Objectives: To understand the contribution of cytology in the process of etiological diagnosis of pleurisy.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective and prospective descriptive study from March 1, 2010 to February 28, 2015. The material used consisted of the results of cytological analysis reports.
Results: Of the 2012 samples collected, 456 were pleural fluids, an institutional prevalence of 22.66%. Patients under 50 years of age were affected in 49.12% with an average age of 47.5 years and extremes of 10 months and 101 years. The male subject represented 72.81% or a ratio of 2.74. The samples were exudative in 94.52% and the "Hemorrhagic" character found in 52%. 88% of the samples had a cell count and among which, 44% had a leukocyte count ≥ 10,000 / mm³. Lymphocyte reactions were found in 59.16%. 39.22% of patients ≥ 50 years of age had a lymphocyte reaction. In samples with cell atypia, 54.46% were suspected of having a tumor extension and 21.43% were tumor cell atypia of specified origin, of which 8 cases (33.33%) were of ovarian origin. The "Hemorrhagic" character was in 57.27% of the cellular atypies and the lymphocyte reactions in 66.36% of the atypies. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of cytology in the process of etiological diagnosis of pleurisy. Patients of all ages were affected, the male was the most represented. A cell count associated with a leukocyte formula and the morphological search for atypical cells made it possible to provide an etiological orientation.