Biosensors & Bioelectronics

ISSN: 2155-6210

Open Access

Assessment and Validation of a Methodology for Measuring Anatomical Kinematics of Restrained Occupants During Motor Vehicle Collisions


DavidLessley, GregShaw, PatrickRiley, Jason Forman and Jeff Crandall

Efforts to improve restraint design for human occupant protection require a detailed knowledge of human kinematic response. However, to improve the current understanding of human kinematic response to restraint loading it is necessary to obtain a more detailed knowledge of how structures within the body such as individual ribs and vertebrae move during an impact event. Video-based optoelectronic stereo photogrammetric systems (OSS) have recently been employed for kinematic measurement during simulated vehicle collisions with restrained post mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Application of this methodology requires specialized optical sensor hardware to be surgically attached to anatomical structures of interest such as acromia, ribs orvertebrae. The hardware supports retro reflective spherical targets which are visible to the OSS. The recorded target motions are then transformed to the underlying anatomical structures to quantify the trajectories of individual bone centers throughout the impact event. This study presents the results of seven tests that were conducted to practically assess the efficacy of this emerging methodology for measuring anatomical kinematics during impact loading. The tests used a 16-camera 1000Hz OSS and a single simulated anatomical structure with attached target hardware to quantify the uncertainty in the calculated trajectory of the bone center. Specifically, the tests assessed the intrinsic optical error associated with the OSS, and also evaluated the ability of the rigid body transformation to reproduce a directly measured bone center trajectory. The tests also assessed the effect of compliance in the assumed rigid connection between the visible target hardware and underlying bone on the transformed trajectories. The results demonstrate robust performance of a novel methodology combining state-of-the-art optoelectronic technology, specialized target hardware, and rigid body transformation to obtain kinematic measurements of anatomical structures within the human body which are not visible or accessible for direct measurement during an impact event


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