Background: Diabetes mellitus results when there is an imbalance in the production, metabolism and regulation of insulin and blood glucose respectively, in the human body. This study investigated the fresh leaf microscopy and chemomicroscopy, phytochemical, acute toxicity and the anti-diabetic potentials of Mallotus oppostifollous using the mice diabetic model.
Methods: Mallotus oppostifollous was extracted using the cold maceration method with absolute methanol. The acute toxicity (LD 50) of the fraction extract was determined in mice using Lorke’s method. The antidiabetic studies were conducted using the standard protocol of alloxan induced diabetic mice.
Results: The findings showed that no toxicity was observed up to 5000 mg/kg doses of the crude extract. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins, steroids and terpenoids of the crude extract of Mallotus oppostifollous decreased blood glucose levels significantly (P<0.05) within 10 hours’ acute treatment and 14 days long term treatment. Histological examination showed a consistent rejuvenation of the pancreatic β cells islet of diabetic mice treated with methanol leaf extract Mallotus oppostifollous. The result also showed abundance of manganese, magnesium, iron, calcium, zinc and potassium which are all implicated in secretion and metabolism of insulin.
Conclusion: Mallotus oppostifollous may have acted by restoring pancreatic beta-cell integrity through mopping of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with the diabetic state, and thereby improving pancreatic function and consequently, lowering of fasting blood glucose levels. These findings provide ample evidence to support the traditional use of Mallotus oppostifollous in the management of diabetes mellitus.