Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics

ISSN: 2155-6180

Open Access

The Human Hand and Foot in Evolution and Art: The Effects of Wearing Footwear


Clifford Qualls, Peter Evans, Antonio Perciaccante, Raffaella Bianucci, Donatella Lippi and Otto Appenzeller

The structures of the human hands and feet are shaped by evolution and its effects on the brain, skeleton and other structures, and on behavior. We used measurements obtained of hands and feet from living humans in Europe, the Americas (South and North) and Australia and images of hands and feet in cave art, paintings, and photographs obtained from the Web including some from Africa. We used the ratios of the third finger/width of hand and second toe/width of foot. We hypothesized that hand ratios would not have changed over millennia whereas, because of the use of footwear and mechanical locomotion, the ratios obtained from feet could have changed significantly. Here we report that statistical analyses and modeling confirmed our initial hypothesis.


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