Proceedings of 15th Crop Science and Agriculture Summit | Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products

Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products

ISSN: 2472-0992

Open Access

Special Issue

Pages: 1 - 1

Editorial Note of 15th Crop Science and Agriculture Summit December 09, 2020 Webinar

Attorney Scheril Murray Powell

We had a huge success with the completion of 15th Crop Science and Agriculture Summit Webinar on December 09, 2020. The significance of the meeting was achieved due to the accumulation of all the related group of spectators of research scientists to share their Knowledge, Research work, Technologies, and furthermore trade of worldwide Information towards the correct crowd at ideal time. Congress has received a generous response from all over the world. This has been organized with the aim of endorsing the development of new perceptions and ideas for investigating the high level of knowledge reached by scientific community in the field of Medical and Agriculture Sciences.

The conference was organized around the theme “Emerging New Trends in Sustainable Agricultural Practices and Crop Science”. The congress entrenched a firm relation of future strategies in the field of Healthcare medicine.


We would like to thank accepted abstracts:


  • Hua Wu, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, China
  • Subhra Saikat Roy, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Manipur Centre, India
  • Magdana Surguladze, PHD of Agrarian Sciences, Agricultural University of Georgia, Georgia
  • Attorney Scheril Murray Powell, Chief Marketing Officer at Cannabiziac, USA
  • Saada Naiel Ahmed Elmahi, Assistant Professor, PhD at National Centre for Research/ Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Institute and Traditional Medicine, Sudan


We would like to thank each and every participant of Crops-Agri-2020 webinar to make this a huge success. And special thanks to media partners for the promotion of our event.


The Conference Series Pharmaceutical Conferences aim to bring together the prominent researchers, Academic scientists, and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences on all aspects of Pharmaceutics. It is conjointly a knowledge domain platform for researchers, practitioners and educators to gift and discuss the foremost recent advances, trends, and issues in addition as sensible challenges and solutions adopted in the fields of Biopharmaceutics.

We are also glad to announce our upcoming conference “16th Crop Science and Agriculture Summit” scheduled on December 09-10, 2021, Beijing, China

The topics to be discussed are Crop Science, Agriculture & Horticulture, Agrobiology & Bio resources, Agriculture & Environment, Biodiversity & Ecosystem, Global warming & Agriculture, Agroforestry & Landscaping, Plant Pathology in Agriculture, Agricultural Biotechnology

Special Issue

Pages: 2 - 2

Effect on the biological function of allyl isothiocyanate against COX core subunit of Sitophilus zeamais

Hua Wu

Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is registered in China as a biological fumigant to control root knot nematodes, which also have a potent insecticidal activity to all the stored-grain pests, especially  for controlling Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Our previous study showed that mitochondrial complex IV (COX) was the primary target of AITC in adult S. zeamais and the order of AITC inhibitory activity on the core subunit was COXâ? > COXâ?¢> COXâ?¡. To further study the effect on the biological function of AITC against COX core subunit of S. zeamais, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) by using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to knockdown three core subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-I, -II and -III in 18-day-old larvae prior to their exposure to AITC to detect susceptibility changes. The sensitivities of dsRNACOX I and II injection  treatments significantly increased at 72 h after absorption while the mortality reached up to 85.56% and 67.78%, respectively. DsRNACOX-I and dsRNACOX-II injection showed the same subcellular structural characteristics showing vacuolization and vague mitochondrial cristae and decrease of COX activity during AITC fumigation treatment, suggesting the potential of COX-I and COX-II as the targets of AITC.The silencing was efficient and specific, the mortality reached 75.55%, 71.88% and 82.22% after injection of dsRNACOX I, II and III, respectively, leading to S. zeamais larvae turning from milky white to dark brown in the thorax and whole body and eventually death. Overall, COX I and II might be potential targets of AITC and dsRNACOX I, II and III have the potential to be developed into nucleic acid pesticides and are worth pursuing for improving AITC fumigation activity in pest control.

Special Issue

Pages: 3 - 3

The effects of coffee oil - algae oil nanoemulsion in UVA-induced damaged on mice skin

Danial Khayatan

In recent years, the application of nanotechnology in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry has occurred as an auspicious field to promote among its capability in increasing aqueous solubility of lipophilic functional components, encapsulating unstable bioactive compounds, and elevating skin penetration and absorption of bioactive amalgamations. Among the various nano techniques, the development of microemulsion or nanoemulsion is quite popular because of its ease in preparation. Coffee oil and algae oil can be utilized as a raw material in cosmetics. Marine algae oil is the best source for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and coffee oil is rich in triacylglycerol (75%) and the rest of that its components are free fatty acid, wax, and some antioxidants such as sterols, tocopherols. The polyunsaturated fatty acids like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which mainly exists in algae oil, is a vital fatty acid reported to possess many biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammation, antibacterial properties. The mixture of these two oils is evaluated thas effects on melanoma cells as well as the protective effect on UVA-induced skin damage in mice.

Methods and materials: The objectives of this study were to develop a nanoemulsion with both coffee oil and algae oil as raw materials and study its protective effect against UVA-induced skin damage in mice as well as anti-proliferative effect and mechanism on melanoma cells. Also, both coffee oil and algae oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Result: With due attention to the results of histologic experiments, the effects of the UVA-induced damage group that treated with formulation consist of coffee oil-algae oil nanoemulsion has shown good results

Special Issue

Pages: 4 - 4

Estimation of variabilty of some genotypes of maize zea mays

Hajer Mohamed Ibrahim

Nine genotypes of maize (zea mays L.) were evaluated at the demonstration farm of the college of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of science and technology shambat, during the period from 9th July to September 2012. to determine the genetic variability for growth, yield and yield components.

The design used was a Randomized complete block design with three replications, in order to study the phenotypic (6²ph) genotypic (6²g) variances, genetic coefficient of variation (GCV%),

heritability (h²), and genetic advance (GA). Data on eleven characters were collected the results revealed high significant differences in days to 50 % tasseling and silking, leaf area and stem diameter at the first reading .

Non-significant differences were observed for plant height, number of leaves per plant, length of cob, weight of grains per plant, 100- grain weight,  number of grains per cob and grains yield per hectare.

The highest mean of GCV was exhibited for leaf area (339.1%) whereas the lowest mean of GCV was observed for the number of leaves per plant (0.35%) at first reading .

The high estimated heritability (h²>60%) were recorded for days to 50% tasseling, and silking.  While the lowest estimated (h²<40%) was obtained for leaf area, stem diameter at the first reading, plant height at third reading, length of cob and plant height at the second reading and number of leaves at third reading, weight of grains per plant, plant height at first reading, number of leaves at the second reading, number of leaves per plant at first reading, 100-grain weight, number of grains per cob and stem diameter at the second reading.

Special Issue

Pages: 6 - 6

Toxicogenomics-TGx; An emerging potential in Risk Assessment Predictive screening

Joshua Ochola

Xenobiotics, including pharmaceuticals produce toxicant specific changes at the molecular level. The completion of the human genome sequencing now allows for the detection of direct relationships between induced toxicities and gene, protein, and metabolite expression. Data gathered from Toxicogenomic approaches are proving to have higher confidence value, more discriminatory, and sensitive than currently used techniques in predictive screening of toxicants in regulatory applications and decision making. TGx analysis can complement current testing regimes in risk assessment in many areas including cross specie extrapolations, by stander and low dose exposure assessments, Dose-response relationships; to build a wealth of evidence for a successful regulatory application.

Toxicogenomics (TGx) has contributed significantly to toxicology and now has great potential to support moves towards animal-free approaches in regulatory decision making. Here, we discuss in vitro TGx systems and their potential impact on risk assessment. We raise awareness of the rapid advancement of genomics technologies, which generates novel genomics features essential for enhanced risk assessment. We specifically emphasize the importance of reproducibility in utilizing TGx in the regulatory setting.

Special Issue

Pages: 7 - 7

Impact of Exogenous Melatonin on Fruit Quality and Storability of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Subhra Saikat Roy

our study revealed the beneficial effect of melatonin, an indole amine hormone, on food value and storability of tomato. We have taken four doses of melatonin viz. 50, 100, 250 and 500 µmol/L. Two sprays were done at fruit setting and color break stage. Application of melatonin @ 250 µmol/L was found to be advantageous in improving the carbohydrate, protein, fat, total sugar and total soluble solids content in tomato fruits as compared to control (without melatonin). Melatonin application @ 250 µmol/L showed reduced activity of polygalacturonase-I (37.16%), polygalacturonase-II (39.40%) and ascorbic acid oxidase (35.14%) as compared to control; whereas maximum reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity (28.03%) was associated with melatonin (500 µmol/L). Melatonin application on phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and antiradical activity in tomato also shown interesting results. Overall, exogenous application of melatonin @ 50 to 100 µmol/L was found to be beneficial for higher bioactivity in tomato in terms of lycopene content (15.56 ± 0.99 mg/kg of tissue), total phenolics (27.8 mg GAE/100 g), L-ascorbic acid (28.45±2.51 mg/100 g) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (12.80 mg AAE/100 g). Total flavonoids content was found to be highest (3.30 mg QE/100 g) with melatonin @ 250 µmol/L.

 Moreover, application of Melatonin (250 µmol/L) increased the shelf life up to 25 days as compared to 15 days under control at room temperature. The findings clearly suggest that application of exogenous melatonin is a potential option for enhancing food value and storability of tomato.

Special Issue

Pages: 8 - 8

Prevelence of false smut of date palm in southren districts of khyber pakhthunkhwa pakistan

Tariq Zaman

Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is locally known as Khajoor is a flowering plant species belongs to the family Arecaceae. Dates have high nutritive value containing sugar, proteins, fibers, potassium, Iron and thiamine. They have high medicinal value and are used as a carminative, general tonic, aphrodisiac, antacid and for treating backache. Pakistan is the fifth largest producer of dates with 680107 tons in 2017/18. The production of Dates is adversely effected by climatic factors and diseases like Fruit rot, Omphalia root rot, Brown leaf spot, Bending Head, Sudden decline etc, among these graphiola leaf spot disease which is caused by Graphiola phoenicis is also effect production and growth of date palm. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of false smut of date palm in study area. 3-5 sights were selected in each district and 50 plants were randomly selected, the incidence was determined by the formula, no of infected plants/ total no of plants×100, and prevalence was determined by formula, no of infected sights/ total no of sights×100. Morphological and molecular identification were also done in order to confirm the pathogen (Graphiola phoenicis) of the concern disease. It was observed that false smut disease is adversely affect growth and production of date palm in southern districts of Khyber Pakhthunkhwa Pakistan.

Special Issue

Pages: 9 - 9

Genetic variability, association and diversity study among the sunflower genotypes at seedling stage based on different morpho-physiological parameters under polyethylene glycol induced stress

Uzma Ayaz

Drought stress directly affects growth along with productivity of plants by altering plant water status. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) an oilseed crop, is adversely affected by biotic stresses. The present study was carried out to study the genetic variability and diversity among the sunflower genotypes at seedling stage based on different morph-physiological parameters under Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) induced stress. A total of twenty seven genotypes including two hybrids, eight advanced lines and seventeen accessions of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were tested at germination and seedling stages in Polyethylene Glycol. Correlation and principle component analysis confirmed that germination percentage, root length, proline content, shoot length, chlorophyll content, Stomatal frequency and survival percentage are positively correlated with each other hence; these traits were responsible for most of variation among genotypes. The cluster analysis results showed that genotypes Ausun, line-2, line-8, 17559, 17578, Hysun-33, 17555, and 17587 as more diverse among all the genotypes. These most divergent genotypes could be utilized in the development of inbreed which could be subsequently used in the heterosis breeding.

Special Issue

Pages: 10 - 10

Antioxidants against Oxidative Stress in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Zeliha Selamoglu

Chemical toxic pollutants (especially heavy metals) are important sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological systems. Membrane phospholipids of aerobic organisms are continually subjected to oxidant challenges from endogenous and exogenous sources, while peroxidized membranes and lipid peroxidation products represent constant threats to aerobic cells. The primary antioxidant protection against free radical and ROS is provided by the enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), respectively. The trace element selenium has been implicated in chemo-prevention and drug-resistance through reduction of oxidative stress. Selenium could prevent damage to the unsaturated fatty acid of subcellular membranes by lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals.

Flavones and flavonoids are known to have potent antioxidant activity due to intracellular free radical scavenging capacities. Flavonoids are found ubiquitously in plants as a member of polyphenolic compounds which share diverse chemical structure and properties. Quercetin is among the most efficient antioxidants of the flavonoids. The antioxidant property of quercetin has been highlighted in this review. These compounds have pivotal role in treatment of diabetes, cancers and some cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative diseases.

Special Issue

Pages: 5 - 5

Prediction of environmental indicators in Agriculture land leveling using artificial intelligence techniques

Isham Alzoub

Land leveling is one of the most important steps in soil preparation and cultivation. Although land leveling with machines require considerable amount of energy, it delivers a suitable surface slope with minimal deterioration of the soil and damage to plants and other organisms in the soil. Notwithstanding, researchers during recent years have tried to reduce fossil fuel consumption and its deleterious side effects using new techniques such as; Artificial Neural Network (ANN),Imperialist Competitive Algorithm –ANN (ICA-ANN), and regression and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) andSensitivity Analysis that will lead to a noticeable improvement in the environment. In this research effects of various soil properties such as Embankment Volume, Soil Compressibility Factor, Specific Gravity, Moisture Content, Slope, Sand Percent, and Soil Swelling Index in energy consumption were investigated. The study was consisted of 90 samples were collected from 3 different regions. The grid size was set 20 m in 20 m (20*20) from a farmland in Karaj province of Iran. The aim of this work was to determine best linear model Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Sensitivity Analysis  in order to predict the energy consumption for land leveling. According to the results of Sensitivity Analysis, only three parameters; Density, Soil Compressibility Factor and, Embankment Volume Index had significant effect on fuel consumption. According to the results of regression, only three parameters; Slope, Cut-Fill Volume (V) and, Soil Swelling Index (SSI)  had significant effect on energy consumption.

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