Diatoms are driving forces in marine and freshwater ecosystems by sustaining aquatic food webs and by having leading roles in the fixation of carbon and silica. The morphological diversity of the silicified cell walls from different diatom species has for long been exploited for the biotic characterization of environmental samples. Diatomic indices based on microscopic approaches have been developed and are broadly accepted, with some being able to correlate with the eutrophication level or pollution conditions. Moreover, molecular-based diatomic indices are expected to replace existing indices because of their increased sensitivity. Recent developments in omics technologies, coupled with bioinformatic tools for complex omics data analysis is opening the door for the use of diatoms as target organisms in the assessment of water quality using molecular biomarkers. Accordingly, fully sequenced diatom species are currently being applied to toxicological studies aiming to unveil the mode of action of pollutants. It is envisioned that molecular studies in diatoms will become major tools in the ecological assessment of environmental samples, matching the key role of these organisms in the ecosystem.
In the province of Yogyakarta in Java, the district of Gunung Kidul is considered to be one of the poorest areas in Indonesia. Here, water shortages greatly affect the population, especially during the dry season, which lasts from April to October. Sanitation Systems in Gunung Kidul consist, either pit latrines or pour flush toilets. Without any treatment the liquid phase infiltrates in to the ground and the septic tanks are hardly ever emptied, thus posing an evident contamination potential to groundwater. So, the current situation about waste water and its treatment is inadequate. Due to this reason within the Integrated Water Resources Management Indonesia Project (IWRM) a so called pilot village Pucanganom was selected to develop an appropriate waste water treatment system considering basis conditions and resultant indicators which were weighted by the Analytical Hierarchy Process Method (AHP). The following paper will describe the application of the method to find an adaptable sanitary system for a village in Gunung Kidul, Indonesia.
The main aim of the research was to produce seasonal and yearly groundwater fluctuations in catchments around Zimbabwe from a remote sensing perspective so as to identify patterns of groundwater depletion and recharge. This information is vital so as to ensure that groundwater development in Zimbabwe proceeds in parallel with the effective evaluation and management of the resource. In Zimbabwe, measurement, monitoring and analysis of groundwater levels is limited and completely absent in some areas because of the costs involved. The research used monthly GRACE satellite data from 2004-2010 with a spatial resolution of 20*20 kilometres. The data was imported into a
Geographical Information System, interpolated using the moving average method and then statistically analysed to show average monthly fluctuations and average yearly fluctuation patterns in catchments around Zimbabwe. The results showed that the average groundwater levels in Zimbabwe are about 0.92 cm above the long term mean level and have a declining trend line. The results show that the average monthly and seasonal groundwater levels in Zimbabwe are declining with more seasons and months recording below average levels. The study also produced a new method of rapid assessment of groundwater resources which is also considerably cheap.
A process developed for eradication of polluting gas namely carbon dioxide, which becomes killer gas under high concentration in open wells etc and patented, is described here as one of its manifestation for application as geo-engineering measure to counter global warming. The process and product named geoact ca-5, is simple and feasible to organize and commission its application to eradicate without any risk of side adverse effect or after effects, the GHGs such as CO2 and SO2, which become main cause of global warming and acid rain, respectively. This method overcomes all likely limitations associated with other geo-engineering measures mooted to counter global warming. The new method is supported by the research data. Delphi method for multiple attribute evaluation of different geo-engineering alternatives thought over to be applicable to counter global warming, fulfilment of
requirements of an ideal innovation for is diffusion and fulfilment of role of patent etc go in strong favour of adoption of this method over the others. Another manifestation viz. entrap and eradicate devised in the study will go long way in automatic eradication of excess CO2 without any foreseen danger of over eradication. Large scale application of
geoact ca-5 can be implemented by peoples’ participation. Some research areas are identified.
The research was aimed at determining the areas of equal hydrology on the Save catchment for the purposes of estimating flow characteristics on ungauged catchments. Data quality control was first done on flow station data in order identify the best stations that could be use in the formulation the catchment flow characteristics. The flow characteristics created were mean annual runoff; coefficient of variation of runoff; base flow index; coefficient of variation of low flow; coefficient of variation of high flow and the coefficient of variation of monthly wet season flow. Literature was then used to select the catchment characteristics most likely to influence runoff. Redundancy analysis was done to correlate sub zone and runoff characteristics so that the nature and significance of relationships could be determined. Cluster analysis was then used to combine the selected catchment characteristics into natural groups of similar characteristics. Validation of the created clusters was done statistically using canonical variate analysis.
The results showed that catchment characteristics significant are on the catchment rainfall (r=0.96); the proportion of each subzone under grasslands (r=0.56); the mean annual evaporation rates (r=-0.74), the coefficient of variation of mean annual rainfall (r=-0.55) and the catchment area (r=-0.53). The whole of the Save catchment had three different clusters and was found to be 60% similar. Validation showed that the catchment characteristics used in the study could explain only a total of 39% of the variation in flow characteristics in their clusters.
The performance and economic viability of a simple inexpensive grey water treatment system consisting of a
filtration unit and an adsorption unit was evaluated. At steady state, the overall performance of the combined system
was 85.68% BOD removal, 57.09% COD removal and 70.74% TSS removal. Most of the BOD removal (83.6%) was
achieved in the filtration unit, while most of the fecal coliform removal was achieved in the adsorption chamber. The
pH of the entire system remained stable (7.6 ± 0.29) throughout the experiment. The dissolved oxygen concentration
of the final effluent was 1.3 ± 0.28, indicating the need for aeration. Problems with carbon particle washout were
observed in the adsorption chamber. Generally, the final effluent was found to be suitable for a range of uses such as
toilet flushing, irrigation and fire protection. An economic analysis showed that 77.5% savings in water expenditure
can be achieved if a simple greywater treatment is installed for toilet flushing.