Hydrology: Current Research

ISSN: 2157-7587

Open Access

Investigation of Sewage and Drinking Water in Major Healthcare Centres for Bacterial and Viral Pathogens


Khan Suliman, Rabeea Siddique, Ghulam Nabi, Wasim Sajjad, Pathiranage Prajani Mahesha Heenatigala, Yang Jingjing, Qingman Li, Hongwei Hou and Ijaz Ali

Water is a major source of microbes, including pathogens that can cause critical pathological conditions and outbreak of epidemics. Due to lack of proper medical waste-management system in Peshawar, most of the waste is disposed of near sewage lines which run parallel to drinking water supply increasing the chances of water contamination. This study was undertaken to examine bacterial and viral pathogens in fresh and waste water in major Health care units. Conventional culturing techniques were used to identify bacterial pathogens followed by biochemical analysis, whereas viral pathogens were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Analysis of sewage and drinking water supply in major health care facilities of Peshawar city indicated that Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were found in all water samples whereas serious health risk causing bacteria including Mycobactirium tuberculosis were also detected in some regions. Two viral pathogens, Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) were found in open sewage water of Khyber Teaching Hospital and Dabgari Garden (G). The presence of these pathogens in water is a serious threat to public health and the environment and calls for immediate action to enforce proper medical waste-management to eliminate the risks to human health.


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