Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Interaction between Dietary and Lifestyle Risk Factors and N-Acetyltransferase Polymorphisms in B-Cell Lymphoma Etiology


Pierluigi Cocco, Mariagrazia Zucca, Sonia Sanna, Giannina Satta, Emanuele Angelucci, Attilio Gabbas, Maria Monne, Marcello Campagna, Aldo Scarpa and Maria Grazia Ennas

Background: Gene-environment interactions are suggested to play a role in lymphomagenesis. Methods: We tested the interaction between the NAT1/NAT2 phenotype, as inferred by the respective genotypes, and exposure to dietary and lifestyle risk factors, in 199 incident lymphoma cases and 188 population controls. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval for lymphoma (all subtypes combined) and B cell lymphoma, associated to the rapid NAT1 phenotype and to the intermediate and slow NAT2 phenotype, and to the estimated dietary intake of heterocyclic amines and folate, current smoking, coffee, and use of permanent hair dyes, as well as the respective interaction terms. We adjusted the ORs by age, gender, and education, and we used the likelihood ratio test to test the interaction between the NAT1, NAT2 phenotype and the dietary and lifestyle variables. Results: We observed an increase in risk of lymphoma (all subtypes combined) and B-cell lymphoma in particular associated with the estimated above median dietary intake of heterocyclic amines (OR = 4.2, 95%CI 1.2 – 14.8) and folate (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 0.7 – 22.4) among subjects with the NAT1 rapid acetylator phenotype, but not independent on the NAT1 phenotype. The test for interaction was significant for heterocyclic amines, but not for folate (p for interaction = 0.026 and 0.076 respectively). Ever use of permanent hair dyes was associated with an elevated risk independent on the NAT1, NAT2 phenotypes; risk decreased to null among intermediate and slow NAT1 acetylators (p for interaction = 0.010). Conclusions: Our results suggest that NAT1, NAT2 polymorphisms interact with dietary and lifestyle exposures in modulating risk of lymphoma and particularly B-cell lymphoma.


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