Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “Microbiology 2020”, during July 15-16, 2020, Webinar with the theme, “Scoping out Innovative Research in Microbiology in the Present era of COVID-19”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence.
We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.
Microbiology 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Microbiology.
Microbiology Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.
Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Microbiology 2020”.
Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Microbiology 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs and also the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC LTD thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Microbiology.
Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “50th World Congress on Microbiology, which will be held during March 24-25, 2021 at London, UK. We cordially welcome all the eminent Microbiologists, Scientists, Research Students, Scholars, Industrial Professionals and Student Delegates from Microbiology, Biological Science and attention sectors to be a part of this prestigious conference with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.
Bookmark your dates for “Microbiology 2021, London” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.
Marina Sidorenko and Vladislav Sidorenko
Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of human and animal listeriosis. It is known that the classical bacterial forms of Listeria, being saprophytes, have high stability in the external environment, they are able to reproduce in various environmental objects, including in soils and plants. It is known that plants can be a natural reservoir of pathogenic Listeria and a source of human infection. Volatile organic emissions of germinating seeds, due to the high penetrating ability in the soil, availability for assimilation, can be a source of carbon and energy for soil microorganisms. It is known that not all bacteria are capable of assimilating the volatile metabolites of germinating seeds, and the specificity of the action of volatile organic compounds depends on both the type of bacteria and the type of germinated seeds. Therefore, the volatile metabolites of germinating seeds of cultivated plants were studied, which are factors of transmission of L. monocytogenes - lettuce (Zactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays L.). As a result, it is proved that the volatile metabolites of germinating plant seeds stimulate the growth and reproduction of pathogenic listeria in soils. The specificity of the action of volatile organic compounds of plants on the reproduction of the studied bacteria is noted. The main volatile fraction that affects the growth and reproduction of L. monocytogenes is methanol, which bacteria use as their sole source of carbon and energy.
Helena Gutierrez Oliveira, Tiago Tognolli de Almeida, Maria Carolina Quecine-Verdi and JoÃ£o LÃºcio Azevedo
Soil pollution caused by heavy metals is a global concern that has been increasing due to industrial development and mining residues. Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site. Among the possible strategies, phytoremediation is the direct use of green plants and their associated micro-organisms to stabilize or reduce contamination in soils. This study analyzed the inoculation efficiency of fungus Mucor nidicola in tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its role in plant resistance to heavy metals. The fungus tested was isolated from the roots of plants from a site contaminated with heavy metals and it showed good resistance to cadmiun when tested in vitro. First, we tested nine methodologies for the fungus inoculation on tomato plants. Then, the plant-fungus interaction was studied in the presence of cadmium to analyze the fungus as a plant resistance promoter. The inoculation techniques that applied short-time chemical scarification were not efficient and neither were the methodologies that placed a disk of the mycelium with the seed during the germination process. Spraying the plants with mycelium solution was also inefficient. The long-term chemical scarification and direct contact between seeds and sporum resulted in fungal inoculation, even though it occurred at a low frequency. The plant-fungus interaction test in presence of CdCl2 confirmed the negative effect of this compound on plant development, but there was no significant effect of fungus inoculation in terms of improving plant performance in such conditions. Further research on the improvement of the inoculation technique with M. nidicola on tomato or other species is of great importance to enable the development of new viable phytoremediation techniques.
Hamza A. Aboelenin
The validation of the disinfectants in the pharmaceutical industry environment is essential process to be sure of the disinfection process of it.
The Aim of the study is to determine the efficacy of Dettol disinfectant in compare to the used disinfectants (chlorine – phenol – alcohol) on different surfaces (Epoxy – stainless steel – glass) in the production environment.
Four concentration (5,2.5,1.25and.625 %) of Dettol was compared to chlorine 1% and phenol 5% and alcohol 70% in time intervals 5, 10,15and 30 minutes and approached to Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Aspergillusniger ATCC 16404 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 using suspension test.
Then the most significance concentration of Dettol and in the shortest contact time compared to the other disinfectants in the shortest contact time using surface test on different surfaces (Epoxy – stainless steel – glass) in the production environment.
The efficacies calculated by log reductions are calculated according to the following equation: Log10 reduction (R) = log10 pre-value cfu/plate– log10 post value cfu/plate.
A sample of four replicates were used per organism per concentration at different time intervals to estimate an overage change at log reduction equal 2 units with estimated standard deviation (SD)equal 0.5 for each sub group, using α error equal 0.05 will provide a power of 20%.
The results elaborated that the most significance concentration of Dettol is 2.5% in contact time 5 minutes and chlorine 1% in contact time 10 min phenol5% in contact time 10 min alcohol 70%in contact time 10 min.
Agudelo-Restrepo Manuela, Quesada-HernÃ¡ndez Martha Lucia, Sanabria-Duran Edinson Yonny, Uribe-Soto Sandra InÃ©s, Ortiz-Reyes Adriana1 and Romero-Tabarez Magally
Mosquito-borne diseases have become a health problem due to their serious economic and social implications. Mosquitoes can transmit more than 30 viruses as dengue, zika, yellow fever and chikungunya. Dengue is one of the most common human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk and 390 million infections occur annually in around 125 countries that are exposed due to their location in tropical and subtropical regions (Marques et al., 2017). In order to control mosquito populations various practices have been used in endemic areas, including the use of chemical insecticides, which has been one of the main strategies. However, the application of synthetic insecticides cause problems as development of resistance, adverse effects on beneficial organisms destroying the natural and fundamental balance of ecosystems, not to mention even the damage caused by environmental pollution.The aim of this study was to identify larvicidal activity of extracts produced by bacteria isolated from different sources in Colombia. A total of 105 extracts produced from the same number of bacteria were evaluated for their activity against larvae A. aegypti and A. albopictus using standard protocols. Six extracts showed relevant activity (more than 50% of mosquito larvae were killed after 48 hours), two of them showed to be actives against larvae of Aedes aegypti and four against larvae of Aedes albopictus. An extract produced by a Colombian strain of Bacillus atrophaeus was selected for further studies. In order to increase the production of active substances, different culture media were evaluated. A culture media containing glycerol as carbon source was selected. Bacterial extracts are a good source for the search of new strategies in the control of mosquitoes. Further studies to determine the compound responsible for the insecticidal activity are in progress.
Shyam Narayan and Sanjay K. Chaturvedi
The arsenic contamination of ground water in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas in Bihar, India leads to human exposure through drinking water. Possibly, the consumed arsenic (As) accumulates in the tissues of VL patients, who subsequently internalize intracellular amastigotes to confer resistance against chemotherapy to the parasite, leading to modulation in the host’s immune response. This hypothesis appears to be consistent with the in vitro findings that in arsenic-exposed parasites, the mitochondrial membrane potential became depolarized, whereas the reduced thiol and lactate production was overexpressed with enhanced glucose consumption; therefore, the reduced thiol possibly supports an immunosuppressive state in the host cells. This observation was well supported by the down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) with a suppressed anti-leishmanial function of macrophage (NO, ROS). In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanism of VL has received ample support by the promotion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the presence of arsenic-exposed Leishmania parasites (LdAS). Dysfunction of mitochondria and the overexpression of lactate production raise the possibility of the Warburg effect being operative through the up-regulation of glucose consumption by parasites to enhance the energy production, possibly augmenting virulence. Therefore, we surmise from our data that arsenic exposure to Leishmania donovani modulates the immune response and infection pattern by impairing parasite function, which may affect the anti-leishmanial effect in VL.
Tormal Djassinra, Elhartiti Abla, Mammad Zineb and Ounine Khadija
In this study, the behavior of Xanthomonas fragariae, angular leaf spot of strawberry agent, was followed in the AB medium, enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus or with potassium, and in the soil of the Mamora forest with 14% to 28% of humidity in function of these fertilizer elements. The obtained results have shown that Na2HPO4 and NH4Cl, used, 0.01 and 0.05 mol/l, respectively as a phosphorus and nitrogen source, have a significant effect on the survival of Xanthomonas fragariae. By contrast, KCl, used as a source of Potassium, has no significant effect on the number of culturable cells.
The three sources used NPK, 14% and 28% showed a great influence on the number of culturable cells of Xanthomonas fragariae, either increasing or decreasing. Potassium, at 28 to 14% of humidity, inhibited the rate growth of Xanthomonas, while the phosphorus and nitrogen stimulated its growth, greater than 28% of humidity than 14%. Similarly the bacterial growth was not affected during the incorporation of NPK at different concentrations in the soil of Mamora.
Venice H.T. Iu and Richard Y.T. Kao
Aminoglycosides is one of the oldest class of antibiotics. Its history started with the discovery of Streptomycin, the first-in-class antibiotic, by Selman Waksman in 1944. However, its usefulness was highly eroded by the emerging resitance in recent years. The conventional strategy of developing novel antibiotics leads to selection of resistant strains, rendering new drugs ineffectiveness. Thus, rejuvenating the therapeutic potential of existing antibiotics offers a rational yet novel strategy. Using a cell-based screen of 50,240 small-molecule compounds, we identified a potent compound with low cytotoxicity, SA-558, that potentiate gentamicin activity against Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus Mu3. SA-558 potentiates activity of different members of antibiotics in the class of aminoglycosides, but not kasugamycin against S. aureus Mu3. The SA-558 gentamicin-potentiating activity is generally observed in gram-positive bacteria but not in gram-negative bacteria. Resistance towards SA-558 activity is difficult to arise. Here, we demonstrated that SA-558, a novel compound, is of high potential to rejuvenate the potency of aminoglycosides, one of the oldest class antibiotics, for clinical application.
K. M. Yacob
As you aware, if temperature increases (Absence of fever) after 31 degree Celsius, Warm sensitive neurons increase their firing rate and inhibit Cold sensitive neurons as core temperature increases. As temperature drops, the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, reducing their inhibition, and Cold sensitive neurons which respond by increasing their firing rates.
On the contrary to increase of temperature, in fever the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons increases as core temperature increases. inhibit warm sensitive neurons. The temperature increasing and decreasing controlled by the brain. The firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons and Cold sensitive neurons also controlled by the brain.
When the disease becomes threat to life or organs, blood circulation decreases. Temperature of fever will emerges to increase prevailing essential blood circulation.
WBC and their products stimulate the brain to increase temperature by increasing the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons and decreasing the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons. And it acts as a protective covering of the body to sustain life.
There is no way other than this for a sensible and discreet brain to increase temperature.
If the aim of Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates in hypothermia is to increase temperature, then the aim of Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates during fever is also to increase temperature.
M Das Gupta, DM Gordon, R Hansen, GL Hold, P Pavli and CL O'Brien
Several lines of evidence implicate bacteria in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Escherichia coli is one of the leading candidate triggers. Our aim was to identify genes of E. coli associated with IBD.This study involved whole genome comparisons of 179 E. coli strains, isolated from 64 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients, 18 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 19 controls. These isolates were obtained from different tissues and sources, such as aphthous ulcers, lymph nodes and intestinal mucosa. We used A5 MiSeq to assemble sequences, PROKKA for annotation, ROARY for pan-genome analyses, and SCOARY to assess phenotype-genotype relationships. We determined the serotype, sequence type (ST), virulence genes, plasmids, bacteriophage, CRISPRs, capsules, bacteriocins, and antibiotic resistance genes for each strain. CD-associated E. coli were phylogenetically diverse. The most abundant E. coli phylogroup was B2 and the most common ST was ST95. The E. coli UTI89 plasmid was significantly associated with paediatric CD isolates compared with controls. Based on total gene content, CD isolates were significantly associated with particular genes associated with adhesion, the toxin-antitoxin system, plasmid partitioning, conjugation transfer, and signal recognition when compared to controls. Genes associated with adhesion and invasion and peroxide scavenging were significantly associated with lymph node E. coli isolates from CD patients. Our findings suggest that CD-associated E. coli are associated with genes involved in adhesion, and the lymph node strains have properties that allow them to survive intracellularly, within phagolysosomes. This study provides insights into the potential role of E. coli in the pathogenesis of IBD
Marie Therese Giudici-Orticoni, David Ranava and Cassandra Backes
Formation of multi-species communities allows nearly every niche on earth to be colonized. Exchange of molecular information among neighbouring bacteria in such communities is crucial for the bacteria to thrive. Yet the principles controlling these inter-species interactions are poorly defined. To shed light on them, we developed a synthetic microbial consortium with two anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium acetobutylicum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. these 2 bacterai can be found together in Nature involved in anaerobic digestion of organic waste matter nd in consequence in BIO-H2 production. Our studies demonstrate that for cell-cell interaction can allow to overcome nutrient starvation and that many materials can passed from one cell to another. This physical interaction induces changes in the distribution of metabolic fluxes and allows a substantial increase in H2 production without requiring genetic engineering. We identify that the agent necessary for these physical interactions between C. acetobutylicum and D. vulgaris (or E. coli and D. vulgaris), with the consequent metabolic exchanges, is the quorum-sensing molecule.
Xinggang Liao, Zebin Meng and Yanfen Huang
Metarhizium spp. is a kind of important entomopathogenic fungi, which has been widely applied as biological control agents in China and rest of the world. Besides killing target insects, these fungi could also survive in soils in natural environment. Partial strains could even colonize host plant root during saprophytic phase and some of them are able to promote host plants growth. Here, we tested the rhizosphere competence among different Metarhizium species (M. robertsii - Mr2575, Mr23 and Mr1046, M. anisopliae - Ma808, Ma932 and Ma939, M. brunneum - Mb820, Mb1187 and Mb2974 and M. acridum - Mac324) and their effects on corn growth, which is one of the primary cereal crops in Guizhou province. All strains colonized corn roots but Mb1187 and Mac324 had less rhizospheric populations than other strains during the one-month pot trial. In addition, Mb1187 and Mac324 failed to promote corn growth possibly due to their poor rhizosphere competence. In contrast, rhizospheric populations and growth promotion by rest of the strains were significantly increased. The Mr23, Ma939 and Mb820 strains demonstrated maximal increase in corn vegetative growth such as leaf collar formation and stalk growth, and thereafter were selected as qualified candidates for further virulence test on some indigenous underground pests.
Ratageri R.H., Meghana G S and Chitra V K
Rhizosphere is a soil ecological region where soil is subjected to specific influence by plant root due to the interface. The great array of root- microbe interactions results in the development of a dynamic environment known as the rhizosphere where microbial communities also interact. The differing physical, chemical, and biological properties of the root – associated soil compared with those of the root – free bulk soil, are responsible for changes in microbial diversity and for increased numbers and activity of microorganisms in the rhizosphere micro – environment Experiments were carried out in the P.G Department of Botany and Microbiology, Government Science Chitradurga. Chitradurga located at 140 14N 76` 24`E/ 14.230N 76.40E it has average elevation of 732m (2401 ft). Characterization of mycoflora in phyllosphere and Rhizosphere were done with the help of K.R.Aneja( 1996). Macerated slides and spores were photographed by using digital camera Nikon D500.Our investigation reveals that their enough diversity in the fungal flora from the study area The highest number of fungal species obtained as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus fumigatous, Aspergillus terrus followed by Curvularia, Chetomonium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium & Trichoderma. Which constitutes 70% dominant Aspergillus and remaining species 30%.This study shows that Colony Fungal Unit (cfu) /plate were always higher during evening exposure period than morning period. When the comparison is made between the four sites with respect to the total number of colonies per site, the highest numbers of colonies were recorded in the crops like Jowar and Ragi than Maize and Mustard.Therefore the present investigation reveals that four sites containing more number of mycofloral diversity in the study area.
Xueqing Wang, Tianying Wang and Shuang Chen
Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) is considered as one of the most common pathogens of human viral myocarditis. CVB-induced myocarditis is mainly characterized by the persistence of the virus infection and immune-mediated inflammatory injury. Costimulatory signals are crucial for the activation of adaptive immunity. Our data reveal that the CVB type 3 (CVB3) infection altered the expression profile of costimulatory molecules in host cells. CVB3 infection caused the decrease of PD-1 ligand expression, partially due to the cleavage of AU-rich element binding protein AUF1 by the viral protease 3Cpro, leading to the exacerbated inflammatory injury of the myocardium. Moreover, systemic PD-L1 treatment, which augmented the apoptosis of proliferating lymphocytes, alleviated myocardial inflammatory injury. Our findings suggest that PD1-pathway can be a potential immunologic therapeutic target for CVB-induced myocarditis.
Haruna U.S, Umar A.F, Tahir F and Agbo E. B
The increased use of conventional chemical pesticides over the years has resulted to an adverse effect on the environment and in the destructions of non-target organisms. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) revealed that pesticides: Aldrin & Dieldrin previously used to control termites among other insect pests are probable human carcinogens (Anderson, 2007. A total of two Entomopathogenic Fungi species (Beauveria bassiana,and Metarrhizia anisopliae ) were isolated both from insect cadavers and the soils within the forest environment ,with the following percentages of occurences Beauveria bassiana (44.4%) and Metarrhizia anisopliae (27.2%). The pathogenicity of the two fungal isolates were tested on two insects Lamprina aurata and Galleria mellonella. More pathogenicity was observed from Beauveria bassiana 78.35 (15.67%), Followed by Metarrhizia anisopliae 73.35 (14.67%) for Lamprina aurata and Metarrhizia anisopliae was more pathogenic on Galleria mellonella than Beauveria bassiana with 85.00 (17.00%) and 81.56 (16.33%) respectively. Entomopathogenic fungi are environmentally safe and are natural enemies to insects, therefore entomopathogenic fungi ( biocontrol agents ) are the ideal candidates for integrated pest management in the farms, forest and Green houses.
Background: Enteric fever is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide and is endemic in Nepal. This study was conducted to access antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from culture positive cases of enteric fever.
Methods: Altogether 505 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of enteric fever attending HAMS Hospital. All blood samples were cultured by BACTEC method and sub cultured in blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. All isolates were identified by colony characteristics, biochemical tests and serotyping methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method interpreted with CLSI guideline.
Result: Isolation rate of Salmonella species was 3.6%. Among 18 Salmonella isolates, 10 were S. typhi, 8 were S. paratyphi A. The prevalence rate of infection was high among the age group 11-20 years (50%) and among the male patients. However, there was no significant association of enteric fever with gender of patients (p=2.47). All 18 isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Majority of isolates were sensitive to Cefixime (94.4%), Cotrimoxazole (94.4%) and Cephotaxime (90%). There were no any MDR isolates. Higher percentage of isolates was resistant to Nalidixic acid (87.5%).
Conclusion: The decreased susceptibility to Fluroquinolones of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi A can be correlated with resistance to Nalidixic acid. Commonly used third generation Cephalosporins and rolled back first line drugs be the choice in case of NARS isolates.
Eman M. Marie
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium in widely different areas such as plants, soil, water and other moist locations. It is pathogenic to plants and humans. P. aeruginosa causes several disease symptoms to plants such as wet rot and curved leaves. The virulent bacterial viruses of P. aeruginosa were found to be of widespread occurrence in nature and isolated from widely different sources. Bacterial viruses were applied to control pathogenic bacteria in different fields and successfully. Therefore, this work aimed to study the different characteristics of P. aeruginosa lytic phage isolates. Moreover, the biocontrol of P. aeruginosa by lytic phage isolates was also studied. Different physical and molecular characteristics were assayed and determined of P. aeruginosa lytic bacteriophages. Also, the effect of phage isolates on P. aeruginosa as a biocontrol under lab condition was studied.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic bacterium was isolated from a sewage water sample. Two lytic bacteriophages specific to P. aeruginosa were isolated from same sewage water sample and designated Pa1 and Pa2. Both phage isolates (Pa1 and Pa2) found to be stable in 90ºC and low and high pH levels. The total count of P. aeruginosa decreased after 48h. in broth treated with lytic phages. RAPD-PCR amplification was indicated that the two phage isolates (Pa1 and Pa2) are belonging to two different phage types.
The results of this study indicated that both lytic phage isolates could be used as biological control agents against the plant pathogen P. aeuroginosa.
Habibu U. Abdu
Malaria parasites transmission in Nigeria is primarily due to the genus Anopheles. This study was carried out with the aim to isolate and identify bacteria from midgut of Anopheles species. A total of 200 Anopheles mosquito larvae, 100 each from Agricultural field sites (strain A) and residential sites (strain R) were collected and reared to adults. Susceptibility bio-assay performed on the adults Anopheles. Anopheles mosquitoes were anesthetized by chloroform and dissected. 70% of ethanol was used for surface sterilization of mosquitoes and laboratory equipment, followed by rinsing Anopheles mosquitoes four times with 1X PBS. Each dissected midgut from the Anopheles mosquitoes was transferred in 1X PBS and squashed, labeled and incubated in the water bath and enriched in tryptic soya broth for 24 h at 35 ± 2 °C. The culture dependent approach using different mediums was used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity. The microbiota in the two pools of Anopheles was diverse with strain R showing a greater gut bacterial diversity than strain A, with both strains dominated by Gram-negative bacteria. The more resistant strain (Strain A) showed lower bacterial diversity. This finding can be used as a baseline for studying the relationship between microbiota and mosquitoes, and for the development of a new malaria biological control. The gut bacterial populations of Anopheles gambiae could be a crucial determinant of their life histories, and the expression of insecticide resistance.
Tomasz Zrodlowski, Joanna Sobonska, Dominika Salamon, Isabel M. McFarlane, Miroslaw Zietkiewicz and Tomasz Gosiewski
Introduction: Standard blood cultures require at least 24-120 hours to be reported as preliminary positive.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the reliability of Gram staining and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), for detecting bacteremia in otherwise negative blood culture bottles.
Patients and methods: We performed Gram stain and FISH to 82 sets of negative blood cultures and 82 blood samples taken from post-operative septic patients and 57 blood samples taken from healthy volunteers.
Results: Using Gram stain in 62.2% of blood samples, 35.4% of the negative aerobic bottles, and in 31.7% of the negative anaerobic bottle’s bacteria were visualized. Utilizing FISH, we detected bacteria respectively in 75.6%, 56.1% and 64.6% of samples. Among the blood samples from healthy volunteers, FISH detected bacteremia in 64.9% of the blood while Gram stain detected bacteria in only 38.6%. The time needed to obtain the study results using Gram stain was 1 hour, for FISH 4 hours and for the culture method, considering the duration of growth, 5 days.
Conclusions: Gram stain and FISH allow quick detection of bacteria in the blood taken directly from a patient. Finding phagocytosed bacteria, which was also detected among healthy individuals, confirm the hypothesis that blood microbiome exists.
Yousef Alaee Mollabashi
Bacteria have different types and some of them are essential for human life and others cause problems such as illness and death and financial loss. The best way to prevent illness or prevent the patient from becoming ill is to identify pathogenic bacteria in the patient's body for drug administration and precise treatment, or even before entering the body in an infected environment. There are common methods for identifying pathogenic bacteria but for some reasons such as low speed, low accuracy, low susceptibility to contamination, high cost, etc. cause problems in identifying the infection. Biosensors are one of the newest methods of identifying contaminants and diseases that don't have problems with conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to draw the attention of audiences and professionals to the high ability of biosensors to detect pathogenic bacteria. One important point in the study of the source literature is the minimal concentration required to identify the infection and the bacteria, which makes biosensors superior to traditional methods. The results of the studies show that due to the low concentration required and low identification the limit of detection by biosensors, the speed and cost are reduced. For example, for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by a particular type of biosensor that reported from the DNA of this biosensor the ability to detect a wide range of microbes at shorter speeds and shorter times, and the activity of this biosensor at concentrations of 105-108 CFU/ml did its best. A biosensor for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica reported a suitable concentration for numerical identification between 104 - 106 CFU/ml and at the same time, the limit of detection of this bacterium by a biosensor was expressed very low and appropriate. For detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a biosensor, the limit of detection of the bacterium was 2 CFU / ml. This study highlights the potential of biosensors for investment and further studies.
Rana Muhammad Abdullah and Mashkoor Mohsin
Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli strains are common both in humans and animals. In particular, the pet animals have been considered as a potential carrier of MDR E. coli. Therefore, this study was designed to detect the ESBL producing E. coli isolates in companion animals, their owners and veterinary professionals. A total of 105 rectal swabs from pets (n=45), their owners (n=45) and veterinary professionals (n=15) were screened for the presence of ESBL producing E. coli, MDR and their genetic relatedness.
A total of 73/105 (69.5%) ESBL producing E. coli were recovered from this study. ESBL E. coli isolates in dogs (18/22) and dog owners (13/22) were 81.8% and 59%, respectively. ESBL E. coli isolates in cats (17/23) and cat owners (13/23) were 74% and 56.5%, respectively. While these E. coli isolates in veterinary professionals (12/15) were 80 %. Of these, isolates 23/73 (31.5%) isolates showed MDR phenotype. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin AMP-CTX-CIP-F represented the most common pattern of MDR (17.4%). None of the isolate was resistant to tobramycin. Among the ESBL E. coli with MDR, PCR detected blaCTX-M as the most common ESBL genotype (19/23). CTX-M-1 group was found among all the 19 blaCTX-M positive E. coli. Furthermore, BOX-PCR fingerprints showed distinct clonal groups indicating high genetic diversity among CTX-M-1 producing E. coli isolates. The presence of multidrug resistant E. coli in particular of ESBL class CTX-M-1 in dogs, cats, their owners and veterinary health workers pose a zoonotic threat for the spread of multidrug resistant bacteria.