Journal of Business & Financial Affairs

ISSN: 2167-0234

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 2 (2020)

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 2

    Money & Output

    A. Mohammed Abubakar* and Mustafa Ilkan

    The relationship between money and output is based on “quantum theory of money and production”. Perhaps, this is a new way of looking at the role of money in a production. Quantum theory of money and production states that “income is the instantaneous result of an event called production which is related to a limited period of time”. Bortis added that every time a new production takes place, its measure is given instantaneously through the monetary payment of its cost.

    Volume 9, Issue 3 (2020)

      Review Pages: 1 - 7

      International Merger & Acquisitions

      Ms. Riya Ahuja* and Dr. Govind Patra

      In Recent times, Mergers and Acquisitions have become a universal phenomenon. Companies had been actively involved in both Domestically & Internationally mergers and acquisitions. The increased global market rivalry has encouraged the companies to go global as a significant strategic choice for mergers and acquisitions. Mergers & Acquisitions are the strategic growth strategies in the hands of growing numbers of companies not only to remain in the competition but also to increase their margins, market share, and global domination. The scale of cross-border operations has seen an unparalleled Surge since the mid-1990s and the same pattern continues. The size and speed at which mergers are coming are remarkable. In the context, Mergers and acquisitions have become a strategic practice for a number of the world’s leading businesses to expand rapidly.

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 9

      Project Monitoring and Evaluation and Project Success in Local Government in Rwanda

      Rusibana Claude* and Twagirayezu Didace

      Efficiency of road infrastructure projects is essential for the economic growth and development of any country. These projects play a critical role in the economy in terms of wealth creation and provision of employment opportunities. Infrastructure covers a range of services, from public utilities such as power, telecommunications, water supply, sanitation and sewerage, solid waste collection and disposal, and piped gas; to public works such as roads, dams and canal works, railways, urban transport, ports, waterways and airports. Massive investments are put into infrastructure projects. Throughout the world, the business environment within which construction project operate continues to change rapidly for betterment of citizens, projects management are still failing to adapt and respond to the complexity of the new environment tend to experience survival problems. With increasing users of the road’ requirements, environmental awareness and limited resources and high competition, lack of skills of contractors have to be capable of continuously improving the efficiency of the project during implementation Efficient performance of road infrastructure projects is essential for economic growth and development of any country. Local construction firms contribute significantly towards realization of this goal. However, road projects experience challenges in completing within the budgeted cost, time schedule and attaining the desired quality. This research sought to establish the effects of project monitoring and evaluation on project success in local government road projects. The study carried out in the Kicukiro District on the Cricket road construction project in Rwanda, Gahanga Sector. The target population was 827, where the sample size used was 90 selected using probability sampling technique and the systematic sample method was used. The researcher used an explanatory research design to establish the causal relationship of the variables under study. Data were collected using questionnaire and analysed using SPSS version 22. The Statistical findings indicated that staff technical skills during the M&E are not statistically significant on project success. Technical skill of staff is not significant on project completion period as planned at p-value of 0.81>0.05; and not significant to meeting project costs compared to estimated project cost at p-value of 0.479>0.05, while not significant on helping the project to achieve its desired goals where the p-Value was 0.540>0.05. These statistics indicated that having technical skills does in M&E does not matter in project success. Possessing skills is not enough as using them properly, professionally and technically to enhance the project performance. The statistical findings indicated that the M&E budget is not significant on project completion on time as planned at p-value of 0.959>0.05 and not at the same time significant on meeting project costs as estimated at a coefficient of significance of p-value 0.745>0.05 and finally not significant on project meeting its set goals at p-value of 0.816>0.05. This shows that project performance is not only due to the available budget and approved, it depended on how the budget is effectively allocated to the task of monitoring and evaluation of the project as stipulated in the project design and implementation plan. It is clear from the regression analysis that stakeholder’s involvement in M&E helps the project management to collect feedback on what have been compared to the expected that satisfy the stakeholders needs. The findings indicate that, stakeholder’s engagement in M&E and feedback is significant on project competition on time compared to the expected time at a p-value of 0.01<0.05, but not significant on meeting project costs as budgeted at p-value of 0.760>0.05 while not significant also to project achieving its goals at p-value of 0.217>0.05. Due to lack of major influence during the project design and implementation, the feedback of stakeholders during the monitoring and evaluation may not have so much significant effect on the project success.

      Research Pages: 1 - 6

      Sustainability Reporting Practices of Indian Corporate Sector: A Comparative Analysis

      Mahendra Kumar Mishra*

      Since the early 1990’s there has been a growing trend by large companies to publicly issue formal reports containing information on the companies, social and environmental issues. Although sustainability reporting is still a voluntary but now a days it has become popular among large scale corporations, the reporting practices are now remain strictly voluntary, but it should be made mandatory as many governments have already made the SR mandatory. It enables organizations having different features like shapes and sizes, including public agencies and companies to measure, manage and publicly disclose the social, environmental and economic performance in a sustainable manner. The contents of sustainability reports emphasizes more on guidelines of reporting than information on stakeholder engagement, materiality, targets and future plans. No doubt, reporting practices is widely accepted, it is also observed that the activities of the corporate on society, stakeholders, its citizens and the environment has a considerable impact not only on present but also upon the future. Sustainability disclosure reports aims, and allows for improvement on, those issues which are closely related to a corporation's environmental and social impact and impact on company's financial performance.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Journal of Business & Financial Affairs

      Mosad Zineldin

      It is a boon for researchers and students who wish to be kept abreast of the latest advancements in these fields, it would help them build on the current know-how. Business people, policy makers, journalists, and practitioners can also benefit from the works published in the journal.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 13

      Economic Growth Analysis of Singapore: Simultaneous Equations Model

      Mahmoud Mourad and Hussein Trabulsi

      This paper has carried out an in-depth study based on the simultaneous equations model by estimating three structural equations associated to the three components of the Real Gross Domestic Product per Capita (gdp) in Singapore over the period (1991-2017), that is, the Real Gross Domestic Saving per Capita (gds), the Household Final Consumption Expenditure per Capita (hfce), the Government Final Consumption Expenditure per Capita (gfce). The primary nominal data were divided by the product of the consumer price index and the annual population for leading to real data per capita taking into account both inflation and population. The fourth equation represented the income identity expressed by equality (gdpt=gdst+hfcet+gfcet). Seven instruments variables are used to accomplish the study: a constant, three predetermined variables characterized by gdst-1, hfcdt-1 and gfcet-1, three exogenous variables as real interest rate (rirt), the real foreign direct investment per capita (fdit) and the real money supply per capita (m1t). The study shows that the three structural equations are over-identified and by consequence; each equation is estimated using the following methods: Two-Stage Least Square estimator (2SLS), Heteroscedastic Two-Stage Least Squares (H2SLS), Limited Information Maximum Likelihood (LIML) and the Three-Stage Least Squares (3SLS) which is often more efficient than other methods and promoted by Hausman test. Finally, the performance of the estimated equations is measured comparing the fitted values with the observed values by the Mean Relative Error (MRE). The findings have shown that the MRE values are 2.46%, 1.37%, 4.9% and 1.37% for the variables gdst, hfcet gfcet and gdpt respectively.

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