarrhea and nausea vomiting (p=0.038), menopausal symptoms (p=0.01) and financial difficulties. Regarding sexual functioning, postmenopausal women reported less activity and sexual pleasure. The irradiated patients presented more symptoms such as diarrhea (p=0.018), lymphedema, and more financial difficulties (p=0.012) than those who did not. Symptoms such as diarrhea (p=0.038), pain (p=0.019) were significantly greater in those who underwent surgery associated with another treatment (irradiation) as well as insomnia, loss of appetite, constipation and financial difficulties (p=0.018). However, there was no significant difference in other areas of quality of life in our survivors of cervical cancer.

        1.4 Conclusion: patients treated by several modalities for cervical cancer have an altered quality of life in various fields. However, in long term survivors, overall quality of life remains similar in patients operated and or irradiated. They must be informed by the various possible side effects that may affect the quality of life after treatment.

        Volume 12, Issue 11 (2020)

          Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

          Editorial Note for Cancer Science and Therapy Journal

          Shravan K. Putta

          I am pleased to introduce Journal of Cancer Science and Therapy (JCST) a rapid peer reviewed Journal which has key concerns over the Cancer Science by exploring the best patient oriented clinical research and by promoting these findings both directly as research outcomes and in practice oriented formats of direct application in day to-day situations. I am pleased to announce that, all issues of volume 11 were published on scheduled time during the year of 2019.

          Research Pages: 1 - 6

          Discovery of Isoform p-53 Protein in Failed Cases of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Elisa Method

          Aurelian Udristioiu, Manole Cojocaru and Delia Nica-Badea

          Introduction: Some diagnosed cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with possible mutations of the p-53 gene in the human B lymphocyte
          genome were investigated in this study.
          Method: Using the ELISA technique, the frequency of p-53 protein expression in 20 patients diagnosed with CLL, was analyzed, including the
          relationship of this protein to the disease status, in the stages II-III/IV.
          Results: The frequency of increased expression of the isoform p-53 protein in type B-CLL was found to be 15% per cent. The mean concentrations
          of the p-53 proteins in 17 cases out of the 20, was found to be 16.76 μg/dl, with CV=0.5% and the probability index p=0.034. The percentage
          of the p-53 positive isoform proteins increased above the normal values with disease progression: 15% ± 2 in stages 1-2, compared to 100% in
          stages 3-4.
          Conclusion: The ELISA method has proved a useful prognostic tool of CLL because was able to identify the patients with p-53 isoform proteins
          and can be considered a screening method for the applying of personalized treatment in the cases diagnosticated with resistance CLL to the
          specific treatment applied of the first line.

          Research Pages: 1 - 5

          Evaluation of the Prognostic Value of the Prechemotherapy Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

          Mira Canaan, Eman El-Sheikh, Ramy R. Ghali, Nada E. Eldin, Gehan Hamdy and Wesam El-Ghamry

          Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive disease. It is characterized with bad prognosis. We conducted this study to assess the prognostic significance of pretreatment PLR in patients with MPM.

          Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 400 patients treated for MPM in Ain Shams University hospital, Clinical Oncology department between January 2013 and December 2017. Pre-treatment CBC was available for the 110 patients to calculate PLR.

          Results: Out of 110 patients, age ranged from 28 to 70 years. Male: female was 5: 6. Epithelioid subtype represent 85%.Stages III, IV represent 48.2% and 35.5%. Median PFS and OS were 6.9 and 11.9 monthes. Using a cut-off value of 177.9.Low PLR was associated with better median PFS than high PLR (7.97 vs. 6.63), (p=0.039). For patients with low vs. high PLR, median OS was 15.07 vs. 10.4 months (P value= 0.063) 61.8% received platinum pemetrexed and 38.2% received platinum/gemcitabine as 1st line chemotherapy. Radiological response to first line therapy was SD, PR, PD and CR in 47%, 29%, 23% and 0.9% of patients respectively. There was no statistical significance in PFS and OS between patients who received platinum/pemetexed versus platinum/Gemcitabine (p=0.53). The group who received platinum/pemetrexed had median OS 17.5 vs. 10.5 months (P=0.108) in low versus high PLR and median PFS 7.7 monthes vs. 5.03 months (P=0.034). The group who received platinum- gemcitabine had median OS 15.07 vs. 8.2 months (P=0.264) in low versus high PLR and median PFS 8.07 vs. 8.2 months (P=0.332).

          Conclusion: The higher the PLR, the worse the prognosis. There was statistically significant difference in PFS between low vs. high PLR, and in PFS of both groups of PLR of the group who received platinum pemetrexed.

          Review Pages: 1 - 6

          Cancer Increases the Risk of COVID-19 Infection: A Literature Review

          Amit kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Rishi K. Singh, Praveen K. Verma, Sandeep Kumar, Munendra S. Tomar and Arbind Acharya

          A new public health crisis threatening globally, is the emergence of novel Corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) or the acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 virus was originated in China, particularly in the Wuhan lab of Hubei province in December 2019. It has been found that cancer patients are highly susceptible to infection with COVID 19, and developed more critical symptoms as compared to the normal or non-cancer patients possibly due to the systemic immunosuppressive status, caused by excessive tumor growth as well as effects of anticancer treatment. Extensive literature survey shows that patients with hematological malignancies including lymphoma, leukemia, and myeloma had a more severe infection of COVID-19 as compared to the solid tumor patients. In this review, we have discussed the risk and impact of COVID-19 infection on the individuals on the basis of cancer subgroups and patient demographics (sex, age group), and preventive guidelines and resources in addition to highlighting the clinical management and recommendations.

          Volume 12, Issue 8 (2020)

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

            Evaluation of Surgical Lymphadenectomy in Management of Cancer Endometrial

            Rehab M. Abdelrahman and Ahmed Y. Abdulkader

            Treatment for most endometrial cancer patients tends to be surgical. The treatment of choice for complete hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy with or without lymphadenectomy has been an open abdominal approach. The application of pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with early endometrial cancer is useful because it has a diagnostic role and a therapeutic role, prevents metastasis. It could be concluded that: endometrial cancer surgery can be conducted using an open procedure with high effectiveness in terms of nodal excision and complication rate and increased operational and postoperative enforcement.

            Staging endometrial carcinoma to include pelvic lymphadenectomy in the recognition that lymph node status is one of the patients' most important prognostic factors. This led to widespread variations. Pelvic lymphadenectomy allows for accurate prognosis based on a pathological examination of the lymph node. It is an important marker of tumor aggressiveness Lymphadenectomy distinguishes patients with advanced disease and helps tailor adjuvant therapy for those with adverse risk factors. Thus, it can be concluded that: 1-Pelvic lymphadenectomy has a diagnostic role in the management of adjuvant therapy. Pelvic lymphadenectomy may have a therapeutic benefit, but more studies are needed to confirm this role.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiation: Is it Tolerable and Efficient in Management of Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer?

            Heba Abdallah

            Background: Chemoradiation is the standard of care for management of locally advanced cervical cancer, but failure to control systemic disease occurs in one third of patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been investigated in management of locally advanced cervical cancer in order to improve its prognosis. We assessed the tolerability and response rate of weekly NACT with paclitaxel and carboplatin before radical concurrent chemoradiation (CRT).
            Methods: Single arm phase II trial of 50 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (stage IB2-IVA). Patients received weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/ m2 ) and carboplatin AUC2 for six cycles followed by CRT (weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m2 , 50.4 Gray over 28 fractions plus brachytherapy).
            Results: A total of 50 patients were recruited. Baseline characteristics were: median age at diagnosis 56 years, 92% squamous, 8% adenocarcinoma, FIGO stage IB2 ( 4%), II (28%), IIIA (28%), IIIB (12%), IVA (28%). Complete or partial response rate was 88.3% post NACT and 72.1% post CCRT. The median follow up was 12 months. Grade 3 toxicities were 14.8% during NACT and 13.8% during CCRT.
            Conclusion: Dose-dense weekly NACT with paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by CRT achieved a good response rate. It is feasible with acceptable toxicity of NACT and high compliance to radiotherapy.

            Volume 12, Issue 12 (2020)

              Research Pages: 1 - 6

              Potential Chemo-Preventive Attributes of African Nightshade Leafy Vegetable on Cancer Using Mice Model

              Caroline W. Muthike, Jasper K. Imungi, Wambui Kogi-Makau and Edward K. Muge

              Diet is one major aspect that can be modified to lower the risk of cancer. The objective of this study was first, to assess the antioxidant activity of African nightshade vegetables and formulations in mice feed. Second, to evaluate the effect of consumption of vegetables on the expression of a tumour marker in mice. The antioxidant activity of African nightshade leafy vegetable, when cooked and raw was determined using Trolox standard. Using an experimental design, mice were divided into three groups. Group one was fed on a control diet. Group two was fed on a diet formulation containing cooked vegetables. Group three was fed on a diet formulation containing raw vegetables. Then the expression of urokinase plasminogenm activator protein was determined by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The study was conducted at a 95% confidence interval.

              The antioxidant activity of African nightshade leafy vegetable increased with steam cooking. The statistical significance was established between cooked and raw vegetables. The expression of urokinase plasminogen activator protein is reduced to 3% in mice fed with cooked vegetable formulation compared to the mice fed with control diet formulation. Expression of µPA is reduced to 61% in mice fed with raw vegetable formulation compared to the mice fed with the control diet formulation.

              Steam cooking was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity of African nightshade leafy vegetables. The tumour marker urokinase plasminogen activator protein expression was shown to decrease with consumption of African nightshade vegetable.

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