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Vitamins & Minerals

ISSN: 2376-1318

Open Access

Magnesium: The Mitochondrial Blockbuster in Competitive Sports

Abstract

Kisters K, Gr├â┬â├é┬Âber U and Adamietz I

Magnesium is an essential cofactor of more than 600 enzymatic reactions in intermediary metabolism and is involved in all ATP-dependent processes. Be it oxygen utilisation, neuromuscular coordination or cardiopulmonary performance, magnesium is a key element in the trouble-free progression of numerous metabolic processes in the athlete. Magnesium is the second most common intracellular divalent cation; it is present in its ionised form Mg2+ and combines with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form Mg-ATP complexes. For many physical functions, magnesium is essential to regulate the tone and contractility of smooth muscle in vascular structures. It is particularly important in the regulation of blood pressure, vascular resistance, glucose utilisation, metabolomics, lipid profiles and lactate clearance. DNA polymerases and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase also require magnesium as a cofactor, making metabolic steps in DNA replication, RNA transcription, nucleic acid and protein synthesis dependent upon magnesium. Magnesium stabilises, for example, the active conformation of nucleic acids and is required to reduce or compensate the charge of multivalent anions or polyanions.

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