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Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review

ISSN: 2223-5833

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 4 (2020)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Review on Components of Transformational Leadership

    Berhanu Debela Gonfa

    The objective of this review paper is just to shade light on the major components of transformational leadership. Now days the working environments of organizations are characterized by continuous change, fluctuation, higher level of turbulence, increased volatility and uncertainty and global competition. In the future too, organizations keep on facing global challenges. The challenge of the present generation is more than that of the previous. This all demands new leadership style and that is transformational leadership. Based on ranges of existing literatures “Transformational leadership is a type of leadership style where by the leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision to guide the change and executes the change”. Transformational leadership describes a process of positive influence that changes and transforms individuals, organizations, and communities and is charismatic, visionary, and inspiring. Transformational leaders inspire, motivate and stimulate followers to achieve extraordinary results. Transformational leaders seek to transform or change the basic values, beliefs, and attitudes of followers so that they are willing to perform beyond the minimum levels specified by the organization. Transformational leader is the leader that possesses and makes use of four leadership characteristics and known for and changing things in a big way. First, transformational leaders tends to be idealized influence where by leaders tends to be role models for the followers and they are admired and respected by the followers because of high standards of ethics demonstrated by the leaders. Secondly transformational leaders tend to be intellectual stimulation which means they stimulate and encourage creativity and innovation. The third one is inspirational motivation and it is about inspiring and motivating the followers through providing meaning and challenge to the followers work. The fourth one is individualized consideration in which leaders pay special attention to individual differences, needs for achievement and growth and treat them accordingly with respect. The leaders are acting as coach and mentor. Transformational leaders effectively build on these characteristics and integrate principles from a variety of leadership theories. Transformational leadership style makes use of any one or more of the four core components to enhance performance and accomplishment and achieve superior results. The more the leadership approaches encompasses more components, the more is the result. Therefore, having more of or the combination of all the components helps to get exceeding outcomes.

    Opinion Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Business Restructuring Ô???? Step by Step Guidelines

    Hassan M. Abdulrahim*

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    COVID-19 crisis that the world has witnessed during the past few months, and is still witnessing until now, has serious implications on most global businesses and economic activities. Such implications, represented by the forced closure of most businesses, have led such businesses to face an unprecedented dilemma, that is the dramatic decline in revenues and profits on the one hand, and the huge financial obligations and fixed costs on the other. Not to mention other adverse consequences such as the disruption in economic activities, pause of production and disruptions in supply chains for most companies and so on.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Challenges Faced by IT Companies in Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining None IT background Generation Y Graduates

    Arrey Mbayong Napoleon*

    Purpose: This research is being carried out to examine some of the possible factors that can attract and retain non-IT backgroundG eneration Y graduates in an IT oriented company. The main difference between this studies with similar studies carried out in the same field is that this work encompassed two theories put forward by other scholars in to one model. Other studies treated employer brand awareness and employer association as separate models. But in this study, both models where summarized into one model and tested to see if the results will lead to a possible attraction and Retention of non-IT background Generation Y graduates in an IT oriented company. Methodology: This study mainly focus on Generation Y employees who have graduated or still to graduate as well as those already working. The sample size for this study was 300 who are students from randomly selected from Universities in Hhertfordshire area of North London, UK. The study adopted a quantitative approach and surveys where distributed to target population. The data collected was analyzed with the use of SPSS 2.0 and Smart PLS software. Findings: The findings in this study reveal that employer brand awareness has an important and significant relationship with the employer brand association which in this study was represented as career growth opportunity, salary/benefits and rewards, and working environment. From the analysis it could be deduced that most IT companies don’t attract non-IT graduates because they don’t have a positive brand image. The findings also revealed that contrary to other findings, career growth opportunity do not have a significant impact on job attraction and retention. This discrepancy can be attributed to cultural differences and choice of target population. However, other variables such as salary/benefits and rewards, and working environment had a positive influence on job attraction and retention just as tested in other studies. Limitations: This study was narrowed down to a quantitative research thereby completely ignoring a blend of quantitative and qualitative study. As a consequence, much information was not obtain which would have help to better understand the concept of attracting and retaining Non-IT when it comes to working in an IT company like IBM.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Governance Mechanisms and Financial Structure: Case of Tunisia

    Akram Belhadj Mohamed and Mgadmi Nidha

    In Eastern Europe, privatization raises the question of how private firms should be governed. China is experimenting with some forms of corporate governance that combine features of the market system with public ownership. Notwithstanding all these debates, observations about the effects of different corporate governance systems remain fragmented. In the area of corporate governance, the facts have been swept away by judgments. Building a governance index that synthesizes all control mechanisms has prompted empirical research to test the effectiveness of a governance structure for aligning leaders' interests with those of others shareholders. This framework focuses on the governance-performance relationship. Empirical studies have sought to test whether "well-governed" firms with low agency costs and low information asymmetry are doing more call option on debt to finance their investment opportunities. This article is organized around the two main parts. In the first part, we will summarize the main previous empirical works that have dealt with governance mechanisms and the choice of a financial structure. In the second part, we will empirically validate these governance mechanisms of the twenty-eight firms listed on the Securities Exchange in Tunisia during the period from 2012 to 2016. However, the governance mechanisms and the choice of the financial structure will be modified over time and the sample

    Volume 10, Issue 5 (2020)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Leadership Effectiveness in Higher Education Institutions: The IPA Approach

      Aschalew Degoma Durie

      The purpose of this research is to examine the leadership effectiveness of leaders in higher education institutions in order to pinpoint possible areas of improvement. Leaders in this context refer to those who assume leadership role in the universities ranging from department head to university president. To approach the problem systematically, descriptive cross sectional research design was employed. About 120 questionnaires were distributed to those leaders from three public universities randomly selected and only 95 questionnaires qualified for analysis. The importance performance grid was used for data analysis and it was supplemented by paired sample t test to see whether the gap between importance and performance is statistically significant. Accordingly, about 28% of the works of the leaders is characterized by high importance and low performance and some 19% of the works is characterized by low importance and high performance. This implies that about 48% of the tasks of those leaders are not on their intended priority schedule. Hence, possible planning and differentiating the daily routines from the strategic works are required for the academic leaders in order to perform their activities based on their level of importance to their universities.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

      Effect of Working Capital Management on the Performance of Food and Beverage Industries in Nigeria

      Criscent Ike Eya

      This study examined the impact of working capital management on firm performance using Nestle Food Nigeria plc as a case study. The study was anchored on Behavioural Finance Theory, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model and Theory of Capital Movement. Secondary data was used for the study and it was obtained from the financial statement of Nestle Nigeria Plc for the period of 2004-2013. The study made use of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression after the data was subjected to unit root test and found to be stationary at levels and are integrated of order zero [I(0)]. The findings revealed that a positive relationship exist between Current Ratio (CUR), Quick Ratio (QUR) and Return on Asset (ROA) and the relationship is statistically significant (p<0.05) and in line with a priori expectation. The coefficient of determination (R2) for the study is 85.23%. This indicates that 85.23% of the variations in the model can be explained by the explanatory variables of the model. The result shows that the management of working capital is important to business organization performance. It was recommended among others that the management of the Nestle Food Nig Plc should pay more attention on the management of quick ratio as its management indicates the best way of measuring the amount of the most liquid current assets there are to cover current liabilities. Management should therefore aim at higher values of quick ratio as a higher ratio means a more liquid current position of the company which is a good indicator of firm performance.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      West Bengal -A Tourist Destination Comparative Analysis of Bengal Tourism Business Model with Kerala & Gujarat

      Sanjana Mondal

      West Bengal is a unique state of India that is gifted with all tourism ingredients to address the need of all type of tourists. With the Himalayan range on the north to Bay of Bengal in the south, lush green forest and wide range of historic evidence & Pilgrim destinations; West Bengal has varied option of tourism products to offer to its tourists. But in the context of tourism market Bengal is still a backbencher as compared to the other Indian states that have marched way ahead of Bengal. Tourism being one of the major contributing industries, its sustainable development is extremely important for an economy to capitalize. This paper is a study report on Bengal’s marketing mix inadequacies and finding and mixing consistent attributes to identify West Bengal as a preferred destination and distinguish it through positive image building, i.e., how tourists perceive West Bengal in their minds. A comparison of Tourism Business Model of West Bengal is done with that of Kerala and Gujarat to critically analyze the gap in Marketing West Bengal tourism.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Impact of Structural Firm characteristics on Business Performance of SMEs: Evidence from agribusiness firms in Dar es salaam, Tanzania

      Tresphory O. Mgeni and Parameswar Nayak

      This study attempts to determine the relation between Structural Firm characteristics and business performance of agribusiness SMEs in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. The aim is to determine how firm size, age and ownership correlates with business performance in agribusiness SMEs and predict its performance variations. The study is based on field data collected by mailed questionnaires from 60 agribusiness SMEs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and analyzed quantitatively by Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression by SPSS. The findings suggest that, in Tanzania’s context, age has a significant moderate positive correlation with business performance of SMEs while firm size and ownership have insignificant and weak negative correlation with business performance. Furthermore; age, firm size and ownership when regressed simultaneously by multiple regressions are found to be, significant moderate predictors of business performance variations.

      Volume 10, Issue 6 (2020)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        What are Medical Students Doing Online?- A Study in Kolkata, India

        Saibal Kumar Saha

        Medical students, the future doctors of our country are an important part of the society. When they will enter into the professional world it would be very difficult to approach them and get time for conversation. If they can be approached in the virtual world it would be a unique opportunity for numerous business houses for line of work. This study aims to throw some light on the online behavior of medical students. We can learn about the websites they visit, what motivates them to use internet? What information do they seek? and on what topics they discuss? For the research different social networking websites and blogs involving medical students were studied. From this their topics of discussion were analyzed. To get more insights a questionnaire was formed and medical students in Kolkata were interviewed. It was seen that medical students used internet for various reasons. They use internet for sharing class notes, watching videos of surgery, finding books and looking for internship and socializing. Their internet usage pattern was analyzed and a trend was found.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

        Gendered Gatekeeping Dynamics and ICT: Sustaining Segregation through Digital Proxy and Surveillance in a Saudi University

        Amal Alotaibi

        This paper aims to attend to the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in organizational social and cultural issues. The study explores ICT gatekeeping dynamics, and does this in the context of gendersegregation in Saudi Arabia, and the current marginalization of the female workforce. The physical separation of men and women at work, and the utilization of ICT by competing groups to promote integrated practices provide an opportunity to understand power dynamics as enabled by digital technologies. Through empirical case analysis of an Oracle task management system, the study presents a number of findings emerging from the segregated context related to technology use. These findings are particularly relevant for network gatekeeping studies, and consist of identifying two ICT gatekeeping mechanisms (proxy and surveillance), and two types of change mechanisms (formative and dismantling). In addition to exploring the technological aspects of ICT use in segregated work, the study also attempts to document and evaluate some of the existing practices in terms of progressive change. The multi-layered male hegemony in Saudi, as imposed by governmental, cultural, and religious dominion, and the paradoxes arising from technology use that promotes female inclusion while simultaneously keeping segregation intact, makes this an issue riddled with extreme complexity. This study departs from attempts to classify technology as either a means of female emancipation or subjugation. Instead, by providing glimpses from a diverse cultural setting, the study highlights the inevitability of both enablement and constraint in technology use.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 11

        Eliminating Muda (Waste) in Lean Management by Working Time Standardization

        Agnieszka Grzelczak and Karolina Werner-Lewandowska

        Process improvement is a constant search for opportunities to improve the processes in the daily operations of the company, and to enhance the relationships between processes. One of the concepts of continuous improvement is the Lean Management approach. Lean management is the way to achieve the perfect level of the organization through the gradual and ongoing, which is characteristic for continuous improvement approach, elimination of waste (“muda” in Japanese) and losses in all the aspects of business, and the integration of activities connected with the stream creating customer value. The approach to classification of wastes dominating in the literature comprises seven groups. The authors focused on just the last type of waste that is on the under-utilization of the potential of employees. However, according to the author’s interpretation, thinking of “muda” is not using the available working time of employees. In the opinion of the authors, this loss is due to a lack of standardization of working time of employees In order to eliminate wasted time at the workplace, the authors suggest using the techniques of work analysis and standardization. The purpose of this article is to present the methods mentioned and focus on the possibility of their inclusion in the concept of Lean Management, in the context of elimination of waste in the form of under-utilized potential of employees. The above approach combines the Japanese approach in terms of improvement of processes and European approach in the context of research on work.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Devising a Business Model of Amazons 1995-2004 Journey

        Mohammed Tawsif Salam

        This work devises a time- specific business model for Amazon.com Inc.´┐Ż?¢´┐Ż?´┐Ż?´┐Ż´┐Ż?Ÿs journey from being an e-commerce start-up to the early stages of its stardom as an online retail giant. For the purpose, constructs are teased out from a case by University of West Australia academic Gary J. Stockport that featured and organised the key events of Amazon´┐Ż?¢´┐Ż?´┐Ż?´┐Ż´┐Ż?Ÿs business between the timeline in question, 1995 and 2004 in this case. The constructs are then looked into with several analysis methods in order to finally generate the intended retrospective business model with the design of business model theorist Alex Osterwalder. The work also maintains a general awareness of Amazon´┐Ż?¢´┐Ż?´┐Ż?´┐Ż´┐Ż?Ÿs present business practices and position in order to facilitate the readers to have comparative strategic thinking.

        Book Review Pages: 1 - 1

        Science and Belief: Discourses on New Perceptions

        Uqbah Iqbal

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