Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review

ISSN: 2223-5833

Open Access

Volume 10, Issue 4 (2020)

Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

Review on Components of Transformational Leadership

Berhanu Debela Gonfa

The objective of this review paper is just to shade light on the major components of transformational leadership. Now days the working environments of organizations are characterized by continuous change, fluctuation, higher level of turbulence, increased volatility and uncertainty and global competition. In the future too, organizations keep on facing global challenges. The challenge of the present generation is more than that of the previous. This all demands new leadership style and that is transformational leadership. Based on ranges of existing literatures “Transformational leadership is a type of leadership style where by the leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change and executes the change”. Transformational leadership describes a process of positive influence that changes and transforms individuals, organizations, and communities and is charismatic, visionary, and inspiring. Transformational leaders inspire, motivate and stimulate followers to achieve extraordinary results. Transformational leaders seek to transform or change the basic values, beliefs, and attitudes of followers so that they are willing to perform beyond the minimum levels specified by the organization. Transformational leader is the leader that possesses and makes use of four leadership characteristics and known for and changing things in a big way. First, transformational leaders tends to be idealized influence where by leaders tends to be role models for the followers and they are admired and respected by the followers because of high standards of ethics demonstrated by the leaders. Secondly transformational leaders tend to be intellectual stimulation which means they stimulate and encourage creativity and innovation. The third one is inspirational motivation and it is about inspiring and motivating the followers through providing meaning and challenge to the followers work. The fourth one is individualized consideration in which leaders pay special attention to individual differences, needs for achievement and growth and treat them accordingly with respect. The leaders are acting as coach and mentor. Transformational leaders effectively build on these characteristics and integrate principles from a variety of leadership theories. Transformational leadership style makes use of any one or more of the four core components to enhance performance and accomplishment and achieve superior results. The more the leadership approaches encompasses more components, the more is the result. Therefore, having more of or the combination of all the components helps to get exceeding outcomes.

Opinion Article Pages: 1 - 3

Business Restructuring Ô???? Step by Step Guidelines

Hassan M. Abdulrahim*

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COVID-19 crisis that the world has witnessed during the past few months, and is still witnessing until now, has serious implications on most global businesses and economic activities. Such implications, represented by the forced closure of most businesses, have led such businesses to face an unprecedented dilemma, that is the dramatic decline in revenues and profits on the one hand, and the huge financial obligations and fixed costs on the other. Not to mention other adverse consequences such as the disruption in economic activities, pause of production and disruptions in supply chains for most companies and so on.

Research Pages: 1 - 8

Challenges Faced by IT Companies in Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining None IT background Generation Y Graduates

Arrey Mbayong Napoleon*

Purpose: This research is being carried out to examine some of the possible factors that can attract and retain non-IT backgroundG eneration Y graduates in an IT oriented company. The main difference between this studies with similar studies carried out in the same field is that this work encompassed two theories put forward by other scholars in to one model. Other studies treated employer brand awareness and employer association as separate models. But in this study, both models where summarized into one model and tested to see if the results will lead to a possible attraction and Retention of non-IT background Generation Y graduates in an IT oriented company. Methodology: This study mainly focus on Generation Y employees who have graduated or still to graduate as well as those already working. The sample size for this study was 300 who are students from randomly selected from Universities in Hhertfordshire area of North London, UK. The study adopted a quantitative approach and surveys where distributed to target population. The data collected was analyzed with the use of SPSS 2.0 and Smart PLS software. Findings: The findings in this study reveal that employer brand awareness has an important and significant relationship with the employer brand association which in this study was represented as career growth opportunity, salary/benefits and rewards, and working environment. From the analysis it could be deduced that most IT companies don’t attract non-IT graduates because they don’t have a positive brand image. The findings also revealed that contrary to other findings, career growth opportunity do not have a significant impact on job attraction and retention. This discrepancy can be attributed to cultural differences and choice of target population. However, other variables such as salary/benefits and rewards, and working environment had a positive influence on job attraction and retention just as tested in other studies. Limitations: This study was narrowed down to a quantitative research thereby completely ignoring a blend of quantitative and qualitative study. As a consequence, much information was not obtain which would have help to better understand the concept of attracting and retaining Non-IT when it comes to working in an IT company like IBM.

Review Article Pages: 1 - 7

Key Success Factors of Total Quality Management (TQM) for the Hospitality Sector: A Critical Review of the Literature

Mudassar Hussain*

The main aim of this paper is to find the key practices of TQM, implementable into hospitality sector by reviewing the literature of both service and manufacturing sector, and to outline key practices of TQM to develop a comprehensive and feasible quality framework for managers of SMEs to adopt the best TQM practices that enhance operational efficiency through quality improvement and to achieve optimal results. The researcher has applied a systematic literature review strategy to achieve the overall aim of this study. The systematic literature review has focused more on explaining the concepts comprehensively and in an organised manner. In this regard, the outline of the literature has been designed in such a manner, to go from a general perspective to a broader perspective to provide an in-depth discussion of the research topic. Data relevant to the research has been collected from scholarly articles and previous studies, to provide a clear understanding of the topic. Finally, this research makes an original contribution in the academic field as it enhances the knowledge of TQM among the managers and quality practitioners concerning key TQM practices, which are directly associated and can be implemented in the hospitality industry.

Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

Governance Mechanisms and Financial Structure: Case of Tunisia

Akram Belhadj Mohamed and Mgadmi Nidha

In Eastern Europe, privatization raises the question of how private firms should be governed. China is experimenting with some forms of corporate governance that combine features of the market system with public ownership. Notwithstanding all these debates, observations about the effects of different corporate governance systems remain fragmented. In the area of corporate governance, the facts have been swept away by judgments. Building a governance index that synthesizes all control mechanisms has prompted empirical research to test the effectiveness of a governance structure for aligning leaders' interests with those of others shareholders. This framework focuses on the governance-performance relationship. Empirical studies have sought to test whether "well-governed" firms with low agency costs and low information asymmetry are doing more call option on debt to finance their investment opportunities. This article is organized around the two main parts. In the first part, we will summarize the main previous empirical works that have dealt with governance mechanisms and the choice of a financial structure. In the second part, we will empirically validate these governance mechanisms of the twenty-eight firms listed on the Securities Exchange in Tunisia during the period from 2012 to 2016. However, the governance mechanisms and the choice of the financial structure will be modified over time and the sample

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