Nursing Knowledge Development and Clinical Practice

Journal of Nursing & Care

ISSN: 2167-1168

Open Access

Nursing Knowledge Development and Clinical Practice


Pages: 1 - 3

Single-Room Neonatal Intensive Care: State of the Practice

Dennis C Stevens


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.1000257

Of the many challenges facing professionals who practice in neonatal intensive care in the United States, the question of what type of facility is optimal has been debated for more than a decade. We have attempted to explore this question at Sanford Children’s Hospital in Sioux Falls, SD. The purpose of this article is to briefly summarize our work and other significant research findings regarding neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) room design. At this time, the single-room NICU is comparable, and possibly superior, to the open-bay NICU with the caveat that the on-going developmental needs of the neonate must be continuously assessed and appropriate interventions applied in their on-going NICU care.

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 2

Alignment and Dissonance: Two Sides of a Vision

Jan Jones-Schenk


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-001

Alignment with mission, vision and values of an organization is a long-held tenet of organizational success. Alignment can be misconstrued to mean unchanging adherence to the status quo. In reality alignment with a new vision, even one that tends to create some dissonance can be powerful and successful. Contemporary neuroscience findings support the powerful affects of belonging and connecting around a shared mission. This view supports the importance of relationships with others as important as alignment in the pursuit of success and fulfillment. This case study explores alignment, incorporating vision, dissonance and connectedness in the transformation of higher education, with surprising and effective results both nationally and internationally.

Mini Review

Pages: 1 - 2

Intuition and Care

Shahnaz Anwar and Ayesha Abdul Razzak


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-002

Intuition is defines as knowledge acquisition often without interpretation or the use of logical reasoning [1]. It is also termed as gut feeling, sixth sense, clues, experience, rational thinking, autonomous decision making and inner self. Intuition is a very individualized feeling about a particular person, or a situation; and, as health care providers being midwives and nurses, we most of the time use intuition to plan interventions. Surprisingly, most of the time we are correct; one of the reason behind may be years of experience practicing in a similar situation. As midwives and nurses move along from the novice to expert level, use of intuition builds up from analytical approach to a more of a deliberative rationalization. Hence, intuition can be learnt and strengthened as an ongoing process.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 7

Assessment of Attitudes towards Nursing Profession among Nurses and Non-Nursing Health Professionals Working in Mizan-Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

Ashenafi Belete, Tafesse Lamaro and Andualem Henok


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-003

Background: In Ethiopia, though, Swedish missionary nurses commenced nursing in 1895, professional growth including higher research contribution in the field of the profession was not appreciable and image for the profession is not clearer and is frustrating to those joining the profession and need to continue as career.

Objective: To assess the attitudes of nurses and non-nursing health professionals towards nursing profession among mizan-aman general hospital workers. Method: A cross-sectional study design was carried out among health professionals working in Mizan-Aman General Hospital on their attitudes towards nursing profession. All Mizan-Aman General Hospital health professionals fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Structured self-administered questionnaire were used to generate data and 5% of the questionnaires were pretested at health center on health professionals. The data was entered in to Epidata 3.1 and exported in to SPSS version 17 for statistical analysis.

Result: This study revealed that 64 (50%) of the respondents shown favorable attitude towards nursing profession and 64 (50%) shown unfavorable attitude. When percentage within a category was evaluated the majority 4 (63.6%) of the physicians shown unfavorable attitude followed by the nurses 49.4% but 14 (60.9%) of the nonnursing other than physicians category shown a favorable attitude. The majority, 79 (61.8%) believed that nurses have important contribution to good patient outcome and13 (10.2%) of the respondents perceived nurses working with them as incompetent.

Conclusion: Although the majority (61.8%) of respondents believed nursing contribute to good patient outcome, only 64 (50%) of them shown favorable attitude towards nursing profession. The main impact of this considerable percentage of unfavorable attitude of respondents believed to affect quality care received by patients. Therefore continuous efforts should be made so as to bring up the morale of nurses and work upon establishing respect and valuing in inter-professional relationship among the staff.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Reduction of Preoperative Anxiety in Children Using Non-Pharmacological Measures

Sánchez-García Maria Carmen, Segura-Flores Maria Francisca, León-Garrido María Lucía, Rodríguez-Rosado Ana María, Pena-Andreu Jose Miguel and Fontalba-Navas Andres


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-004

Several studies have shown that anxiety in children prior to surgical interventions has a negative effect on posthospitalization recovery. The objective of the proposed project is to reduce anxiety in children prior to major outpatient surgery using non-pharmacological measures (costumes, games, magic tricks, jokes). These measures are to be used from the moment the children are admitted to hospital (the same morning of the surgery) until anaesthetic induction in the operating room. According to our results, the use of hospital clowns has been proven to reduce psychological discomfort in children in a hospital setting.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 8

Prevalence of Trachoma and Associated Risk Factors among Yello Elementary School Students, In Loma Woreda, Dawro Zone, Ethiopia, 2015

Wosen Admasu, Bekana Fekecha Hurissa and Ayanos Taye Benti


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-005

Background: Trachoma is a communicable disease and usually has chronic course. It greatly affects children below age of 10 and especially school and preschool children. It is the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries and particularly main cause for blindness in Ethiopia.

Methods: A cross-sectional school based study design was conducted among Yello elementary school students in March 2015. A sample of 267students were involved in the study by stratified sampling technique and finally selected by systematic random sampling. Data collection tool were structured questionnaires and check lists for eye examination. The data were collected by health professionals, then processed and analyzed manually using tally sheet and scientific calculator. Possible associations and statistical significance between and among variables were measured using chi-square test, P value <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.

Result: From the total of 267 study population, 61(22.85%) of children had signs of trachoma and it was mainly associated to age (X2 = 18.4, P = 0.000) with more prevalence among age group 7-9 (75.38%). Variables such as age, face washing habit, practice of towel usage, eye problem in the family, and site of waste disposal were statistically associated with trachoma at (P= 0.000). More over mothers and fathers literacy status hadn’t contribute to trachoma morbidity with (P = 0.793).

Conclusion: Findings of this study support majority of ideas that are commonly accepted as transmission factors of the disease except some. Trachoma had significant association with age, face washing habit, towel usage practice, history of eye problem in the family and site of waste disposal. Promotion of health information on prevention of trachoma at community and institution level with emphasis for children and women should be given. Early case identification and treatment by health sector and inter-sectional collaboration with others against trachoma is crucial.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Assessing the Quality of Patient Centred Consultations

Teresa Pawlikowska and Ludmila Marcinowicz


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-006

The consultation is key to health care delivery, and the pursuit of excellence in consultations enables health care practitioners to activate their knowledge in the service of patients. Effective consulting, alongside increasing patient involvement in the assessment of the quality of their own care is a contemporary imperative. There are many ways to approach the assessment of quality, and patient centred outcomes are valued, but sometimes difficult to define and operationalize. Bearing in mind the emphasis in nursing on holistic patient cantered care it seems appropriate to focus on this concept. The Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) offers an approach to investigate consultations between patients and health care professionals on a patient centred model.

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Clinical Nursing Teaching in Saudi Arabia Challenges and Suggested Solutions

Abbas Al Mutair


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-007

Aims: To discuss the recent barriers and challenges facing nursing clinical teaching in Saudi Arabia and suggest solutions to overcome them.

Background: The issues affecting nursing education today are increasingly complex and dynamic. Clinical teaching is one of the most important academic and health professionals’ components and should be given utmost consideration to cope with the recent requirements of nursing education.

Discussion: The clinical teaching lacks effectiveness which indicates a need for more active clinical setting to be able to make the theoretical components come alive in the practice and enthuse students. Clinical teaching in Saudi Arabia suffers from the lack of coherent theoretical base necessary to inform students. Also, the lack of substantial research in the area of clinical teaching suggests that the clinical nursing teaching has been neglected.

Conclusion: The rapid increase of the nursing students’ admission cannot be met with the limited number of clinical preceptors. The lack of preparing nursing clinical preceptors will impact negatively on the teaching process. Potential challenges related to the clinical educator and nursing students might act as a obstacle toward achieving a good environment for clinical teaching. Implication for nursing practice: Nurses provide the majority of patient care therefore; they must be empowered with good preparation to improve care and service in order to maintain quality of patient care.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Team-Based Learning in Health Care Education: Maintaining Key Design Elements

Annette Burgess and Craig Mellis


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-008

Introduction: Problem Based Learning (PBL) and Team-based learning (TBL) both provide excellent examples of learner-centred approaches, allowing students to work together to solve professionally relevant problems. Although PBL provides a more traditional example of collaborative learning, TBL has recently gained popularity within health care education. The design of TBL addresses many resource challenges within clinical education including increasing student numbers, and limited availability of teachers who have competing clinical, research and teaching demands. There are also many educational benefits for students that arise from the key design elements of TBL.

Purpose: It seems likely that as health care schools attempt to reduce costs, they will move towards TBL implementation. However, published literature, as well as our own experience indicates that variation from a standardised TBL framework, may result in poorer outcomes for students, and limit the ability of others to understand the learning and teaching process. This paper considers the pedagogic advantages of TBL that are reliant upon its unique, key design elements.

Conclusion: Relatively new to health care education, TBL provides an innovative approach to student-centred learning that helps to prepare students for effective collaboration, using content that is relevant to future practice. As TBL becomes part of many health care curricula, it is important to ensure the integrity of TBL is maintained. That is, poor design or lack of resources should not allow the essential steps of TBL to be discarded. Key factors for effective TBL include appropriate allocation of students to small groups, out of class preparation, pre-class assessments, well designed team activities, the presence of a well-trained facilitator during class, and immediate feedback. These elements motivate students to prepare, promote collaboration amongst students, and focus team discussion. While it appears inevitable that TBL activities within healthcare will find it difficult to incorporate all design elements of the TBL method, reporting accurately and consistently on TBL activities will assist the health care education community in understanding the relative merits of TBL compared to other teaching techniques.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Factors Influencing Compliance with Oral Hygiene Practices Among Upper Primary School Children at Eldoret Town in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya

Mudola, J.M, Nyangena E and Muchee T


DOI: 10.4172/2167-1168.S1-009

Oral health is an important part of general health of body while poor oral hygiene can be a source of many diseases and especially among children. Compliance with practices enhances oral health, individual self esteem, social acceptability among the peers and general health. The practices that prevent and reduce oral diseases include tooth brushing; tooth flossing; use of fluoridated toothpaste for brushing and mouth rinsing and lower consumption of sugary foods and beverages. Regular dental visits are a practice that helps in early detection and prevention of dental diseases. Several factors influence compliance with oral hygiene practices among the children. The study was done to investigate factors that influence compliance with oral hygiene practices among upper primary school children at Eldoret Town. First and foremost the study established the compliance of the children with oral hygiene practices. Specifically factors considered in this study were family and school characteristics. The research design was a descriptive cross-section survey conducted in four primary schools in Eldoret Town of Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The sample comprised three hundred and sixteen (316) upper primary school children. Results showed that majority (70.3%) of the respondents brushed their teeth using toothbrush twice daily and 63.6% used fluoridated toothpaste. Only 24.3% used dental floss while 54.6% had never visited a dentist for checkups in-spite of having knowledge. There was a significant correlation between compliance with oral hygiene practices and family and school characteristics (r=0.425, p<0.001 and r=0.238, p<0.001) respectively. The study concluded that children in upper primary school were compliant with tooth brushing using fluoridated toothpaste. However, they were non-compliant with the use of dental floss and going for dental check-up. The study also concluded that family characteristics (role models, motivation/encouragement, financial ability) and school characteristics (oral health curriculum, teachers trained in oral health, working school health team, safe environment with adequate water, free from unhealthy foods) influenced the compliance with oral hygiene practices of children.

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Citations: 2376

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