Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Hydrochar for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: An Overview on its Advantages and Applications


Ahmed Hesham, Yasser Awad, Hossam Jahin, Sabry El-Korashy, Shaimaa Maher, Haitham Kalil* and Gasser Khairy*

Water pollution is one of the environmental challenges facing the world society. Consequently, the pollutants both domestic and industrial wastewater are identified as an environmental threat. Hydrochar (HC) appears as a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to this environmental threat. HC is the solid produced from the wet pyrolysis process for biomass that is rich in carbon in a sub-critical liquid phase, called the Hydro-Thermal Carbonization Process (HTC). This review aims to address the possibility of using HC as the most effective solution to the industrial wastewater. HTC has proven a greater yield than dry pyrolysis (30%-60% wt). To date, HC is listed as a promising lower-cost alternate adsorbent for removing wastewater pollutants. In Egypt for example, only few studies have been published investigating the properties of HC and its environmental applications. In this review, we will shed light on the preparation, characterization, and previous studies on the development and recent applications of HC. In addition, we will discuss the challenges to produce HC at a commercial scale. To the best of our knowledge, there is only few research studies addressing the HC production in the Middle East countries. Therefore, the door is still opened for more research on developing production techniques on HC from different biomass, and implementation in various environmental applications


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