Environmental & Analytical Toxicology

ISSN: 2161-0525

Open Access

Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Exerted by Pesticides in Different Biotic Matrices-An Overview of More Than a Decade of Experimental Evaluation


ML Larramendy, N Nikoloff, C Ruiz de Arcaute and S Soloneski

Agrochemicals represent one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. Although attempts to reduce agrochemical use through organic agricultural practices and the use of other technologies to control pests continue, the problem is still unsolved. Recent technological advances in molecular biology and analytical science have allowed the development of rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostic tests (biomarkers) that can be used to monitor exposure to, and the effects of pollution. One of the major goals of our research laboratory is to evaluate comparatively the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects exerted by several pure agrochemicals and their technical formulations commonly used in Argentina on vertebrate cellsin vitro and in vivo employing several end-points for geno and cytotoxicity. Among them are listed the herbicides dicamba and flurochloridone, the fungicide zineb, the insecticides pirimicarb and imidacloprid. Overall, the results clearly demonstrated that the damage induced by the commercial formulations is in general greater than that produced by the pure pesticides, suggesting the presence of deleterious components in the excipients with either a putative intrinsic toxic effect or with the capacity of exacerbating the toxicity of the pure agrochemicals, or both. Accordingly, the results highlight that: 1) A complete knowledge of the toxic effect/s of the active ingredient is not enough in biomonitoring studies; 2) Pesticide/s toxic effect/s should be evaluated assaying to the commercial formulation available in market; 3) The deleterious effect/s of the excipient/s present within the commercial formulation should not be either discarded nor underestimated, and 4) A single bioassay is not enough to characterize the toxicity of a agrochemical under study.


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