Vitamins & Minerals

ISSN: 2376-1318

Open Access

Cadmium Level in Pregnancy, Influence on Neonatal Birth Weight and Possible Amelioration by Some Essential Trace Elements


Tawari Erebi P, Anetor JI1and Charles-davies MA

Cadmium is currently of great concern in rapidly industrializing countries- India, China. Their products consumed especially due to increased demand in many developing countries like Nigeria can result in adverse effects. Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, toxicant and humans are continually exposed to the toxic effects of cadmium primarily through food as well as from environmental pollution through industrial activities. Maternal exposure to cadmium has been associated with the delivery of low birth weight babies and an increase incidence of spontaneous abortion. Cadmium a toxic metal can displace zinc (Zn) an essential element necessary for normal fetal development and growth. With this consideration, 160 subjects comprising of 125 pregnant and 35 non-pregnant subjects as controls were recruited for this study. The pregnant subjects were classified according to the three trimesters of pregnancy as followed; 35, 35 and 55 from the first to the third trimesters respectively. The third trimester subjects were followed up until after delivery where neonatal parameters (birth weight, head circumference and length) of babies were measured. 32 (58%) of the women delivered babies with normal birth weight, 19 women (35%) delivered babies with low birth weight while 4 women (7%) delivered babies with high birth weight. Subject who delivered low birth weight babies had significantly higher cadmium concentration and lower zinc concentration and Body Mass Index (BMI) when compared with those with normal weight babies. These results suggest that cadmium indeed has some toxic effects on neonatal birth weight.


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