Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics

ISSN: 2155-6180

Open Access

Effects of Vitamin D, K1, and K2 Supplementation on Bone Formation by Osteoblasts In Vitro: A Meta-analysis


Charlene E Lancaster and Rene E Harrison

Bone loss is a major health problem that many aging individuals will face and thus research focusing on enhancing bone formation is of great importance. Cell biology or in vitro studies are particularly useful in exploring the exact effects a vitamin, supplement or drug has on particular processes within a certain cell type. Although there have been many cell biology articles focusing on the effects of vitamin D, K1 or K2 addition on bone formation in vitro, there has yet to be a consensus amongst the literature. The purpose of this article is to determine the effects of vitamin D, K1 and K2 supplementation on osteoblast maturation parameters through meta-analysis of past cell biology literature. A Hedges d effect size was calculated for each experiment extracted from past literature and the experiments were grouped by experiment and cell type. Homogeneity was assessed by the Cochran’s Q test, while the effect sizes’ departure from zero was assessed by a 95% confidence interval and a non-directional test. Supplementation with vitamin D, K1 and K2, along with the combination of vitamin K2+ 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, increased bone mineralization, while not consistently affecting all of the other parameters associated with bone formation. Vitamin K2 and D addition had variable effects on bone formation using different cell types, which calls into question the suitability of particular cell lines as models for clinical trials. Therefore, the conditions and parameters in which bone formation is studied in vitro must be considered carefully before running a vitamin supplementation or drug-testing experiment.


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