Thiazolidinediones are a class of well-established antidiabetic drugs, also named as glitazones. Thiazolidinedione structure has been an important structural domain of research,
involving design and development of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Extensive research on the mechanism of action and the structural requirements has revealed that
the intended antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetes is due to their agonistic effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to the nuclear receptor super family.
Glitazones have specific affinity to PPARγ, one of the subtypes of PPARs. Certain compounds under development have dual PPARα/γ agonistic activity which might be beneficial
in obesity and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Interesting array of hybrid compounds of thiazolidinedione PPARγ agonists exhibited therapeutic potential beyond antidiabetic activity.
Pharmacology and chemistry of thiazolidinediones as PPARγ agonists and the potential of newer analogues as dual agonists of PPARs and other emerging targets for the therapy of
type 2 diabetes are presented. This review highlights the possible modifications of the structural components in the general frame work of thiazolidinediones with respect to their binding
efficacy, potency, and selectivity which would guide the future research in design of novel thiazolidinedione derivatives for the management of type 2 diabetes.