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Journal of Business & Financial Affairs

ISSN: 2167-0234

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Determinants of Market Participation of Cow Milk Producers: The case of Gemechis District in West Hararghe Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia

    Birhanu Angasu*, Alelign Ademe and Saleamlak Fentaw

    Cow milk is a daily produced high value product that plays a significant role for both home consumption and income generating. However, in the selling of raw milk marketed supply, the producers do not attain potential gains. Thus, this study attempted to identifying factors affecting farmers’ decision to participate and determinants of the level of cow milk marketable surplus supply in Gemechis district. Both primary and secondary sources were used to collect data. Data were collected from a sample of 152 cow milk producers were analyzed through STATA ver. 15. Double hurdle model was applied. The first-hurdle model estimation result demonstrated that education level, distance to district market, the proportion of land allocated for forage production, size of milk output per day, access to milk market information, and frequency of extension contact influences farmers’ decision to participate in cow milk market. The second-hurdle model results investigated that children under six years, the proportion of land allocated for forage production, size of milk output per day and access to credit were significantly affects the level of cow milk marketable surplus supply. Therefore, the study recommends that emphasis should have to give on encouraging flow of milk market information, intensification of land use, and enabling farmers as they produce more through improving production and productivity of cow.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Environment Performance of Environmental Sensitive Industries: A Study on Selected Indian Companies

    Prarthana Mishra*, Jayashree Jethy and Sabat Kumar Digal

    DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.443

    Environmental report communicates an organization’s environmental performance to the stake holders and the public at large. Environmental performance can be in the form of a simple public relation statement or a detailed report on environmental performance with future plans. Among the three sectors of Indian industries i.e., primary (agriculture), secondary (manufacture), tertiary (service sector), the secondary sector which is the manufacturing sector contributes adversely to the environment. This adverse impact is due to its bad waste management. This paper has taken into account twelve Environmental Sensitive Industries (ESI) of Nifty. Environmental information’s are collected from annual reports and sustainability reports by the help of content analysis. The objective of the paper is to study the impact of environmental reporting on environmental performance.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    The Impact of Hedging on the Market Value of Equity: A New Look Through a New Sample

    James M Nelson*

    DOI: 10.37421/ 2167-0234.2023.12.468

    I use the Fama and French five-factor model to reexamine the seemingly anomalous result of Nelson, Moffitt, and Affleck-Graves, who document significant abnormal returns for firms that hedge. Applying the latest five-factor model on a new sample of U.S. firms from 2013-2021, I observe significant monthly abnormal returns of 0.274% (3.34% annually) for firms using derivative securities (hedgers). Additional analysis shows mixed results regarding the economies of scale and managerial sophistication hypotheses that predict any abnormal returns from hedging should be confined only to large firms.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Talk as a Victim-Centered Response to Organizational Injustice: A Survey of TVET Institutions in SIAYA County

    Ojwang George Omondi*

    DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.469

    Organizational justice is dedicated to the study of perceptions of fairness within the workplace. Hundreds of studies converge on the notion that justice matters, such that profound negative implications arise when individuals perceive unfairness. Previous research has sought to manage and repair violations of fairness through three distinct means: Managerial excuses and justifications, training interventions for managers, and remedies distributed by the organization. There is an ironic shortcoming with this generalization: It ignores the victim who is at the centre of an injustice. Herein lays the starting point of the current study. Putting the victim back into the forefront of justice research, this study examined the role of victims of workplace injustice in their own recovery process. The study introduced talk from clinical and social psychological literatures. Recovery was construed as a victim’s goal, with talk as the journey towards that goal. It asks; can victims recover from the negative effects of a fairness violation, and more specifically, can talk, that is, conversation with others, aid such a recovery process? Recovery is the emotional, cognitive and behavioral journey an individual goes through in order to work towards a resolution to their experience: It is a victim’s ongoing efforts to manage an injustice. A mixed methods design incorporating interviews and survey provided support for the presence of talk in the context of workplace injustice. Findings indicate the prevalence of a type of talk that embodies an emotion and cognition component, with anger and justice needs as the trigger for talk, and outcomes such as self-efficacy, a search for solutions, increased support and optimism, and lessened anger, all representing consequences of talk relevant for victim’s recovery.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Influence of Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Factors on Entrepreneurs' Growth Intention in Nepal

    Krishna Khanal* and Bikram Prajapati

    DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.470

    Developing new businesses and expanding existing ones is crucial for a country's economic growth, leading to job creation and the opening of new markets. In the business world, growth is often viewed as a desirable objective because it serves as a very important indicator of a company’s achievement and plays a significant role in job creation, prosperity and economic advancement globally. To encourage entrepreneurship, a supportive ecosystem is necessary, consisting of various elements like people, organizations, government, and support systems that work together to foster business creation and growth. The perceptions of potential and current entrepreneurs about the entrepreneurship ecosystem play a significant role in their decision to pursue entrepreneurial activities. This study had as objective to find out the influence of entrepreneurship ecosystem factors on entrepreneur’s growth intention. A study of 158 entrepreneurs using a perception based survey examined entrepreneurs’ perception regarding seven factors of the entrepreneurship ecosystem and their impact on entrepreneurial activity. The study revealed socio-economic factors are positively associated with entrepreneur’s growth intentions.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      MICROFINANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN MOGADISHU SOMALIA

      Hamdi Jama Warsame1 and Warda Mohamed Hussein2

      Microfinance provides a wide range of financial services to low-income clients, including self-employed and low earning individuals who are working in informal sectors. The study objective was to establish the effect of microfinance institutions on the development of Small and Medium Enterprise in Somalia. The descriptive design was selected in this study because it would allow the researcher to gather numerical. The data collected from the questionnaire was analyzed, summarized, and interpreted accordingly with the aid of descriptive statistical techniques such as total score and simple percentages. In the process of data analysis, the researchers used SPSS computer package to analyze the data. It was found out that MFIs lending effect to the growth of small and medium enterprise in Somalia and have positive relationship. The study findings show that only a small percentage of the SMEs in Somalia are beneficiaries of the MFI lending services and has an effect on their development. It was also accomplished that most of the requirements as collateral for loan application cannot be afforded by most SMEs, hence opting for cheaper sources of capital hence the low adoption of the loan services by MFIs. Other challenges causing low acceptance of the loans include: the long time taken processing loans, stringent repayment terms and the high transaction costs. MFI loans can be said to lead to the improvement in productivity among the beneficiary SMEs, as well as profitability and the high number of entrepreneurs starting up new ventures.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance in Quoted Oil and Gas Industry

      Akinyede Oyinlola Morounfoluwa*, Ojedele Mofoluwaso Iyabode and Ayodele Thomas Duro

      The paper investigated the direction of causality between CSR and financial performance of the quoted oil and gas industry. The data set contains 10 years from 2014 to 2018 of firm specification variables. Data were gathered from audited financial reports of 8 purposively selected firms from quoted companies in the Oil and Gas industry, Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) Factbook and statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria. Granger causality test model was employed to investigate the direction of causality between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance. The result indicated that there was no causal relationship between corporate social responsibility and Return on Assets (χ2 =3.479, p>0.05). Return on Asset does not granger cause corporate social responsibility (χ2 =2.279, p>0.05). Also, corporate social responsibility does not granger cause Return on Asset. The study concluded that significant feedback did not exist in any direction of causality between corporate social responsibility and profitability, though there exists a positive relationship between them.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

      Digital Finance Experience Fewer Losses and Recover More Quickly From the COVID-19 Pandemic

      Yulia Merkoulova*

      DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.442

      Monetary conditions have emphatically influenced the world and fundamentally affected firm endurance and development. The unexpected episode of COVID illness 2019 (Coronavirus) pandemic has caused an extreme general wellbeing emergency and crushed the worldwide economy. As a result of movement limitations and social separating prerequisites, the pandemic has prompted enormous drops in customer interest, disturbance of creation, and the decay of monetary circumstances. Under these circumstances, business endurance is vigorously compromised. As unfavourable occasions are for the most part unavoidable and have enduring effects, corporate versatility, characterized as a company's capacity to recuperate from shocks and adjust to disturbances is assuming an undeniably huge part in the endurance of associations. In like manner, it is advantageous to research the determinants of flexibility at the authoritative level with regards to enormous troublesome occurrences like the Coronavirus pandemic. Accordingly, this exploration plans to comprehend the job of computerized finance, which is ignored by scholastics contrasted with different elements, in molding corporate flexibility.

        Research Pages: 1 - 7

        Analysis on Encounters and Prospects of Micro and Small Scale Enterprise in Oromia Regional State: In the Case of Nekemte Town.

        Dugasa Rafisa Olana

        The Micro and Small Scale Enterprises (MSEs) occupied a place of importance in the Ethiopian economy with a potential for job opportunities, growth and development. The aims of this study was to scrutinize the challenges and opportunity affecting the performance of MSEs with a special emphasizes on manufacturing ,trade and service sectors in Oromia Regional State, in case of Nekemte city. For the sake of achieving the objectives of this study, questionnaires were analyzed using statistical analysis such as descriptive and inferential analyses. The information collected through questionnaire from a sample of 133 operators and face- to-face interviews were conducted with 21 operators of MSEs. The respondent operators were selected using stratified sampling technique. Besides, the interview questions were analyzed using descriptive narrations through concurrent triangulation strategy. The findings reveal that the major challenges that hinder MSEs and their transformation towards Medium scale are the lack of working place, limited starting capital, marketing problems, infrastructures and politico-legal problems. In order to mitigate working place problems, stakeholders like the City Administration MSE office, trade and industry and the land administration should have a joint plan; more financial accesses shall be introduced; With the support of the community, Trade and Industry should seriously follow up the operation of MSEs; a fair competition and healthy market arrangement shall be established; the microfinance institutions should revisit its policy to ease the credit access and there should be a room to provide credit without group formation if the customer has an equivalent asset for collateral

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        The Impact of Intellectual Capital on Firm Performance through Entrepreneurial Orientation: Moderating role of Knowledge Management

        Sarmad Ejaz*, Hamid Habib and Zeeshan Ahmed

        The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of intellectual capital on firm performance, with the moderating effect of strategic knowledge management and mediating effect of entrepreneurial orientation. 465 questionnaires were distributed among 155 branches and about three to four questionnaires were filled out from each bank. Each bank had an average of three employees with one branch manager and two senior managers. The respondents were selected on the basis of convenience sampling. The respondents had sufficient knowledge of the banks and had considerable experience in this area. The respondents were also quite knowledgeable about the various operational functions of the banks. Out of 465 distributed questionnaires, 315 questionnaires were returned which has a response rate of 67.74%. Out of the returned questionnaires, 15 questionnaires were not included because they did not contain the required information. This study is quantitative and such statistical technique is reviewed by any software. The data obtained from the questionnaire is analyzed with SPSS and AMOS software. The empirical analysis shows that intellectual capital has a significant positive impact on firm performance, Moreover; entrepreneurial orientation plays its mediating role between the three dimensions of intellectual capital and firm performance. Strategic knowledge management does not play a role between human capital and entrepreneurial orientation. While the other two dimensions of intellectual capital; structural capital and relational capital have a significant effect on firm performance when it is moderated by strategic knowledge management. In addition, there are many future directions in this study for participations and scholars. The limitations have also been discussed.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        Investigation Credit Risk Management Practices and Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka

        Vidura Perera*

        DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.447

        The Financial system in Sri Lanka is one of the rapidly booming sectors in Sri Lankan economy. It comprises different aspects and Financial institutions. This research investigate the relationship between credit risk management and banks performance. The set objectives were the following; to examine what extent credit risk management and bank Financial and to identify the relationship between credit risk management and bank inancial performance. The performance to ind out problems faced by credit risk managers of BOC in managing credit risk and to evaluate the relationship between credit risk management and inancial performance of BOC. This study is expected to be signi icant to all Sri Lanka banking sectors, university of Jaffna, future researchers and the general public and the specially banking sector in Sri Lanka. The study used BOC Ampara area branch and 20 branch as a sample to represent other commercial banks in Sri Lanka. Out of 170 staff of Ampara area branch the researcher took a sample of 50 respondents to represent others. Primary data was obtained by extracting information from questionnaires designed and provides to the staff to get answers from different respondent composed of BOC staff from different level.

        The researcher used a descriptive and analytical research based on both qualitative and quantitative data. Secondary data were collected from annual reports, books, journals, newspapers and internet materials. In research data is presented in form of tables, while analysis and interpretation were based on frequencies and percentages and correlations table. The research found that BOC has a credit management system though it needs to be reviewed and adopted more to current Sri Lankan environment. The research found that there is a direct relationship between credit risk management and inancial performance of commercial banks. The research recommended that BOC should review and improve its credit policy and adopt it to Sri Lankan market and context and BOC should provide continuous training and updates to its staffs and BOC also should be market orientation.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        The Impact of GSCM Practices and Green Innovation on Economic and Environmental Performance: A Case of Manufacturing Sector of Pakistan

        Muneeb Siddiqu*

        DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.447

        Purpose/Objective: The goal of this analysis is to investigate the position of GSCM activities in environmental and economic performance as well as green innovation, while the effect of green innovation on these two outcomes.

        Methodology: The study collected data from 142 respondents. The purposive sampling was adopted as the sampling technique. The target population consisted of the professionals from the supply chain industry in Karachi, Pakistan.

        Findings: Results revealed that the affiliation between GSCM and green innovation and environmental performance is substantial and affirmative. However, green innovation has had a positive impact on environmental efficiency. Moreover, green innovation facilitated the partnership between GSCM and environmental efficiency.

        Implications: It is recommended to manufacturer that reused, recycled or reassembled before the product is manufactured for detection of materials. It can help to minimize waste by organizing. Green procurement is a sustainable acquisition in which products are reduced, reused and recycled in the purchasing process.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 11

        Supervisor Relationship Quality and Employee Commitment to Change in the Ghanaian Banking Industry

        Gideon Sackitey*

        DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.447

        The success of every organization is largely dependent on the employee’s commitment to change which undoubtedly becomes possible when there exist a solid relationship between leadership and their subordinates in other words, employees and their supervisors. The purpose of this study is to assess supervisor relationship quality and employee commitment to change in the Ghanaian corporate organizations with emphasis on the banking sector in Ghana. The study employed descriptive survey to sample 201 bank staff from four banks through structured questionnaires. Both purposive and simple random techniques of sampling were employed by the researcher in selecting the samples. Data was analyzed and presented by the use of Statistical Package for Service Solution (SPSS). Tables and figures were given in frequencies and percentages and correlation and regression analysis was also performed. The study reveals that there is high quality relationship between supervisors and employees of banks in Ghana. Furthermore, affective commitment and normative commitment to organizational change predicts supervisor’s relationship quality in the banking sector of Ghana. The study also discovered a positive relationship between supervisor relationship quality and the three types of commitment to organizational change in the banking industry in Ghana. This study recommended that to create and sustain growth in an organization, management is advised to create favorable conditions to employees.

          Research Pages: 1 - 5

          The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Performance: Special Reference to Manufacturing Companies Listed on Colombo Stock Exchange

          Vidura Perera*

          The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of CSR activities on firm performance of listed manufacturing firms on CSE. For this purpose 31 manufacturing companies consider as the sample listed in Colombo Stock Exchange as at 29th march 2016. The Tobin Q consider as the dependent variable of the study which for measured the firm performance and CSR activities considered as the independent variable. Those CSR activities divided in to three sub variables as economic, social and environmental activities, and the total CSR considered separately, as well as firm size, firm age and the firm leverage consider as control variables which are impacting on the dependent variable. The data collected from financial statements and website over five year from 2011 to 2015. Then the data represents the 155 observations. OLS linear Regression model is used to analyze data in relation to measure the impact. The results of regression model revealed that there is an insignificant positive impact of economic activities, social activities and environment activities on Tobin Q, however the result shows when take the total CSR as whole, it has a positive also significant impact on Tobin Q.

          Review Article Pages: 1 - 4

          The Golden Path Forward for the US Dollar

          Ivaylo Angelov*

          DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.478

          The US dollar has been the world's dominant reserve currency for decades, but its future is uncertain amid concerns about inflation, economic instability, and geopolitical tensions. One proposed solution to these challenges is to return to a gold-backed currency, which would provide a stable store of value and limit inflationary pressures. However, implementing a gold standard is not without challenges, including the need for significant gold reserves, limitations on monetary policy flexibility, and potential deflationary pressures. This paper explores the potential advantages and disadvantages of a gold-backed US dollar, as well as the practical considerations for implementing such a system. Alternative monetary systems, including fiat currencies, commodity-backed currencies, and crypto currency, are also examined. In addition, this paper analyzes the political feasibility of establishing a gold standard in the US and public opinion on the matter. Two linear models are presented to apply to the US dollar and the gold standard.

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Optimal Loan Portfoli of Commercial Banks: A Case Study of Zenith International Bank (Nigeria) PLC

            Kayode Peter Akinyemi*and Adaramola Anthony Olugbenga

            This study examines the application of linear programming (LP) to the loan portfolio of Nigerian commercial banks taking Zenith International Bank (Nig) Plc (ZIB) as a case study. The bank engages in diverse financial services as a commercial bank, chief of which is the advancement of loans to different classes of customers and on different tenors. The data on loan portfolio collected from the annual financial reports of the bank for 2017 were categorized and analyzed using a linear programming analytical technique embedded in LINGO software. The findings of the analysis reveal that it would have been better for ZIB to concentrate on granting of loans and advances for overdraft and term loans. By doing this, the bank can optimize returns from its loan portfolio. However, the study notes that statutory loans, particularly, on-lending which the bank cannot but advance since it is statutorily required to do so, impaired on (reduced) the value of optimal solution derived from the linear programming model. Similarly, the bank financed leases, which contradicts the optimal feasible solution of the LP model. The study recommends that the bank pays particular attention to controllable loan facilities (overdrafts and term loans) which in turn will lead to optimal revenue.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            Effect of Global Crisis and Demonetization in India on Financial Sectors of Indian Stock Market Using MFDCCA Method

            Pooja Devi*, Pawan Kumar, Ravendra Singh and Sunil Kumar

            To study the statistical properties of financial markets there are various methods. We applied multi-fractal detrended cross correlation analysis method to study multi-fractality, efficiency and cross correlation of banking sector of Indian financial market for the period of global financial crisis and demonetization in India. We calculated Hurst exponents and strength of singularity spectrum. We find that variation in strength of multi-fractality is maximum during crisis. We conclude that if there is any crisis or booms in the market then multi-fractality will increase and value of that exponent which measure correlation will also increase for persistent time series

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

            An Insight into Indian Start-Ups Investment Scenario

            Aliza Saifi

            Startups are the stepping stairs for any industrialization and economic growth. But in most developing countries startups growth is hindered due to financial inadequacy. It is a general phenomenon that a startup which is the outcome of founder’s brain ware and also backed by strong business idea may have insufficiency of personal treasure trunk i.e. personal financial resources. Funds are required for purchase of fixed asset, working capital management, expansion and modernization, debt restructuring etc. Thus for survival and growth timely influx of fund is needed which can be raised either by equity financing like angel investment, venture financing, capitalist or private equity etc. or through debt financing like loans from banks and NBFCs, external commercial borrowings, venture debts etc. Other sources like crowd funding, business incubators and accelerators can also be used. There are certain ways to finance startups. In this research paper recent funding pattern of Indian startups is studied. This research paper aims at providing the general information regarding the trend in startup funding ecosystem with especial emphasis upon equity financing sources. This paper is of descriptive nature based on analysis of five year secondary data studied with the help of graphs and tables, etc.

            Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

            Determinants of Personal Financial Management among Debre Markos University Staffs, Ethiopia

            Beza Muche Teka

            Today, personal financial management behavior has received an increasing concern of researchers because failure in managing an individual’s finance can lead serious long-term consequences not only for that person but also for the society. Therefore, the objective of the study is to investigate the determinants of personal financial management among university staffs. Explanatory and descriptive quantitative cross-sectional study was employed to investigate the determinants of personal financial management. A total of 353 staffs were used as a sampling unit and proportional stratified random sampling was used to select the required sample size. Primary data was collected using structured survey questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed by integrating the constructs from family resource management model and theory of planned behavior together with financial anxiety, self-control, income and age. Multiple linear regressions was used to analyze the collected data and the findings revealed that financial knowledge and self-control have significant positive effect on individual’s personal financial management behavior whereas subjective norm has significant negative effect. However, financial attitude, financial anxiety, income and age have no significant effect on individuals’ personal financial management behavior. Hence the researcher recommends that in order to educate the general public about personal financial management financial institutions and higher educational institutions should provide personal financial management education using different channels such as seminars and workshops

            Review Article Pages: 1 - 9

            The Effect of the Interaction between Technological Performance and the Variables of the Governance Structure Specific to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises on their Financial Performance (Case of the Tunisian LLCs)

            Mabrouk Najoua*

            DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2022.11.420

            The present work proposes to analyze the effect of the interaction between technological performance and the variables of governance structure specific to the SME-LLC on their financial performance.

            The majority of studies dealing with Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME-LLCs) have mainly focused on the governance structure of this type of organization and its relationship with financial performance in this particular context while neglecting any other external factors. Based on the necessary theoretical framework, this research attempts to fill the gap in thinking on this topic by studying the impact of the specific governance structure of SME-LLCs on financial performance when moderated by the effect of technological performance.

            The statistical results showed us the existence of a moderating effect of technological performance. This moderating factor seems to be able to improve and deteriorate the financial performance of the LLC.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 10

              The Effect of the Governance Structure of Small and MediumSized Enterprises and the Specific Human Capital of their Managers on their Technological Performance (Case of the Tunisian LLCs)

              Mabrouk Najoua*

              DOI: 10.37421/2167-0234.2023.12.443

              The main objective of this research is to study the impact of the governance structure and the specific human capital of the leaders of the Small and Medium-Sized (SME) on their technological performance. Empirical tests were conducted on SPSS from companies having the statue of Limited Liability Company (LLC). To address this research issue, we analyzed the link between governance and technologic performance in the first section. Then, based on financial theories we formulated a set of hypotheses related to the influence of corporate social responsibility, the concentration of ownership, the presence of auditor, the behaviour of the risk-taking versus non-risk-taking of manager, the age, the experience and the family ownership of the manager on technological performance. The results of the empirical tests indicate that the governance structure had a positive effect on technological performance. Conversely, the empirical tests show that the age and the plurality of manager had negative effects on technological performance.

                Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

                Refining and Predicting Financial Fraud on Key Financial Indicators: Profit Margin, Return on Equity, And Inventory Turnover in Mobile Payment Industry in Ghana

                Solomon Arhin

                This study seeks to investigate recent rampant financial frauds and their impact on financial performance of the four mobile payment companies in Ghana. The study used secondary data obtained from the consolidated financial statements for the past ten years (2010-2019) of the mobile payment companies operations around the world. The population for the study consisted of all the subsidiaries of the five companies around the world that were used to prepare the consolidated financial statements. The sample consists of the subsidiaries of the four companies whose consolidated financial information are available for public use. Methodologically, factor analysis, pair sample t-test and principal component analysis were exploited in the analyses to estimate and predict the relationship between fraud and its impact on financial performance indicators. The results revealed that Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin result of .546 indicates that factor analysis used was very useful. The paired samples correlation gave the results that are significantly positively correlated between pair 1 MTN and Vodaphone (p=.872) and pair 2 Airtel and Tigo (p=.234) at an alpha level of 0.05. In the principal component analysis, only one factor has eigenvalues greater than 1 which account for almost 99% of the variability in the profit Margin as an indicator .The combined results offer theoretical contributions in the area of adoption of multiple fraud theories within the framework of neoclassical growth model. The application of the outcome to practice is the use of the result for predictability and financial sustainability of the mobile companies over future periods. Policy makers can use the findings to formulate and amend policies that regulate the operation of mobile payment companies to the benefit of all the stakeholders.

                  Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

                  A Neurological Examination on Geriatric Medication and its Uses

                  Mladen Davidovic

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                  Geriatrics, or geriatric medication, is a forte that spotlights on medical care of older individuals. It plans to advance wellbeing by forestalling and treating infections and handicaps in more seasoned grown-ups. There is no set age at which patients might be under the consideration of a geriatrician, or geriatric doctor, a doctor who has practical experience in the consideration of older individuals. Maybe, this choice is controlled by the singular patient's necessities and the accessibility of a subject matter expert.

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